Solar Engineering of Thermal Processes / Edition 3

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Overview

The updated, cornerstone engineering resource of solar energy theory and applications. Solar technologies already provide energy for heat, light, hot water, electricity, and cooling for homes, businesses, and industry. Because solar energy only accounts for one-tenth of a percent of primary energy demand, relatively small increases in market penetration can lead to very rapid growth rates in the industry???which is exactly what has been projected for coming years as the world moves away from carbon-based energy production. Solar Engineering of Thermal Processes, Third Edition provides the latest thinking and practices for engineering solar technologies and using them in various markets.

This Third Edition of the acknowledged leading book on solar engineering features:

  • Complete coverage of basic theory, systems design, and applications
  • Updated material on such cutting-edge topics as photovoltaics and wind power systems
  • New homework problems and exercises
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Editorial Reviews

Booknews
Many of the newest developments in solar energy science and technology are covered in this updated and expanded reference-text (first edition, 1980). There is a thorough, up-to-date review of solar energy principles and the functioning, design and economics of solar thermal processes. Convection and radiation, properties of materials, components, systems and applications to active space and water heating are discussed. Includes examples and problems of tabulated radiation data and conversion factors. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (booknews.com)
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780471698678
  • Publisher: Wiley, John & Sons, Incorporated
  • Publication date: 8/25/2006
  • Edition description: Revised Edition
  • Edition number: 3
  • Pages: 928
  • Sales rank: 1,236,585
  • Product dimensions: 7.80 (w) x 9.53 (h) x 1.52 (d)

Meet the Author

John A. Duffie (deceased) was Professor Emeritus of Chemical Engineering and past Director of the Solar Energy Laboratory at the University of Wisconsin–Madison.

William A. Beckman is the Ouweneel-Bascom Professor Emeritus of Mechanical Engineering and Director of the Solar Energy Laboratory at the University of Wisconsin–Madison.

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Table of Contents

Preface.

Preface to the Second Edition.

Preface to the First Edition.

PART I FUNDAMENTALS.

1 Solar Radiation.

1.1 The Sun.

1.2 The Solar Constant.

1.3 Spectral Distribution of Extraterrestrial Radiation.

1.4 Variation of Extraterrestrial Radiation.

1.5 Definitions.

1.6 Direction of Beam Radiation.

1.7 Angles for Tracking Surfaces.

1.8 Ratio of Beam Radiation on Tilted Surface to That on Horizontal Surface.

1.9 Shading.

1.10 Extraterrestrial Radiation on a Horizontal Surface.

1.11 Summary.

References.

2 Available Solar Radiation.

2.1 Definitions.

2.2 Pyrheliometers and Pyrheliometric Scales.

2.3 Pyranometers.

2.4 Measurement of Duration of Sunshine.

2.5 Solar Radiation Data.

2.6 Atmospheric Attenuation of Solar Radiation.

2.7 Estimation of Average Solar Radiation.

2.8 Estimation of Clear-Sky Radiation.

2.9 Distribution of Clear and Cloudy Days and Hours.

2.10 Beam and Diffuse Components of Hourly Radiation.

2.11 Beam and Diffuse Components of Daily Radiation.

2.12 Beam and Diffuse Components of Monthly Radiation.

2.13 Estimation of Hourly Radiation from Daily Data.

2.14 Radiation on Sloped Surfaces.

2.15 Radiation on Sloped Surfaces: Isotropic Sky.

2.16 Radiation on Sloped Surfaces: Anisotropic Sky.

2.17 Radiation Augmentation.

2.18 Beam Radiation on Moving Surfaces.

2.19 Average Radiation on Sloped Surfaces: Isotropic Sky.

2.20 Average Radiation on Sloped Surfaces: KT Method.

2.21 Effects of Receiving Surface Orientation on HT.

2.22 Utilizability.

2.23 Generalized Utilizability.

2.24 Daily Utilizability.

2.25 Summary.

References.

