Solaris 10: System Administration Part 1: Exam CX-310-200 (Exam Prep Series) / Edition 2

Solaris 10: System Administration Part 1: Exam CX-310-200 (Exam Prep Series) / Edition 2

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by Bill Calkins
     
 

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ISBN-10: 0789737906

ISBN-13: 9780789737908

Pub. Date: 09/26/2008

Publisher: Pearson IT Certification

In This Book You’ll Learn How To:

  • Install and configure the Solaris 10 operating environment on SPARC and x86/x64-based platforms
  • Set up, manage, back up, and recover file systems
  • Execute System Boot and Shutdown Procedures for SPARC and x86/x64-based systems
  • Manage services using the Service Management Facility (SMF)
  • Perform

Overview

In This Book You’ll Learn How To:

  • Install and configure the Solaris 10 operating environment on SPARC and x86/x64-based platforms
  • Set up, manage, back up, and recover file systems
  • Execute System Boot and Shutdown Procedures for SPARC and x86/x64-based systems
  • Manage services using the Service Management Facility (SMF)
  • Perform User and Security Administration
  • Set up and manage printers and system processes
  • Perform system backup and recovery operations

“Bill’s original Cert Prep guides were used throughout Sun’s service organization as the SEs studied for Certification. This was not mandated by Sun management but happened through word-of-mouth by those software engineers who had successfully passed the exam. In this new edition, Bill adds a chapter to explain the boot process (from POST to service initialization through SMF) on both SPARC and x86 systems. All chapters have been updated to reflect the Solaris 05/08 updates including detailed coverage of the x86 platform. This new guide is still the best source I know of to study for the exam. —Brian Howard, Systems Engineer / Solaris Ambassador

WRITTEN BY A LEADING SOLARIS EXPERT!

Bill Calkins is owner and president of Pyramid Consulting, a computer training and consulting firm specializing in the implementation and administration of open systems. He works as a consultant with Sun Microsystems and has contributed extensively to the Solaris certification program and simulation technology. He also owns www.unixed.com, a website that provides online UNIX training materials. Bill has more than 20 years of experience in UNIX system administration, consulting, and training at more than 250 different companies and government agencies and has authored several books on Solaris.

CD Features ExamGear Practice Questions!

  • The CD features instant scoring, matching to objectives, instant answer feedback, plus more!
  • 60 questions for a real exam experience!
  • Flashcards with text from the book explain each question.
  • Download additional practice questions from www.unixed.com!
  • A free, bookmarked electronic copy of the book.

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ISBN-13: 978-0-7897-3790-8

ISBN-10: 0-7897-3790-6

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780789737908
Publisher:
Pearson IT Certification
Publication date:
09/26/2008
Series:
Exam Prep Series
Edition description:
Book and CD
Pages:
744
Product dimensions:
6.90(w) x 9.10(h) x 1.80(d)

Related Subjects

Table of Contents

Introduction................................................................................................................ 1

How This Book Helps You............................................................................... 2

Conventions Used in This Book....................................................................... 4

Audience....................................................................................................... 5

The Sun Certified System Administrator Exams................................................ 5

Exam CX-310-200.......................................................................................... 6

Manage File Systems......................................................................... 6

Install Software.................................................................................. 6

Perform System Boot Procedures........................................................ 6

Perform User and Security Administration............................................ 7

Manage Network Printers and System Processes................................. 7

Perform System Backups and Restores............................................... 7

Exam CX-310-203 (Solaris 10 Upgrade Exam).................................................. 7

Summary...................................................................................................... 8

Advice on Taking the Exam............................................................................. 8

Study and Exam Prep Tips........................................................................................ 11

Learning as a Process.................................................................................. 11

Study Tips................................................................................................... 12

Study Strategies.............................................................................. 12

Pretesting Yourself........................................................................... 13

Exam Prep Tips........................................................................................... 13

Putting It All Together....................................................................... 15

Part I: Exam Preparation

chapter one
Managing File Systems............................................................................................ 21

Introduction.................................................................................................. 26

Device Drivers.............................................................................................. 26

Physical Device Name.................................................................................. 27

Device Autoconfiguration............................................................................... 33

USB Devices................................................................................................ 35

Instance Names........................................................................................... 37

Major and Minor Device Numbers................................................................... 40

Logical Device Name.................................................................................... 42

Block and Raw Devices..................................................................... 46

A File System Defined.................................................................................. 48

Defining a Disk’s Geometry........................................................................... 48

Disk Controllers................................................................................ 49

Defect List....................................................................................... 49

Disk Labels...................................................................................... 50

Partition Tables................................................................................ 51

Solaris File System Types............................................................................ 52

Disk-Based File Systems.................................................................. 52

Network-Based File Systems............................................................ 52

Virtual File Systems......................................................................... 53

Disk Slices.................................................................................................. 54

Displaying Disk Configuration Information............................................ 56

Using the format Utility to Create Slices............................................... 58

The Free Hog Slice........................................................................... 66

Using the format Utility to Modify Partitions.......................................... 66

Using the Solaris Management Console Disks Tool............................. 69

Recovering Disk Partition Information.................................................. 74

Logical Volumes............................................................................... 75