3 Selected Heat Transfer Topics.

3.1 Electromagnetic Spectrum.

3.2 Photon Radiation.

3.3 The Blackbody: Perfect Absorber and Emitter.

3.4 Planck’s Law and Wien’s Displacement Law.

3.5 Stefan-Boltzmann Equation.

3.6 Radiation Tables.

3.7 Radiation Intensity and Flux.

3.8 Infrared Radiation Exchange between Gray Surfaces.

3.9 Sky Radiation.

3.10 Radiation Heat Transfer Coefficient.

3.11 Natural Convection between Flat Parallel Plates and between Concentric Cylinders.

3.12 Convection Suppression.

3.13 Vee-Corrugated Enclosures.

3.14 Heat Transfer Relations for Internal Flow.

3.15 Wind Convection Coefficients.

3.16 Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop in Packed Beds and Perforated Plates.

3.17 Effectiveness-NTU Calculations for Heat Exchangers.

References.

4 Radiation Characteristics of Opaque Materials.

4.1 Absorptance and Emittance.

4.2 Kirchhoff’s Law.

4.3 Reflectance of Surfaces.

4.4 Relationships among Absorptance, Emittance, and Reflectance.

4.5 Broadband Emittance and Absorptance.

4.6 Calculation of Emittance and Absorptance.

4.7 Measurement of Surface Radiation Properties.

4.8 Selective Surfaces.

4.9 Mechanisms of Selectivity.

4.10 Optimum Properties.

4.11 Angular Dependence of Solar Absorptance.

4.12 Absorptance of Cavity Receivers.

4.13 Specularly Reflecting Surfaces.

References.

5 Radiation Transmission through Glazing: Absorbed Radiation.

5.1 Reflection of Radiation.

5.2 Absorption by Glazing.

5.3 Optical Properties of Cover Systems.

5.4 Transmittance for Diffuse Radiation.

5.5 Transmittance-Absorptance Product.

5.6 Angular Dependence of (τα).

5.7 Spectral Dependence of Transmittance.

5.8 Effects of Surface Layers on Transmittance.

5.9 Absorbed Solar Radiation.

5.10 Monthly Average Absorbed Radiation.

5.11 Absorptance of Rooms.

5.12 Absorptance of Photovoltaic Cells.

5.13 Summary.

References.

6 Flat-Plate Collectors.

6.1 Description of Flat-Plate Collectors.

6.2 Basic Flat-Plate Energy Balance Equation.

6.3 Temperature Distributions in Flat-Plate Collectors.

6.4 Collector Overall Heat Loss Coefficient.

6.5 Temperature Distribution between Tubes and the Collector Efficiency Factor.

6.6 Temperature Distribution in Flow Direction.

6.7 Collector Heat Removal Factor and Flow Factor.

6.8 Critical Radiation Level.

6.9 Mean Fluid and Plate Temperatures.

6.10 Effective Transmittance-Absorptance Product.

6.11 Effects of Dust and Shading.

6.12 Heat Capacity Effects in Flat-Plate Collectors.

6.13 Liquid Heater Plate Geometries.

6.14 Air Heaters.

6.15 Measurements of Collector Performance.

6.16 Collector Characterizations.

6.17 Collector Tests: Efficiency, Incidence Angle Modifier, and Time Constant.

6.18 Test Data.

6.19 Thermal Test Data Conversion.

6.20 Flow Rate Corrections to FR(τα)n and FRUL.

6.21 Flow Distribution in Collectors.

6.22 In Situ Collector Performance.

6.23 Practical Considerations for Flat-Plate Collectors.

6.24 Putting It All Together.

6.25 Summary.

References.

7 Concentrating Collectors.

7.1 Collector Configurations.

7.2 Concentration Ratio.

7.3 Thermal Performance of Concentrating Collectors.

7.4 Optical Performance of Concentrating Collectors.

7.5 Cylindrical Absorber Arrays.

7.6 Optical Characteristics of Nonimaging Concentrators.

7.7 Orientation and Absorbed Energy for CPC Collectors.

7.8 Performance of CPC Collectors.

7.9 Linear Imaging Concentrators: Geometry.

7.10 Images Formed by Perfect Linear Concentrators.

7.11 Images from Imperfect Linear Concentrators.

7.12 Ray-Trace Methods for Evaluating Concentrators.

7.13 Incidence Angle Modifiers and Energy Balances.

7.14 Paraboloidal Concentrators.

7.15 Central-Receiver Collectors.

7.16 Practical Considerations.

References.

8 Energy Storage.

8.1 Process Loads and Solar Collector Outputs.

8.2 Energy Storage in Solar Process Systems.

8.3 Water Storage.

8.4 Stratification in Storage Tanks.

8.5 Packed-Bed Storage.

8.6 Storage Walls.

8.7 Seasonal Storage.

8.8 Phase Change Energy Storage.

8.9 Chemical Energy Storage.

8.10 Battery Storage.

References.

9 Solar Process Loads.

9.1 Examples of Time-Dependent Loads.

9.2 Hot-Water Loads.

9.3 Space Heating Loads, Degree-Days, and Balance Temperature.

9.4 Building Loss Coefficients.

9.5 Building Energy Storage Capacity.

9.6 Cooling Loads.

9.7 Swimming Pool Heating Loads.

References.

10 System Thermal Calculations.

10.1 Component Models.

10.2 Collector Heat Exchanger Factor.

10.3 Duct and Pipe Loss Factors.

10.4 Controls.

10.5 Collector Arrays: Series Connections.

10.6 Performance of Partially Shaded Collectors.

10.7 Series Arrays with Sections having Different Orientations.

10.8 Use of Modified Collector Equations.

10.9 System Models.

10.10 Solar Fraction and Solar Savings Fraction.

10.11 Summary.

References.

11 Solar Process Economics.

11.1 Costs of Solar Process Systems.

11.2 Design Variables.

11.3 Economic Figures of Merit.

11.4 Discounting and Inflation.

11.5 Present-Worth Factor.

11.6 Life-Cycle Savings Method.

11.7 Evaluation of Other Economic Indicators.

11.8 The P1, P2 Method.

11.9 Uncertainties in Economic Analyses.

11.10 Economic Analysis Using Solar Savings Fraction.

11.11 Summary.

References.

PART II APPLICATIONS.

12 Solar Water Heating: Active and Passive.

12.1 Water Heating Systems.

12.2 Freezing, Boiling, and Scaling.

12.3 Auxiliary Energy.

12.4 Forced-Circulation Systems.

12.5 Low-Flow Pumped Systems.

12.6 Natural-Circulation Systems.

12.7 Integral Collector Storage Systems.

12.8 Retrofit Water Heaters.

12.9 Water Heating in Space Heating and Cooling Systems.

12.10 Testing and Rating of Solar Water Heaters.

12.11 Economics of Solar Water Heating.

12.12 Swimming Pool Heating.

12.13 Summary.

References.

13 Building Heating: Active.

13.1 Historical Notes.

13.2 Solar Heating Systems.

13.3 CSU House III Flat-Plate Liquid System.

13.4 CSU House II Air System.

13.5 Heating System Parametric Study.

13.6 Solar Energy–Heat Pump Systems.

13.7 Phase Change Storage Systems.

13.8 Seasonal Energy Storage Systems.

13.9 Solar and Off-Peak Electric Systems.

13.10 Solar System Overheating.

13.11 Solar Heating Economics.

13.12 Architectural Considerations.

References.

14 Building Heating: Passive and Hybrid Methods.

14.1 Concepts of Passive Heating.

14.2 Comfort Criteria and Heating Loads.

14.3 Movable Insulation and Controls.

14.4 Shading: Overhangs and Wingwalls.

14.5 Direct-Gain Systems.

14.6 Collector-Storage Walls and Roofs.

14.7 Sunspaces.

14.8 Active Collection–Passive Storage Hybrid Systems.

14.9 Other Hybrid Systems.

14.10 Passive Applications.

14.11 Heat Distribution in Passive Buildings.

14.12 Costs and Economics of Passive Heating.

References.

15 Solar Cooling.

15.1 Solar Absorption Cooling.

15.2 Theory of Absorption Cooling.

15.3 Combined Solar Heating and Cooling.

15.4 Simulation Study of Solar Air Conditioning.

15.5 Operating Experience with Solar Cooling.

15.6 Applications of Solar Absorption Air Conditioning.

15.7 Solar Desiccant Cooling.

15.8 Ventilation and Recirculation Desiccant Cycles.

15.9 Solar-Mechanical Cooling.

15.10 Solar-Related Air Conditioning.

15.11 Passive Cooling.

References.

16 Solar Industrial Process Heat.

16.1 Integration with Industrial Processes.

16.2 Mechanical Design Considerations.

16.3 Economics of Industrial Process Heat.

16.4 Open-Circuit Air Heating Applications.

16.5 Recirculating Air System Applications.

16.6 Once-Through Industrial Water Heating.

16.7 Recirculating Industrial Water Heating.

16.8 Shallow-Pond Water Heaters.

16.9 Summary.

References.

17 Solar Thermal Power Systems.

17.1 Thermal Conversion Systems.

17.2 Gila Bend Pumping System.

17.3 Luz Systems.

17.4 Central-Receiver Systems.

17.5 Solar One and Solar Two Power Plants.

References.

18 Solar Ponds: Evaporative Processes.

18.1 Salt-Gradient Solar Ponds.

18.2 Pond Theory.

18.3 Applications of Ponds.

18.4 Solar Distillation.

18.5 Evaporation.

18.6 Direct Solar Drying.

18.7 Summary.

References.

PART III DESIGN METHODS.

19 Simulations in Solar Process Design.

19.1 Simulation Programs.

19.2 Utility of Simulations.

19.3 Information from Simulations.

19.4 TRNSYS: Thermal Process Simulation Program.

19.5 Simulations and Experiments.

19.6 Meteorological Data.

19.7 Limitations of Simulations.

References.

20 Design of Active Systems: ƒ-Chart.

20.1 Review of Design Methods.

20.2 The ƒ-Chart Method.

20.3 The ƒ-Chart for Liquid Systems.

20.4 The ƒ-Chart for Air Systems.

20.5 Service Water Heating Systems.

20.6 The ƒ-Chart Results.

20.7 Parallel Solar Energy–Heat Pump Systems.

20.8 Summary.

References.

21 Design of Active Systems by Utilizability Methods.

21.1 Hourly Utilizability.

21.2 Daily Utilizability.

21.3 The , ƒ-Chart Method.

21.4 Summary.

References.

22 Design of Passive and Hybrid Heating Systems.

22.1 Approaches to Passive Design.

22.2 Solar-Load Ratio Method.

22.3 Unutilizability Design Method: Direct Gain.

22.4 Unutilizability Design Method: Collector-Storage Walls.

22.5 Hybrid Systems: Active Collection with Passive Storage.

22.6 Other Hybrid Systems.

References.

23 Design of Photovoltaic Systems.

23.1 Photovoltaic Converters.

23.2 PV Generator Characteristics and Models.

23.3 Cell Temperature.

23.4 Load Characteristics and Direct-Coupled Systems.

23.5 Controls and Maximum Power Point Trackers.

23.6 Applications.

23.7 Design Procedures.

23.8 High-Flux PV Generators.

23.9 Summary.

References.

24 Wind Energy.

24.1 Introduction.

24.2 Wind Resource.

24.3 One-Dimensional Wind Turbine Model.

24.4 Estimating Wind Turbine Average Power and Energy Production.

24.5 Summary.

References.

APPENDIXES.

A Problems.

B Nomenclature.

C International System of Units.

D Monthly Rb as Function of Φ and Φ - β.

E Properties of Materials.

F Present-Worth Factors.

G Meteorological Data.

H Solar Position Diagrams.

I Average Shading Factors for Overhangs.

Index.

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