Parts of a UFS ............................................................................................ 75

The Root (/) File System............................................................................... 78

Soft (Symbolic) Links........................................................................ 83

Hard Links....................................................................................... 85

Removing a Link............................................................................... 87

Components of the UFS ............................................................................... 87

The Boot Block................................................................................ 88

The Superblock................................................................................ 88

Cylinder Groups............................................................................... 89

The inode......................................................................................... 89

The Storage Block............................................................................ 90

Free Blocks..................................................................................... 90

Creating a UFS ........................................................................................... 90

Understanding Custom File System Parameters............................................. 92

Logical Block Size............................................................................ 93

Fragment Size................................................................................. 93

Minimum Free Space........................................................................ 94

Optimization Type............................................................................ 95

Number of inodes and Bytes per inode............................................... 95

The mkfs Command........................................................................... 95

The fstyp Command.......................................................................... 98

File System Operations................................................................................ 99

Synchronizing a File System............................................................. 99

Repairing File Systems................................................................... 100

The labelit Command........................................................................ 104

The volcopy Command..................................................................... 105

Tuning File Systems................................................................................... 106

Mounting File Systems............................................................................... 108

Mounting a File System with Large Files........................................... 113

Mounting a File System with UFS Logging Enabled........................... 114

Unmounting a File System.......................................................................... 114

The fuser Command........................................................................ 115

/etc/mnttab.......................................................................................... 116

Volume Management.................................................................................. 120

Using Volume Management............................................................. 128

Troubleshooting Volume Manager..................................................... 129

Displaying a File System’s Disk Space Usage.................................. 131

Displaying Directory Size Information................................................ 135

Information on File Systems........................................................................ 136

Controlling User Disk Space Usage.................................................. 138

The quot Command.......................................................................... 139

Summary................................................................................................... 141

Key Terms..................................................................................... 141

Exercises...................................................................................... 142

Exam Questions............................................................................. 147

Answers to Review Questions.......................................................... 163

Suggested Readings and Resources............................................................ 170

chapter two
Installing the Solaris 10 Operating Environment......................................................... 171

Introduction................................................................................................ 174

Installing the Solaris 10 Software.................................................................. 174

Requirements and Preparation for Installing the Solaris 10 Software................ 175

Minimum System Requirements...................................................... 176

Software Terminology.................................................................................. 177

Software Packages......................................................................... 177

Software Groups............................................................................. 177

Solaris Media................................................................................. 179

System Configuration to Be Installed................................................ 179

Disk Storage.............................................................................................. 181

Basic Considerations for Planning Partition (Slice) Sizes.................... 183

Slice Arrangements on Multiple Disks.............................................. 184

Methods of Installing the Solaris 10 Software................................................. 185

Solaris Interactive Installation: Using the GUI..................................... 186

Solaris Interactive Installation: Using the CLI..................................... 186

JumpStart...................................................................................... 187

Custom JumpStart.......................................................................... 187

Solaris Live Upgrade....................................................................... 188

Solaris Flash Archives..................................................................... 189

WAN Boot..................................................................................... 190

Upgrading the Operating System.................................................................. 190

The Solaris Installation Prechecklist............................................................. 191

Secure by Default........................................................................... 194

Using the Interactive Installation Process (install-solaris) on a SPARC-Based System 195

Configuring Power Management....................................................... 224

Tools for Managing Software........................................................................ 225

Adding and Removing Software Packages..................................................... 226

Using a Spool Directory............................................................................... 227

Installing Software from the Command Line....................................... 229

Removing Software Using pkgrm........................................................ 229

Solaris Product Registry.................................................................. 230

Web Start Installer.......................................................................... 233

Listing and Verifying Installed Packages....................................................... 235

Software Patches....................................................................................... 237

Obtaining a Patch....................................................................................... 238

Installing a Patch............................................................................ 240

Removing a Patch........................................................................... 243

Patch Manager (smpatch).............................................................................. 244

Patch Tool................................................................................................. 249

General Guidelines..................................................................................... 251

Summary................................................................................................... 253

Key Terms..................................................................................... 253

Exercises...................................................................................... 254

Exam Questions............................................................................. 258

Answers to Exam Questions........................................................... 264

Suggested Readings and Resources................................................ 266

chapter three
Performing System Boot and Shutdown Procedures for SPARC, x64-, and x86-Based Systems 267

Introduction................................................................................................ 272

Booting a SPARC System........................................................................... 272

Powering on the System................................................................. 273

The Boot PROM and Program Phases.............................................. 273

The OpenBoot Environment......................................................................... 274

Entry-Level to High-End Systems..................................................... 276

Accessing the OpenBoot Environment.............................................. 276

System Console............................................................................. 277

System Control Switch.................................................................... 277

OpenBoot Firmware Tasks.............................................................. 278

The OpenBoot Architecture.......................................................................... 279

The OpenBoot Interface............................................................................... 281

Getting Help in OpenBoot............................................................................ 281

PROM Device Tree (Full Device Pathnames)................................................. 283

OpenBoot Device Aliases................................................................ 287

OpenBoot NVRAM...................................................................................... 289

The nvedit Line Editor....................................................................... 296

OpenBoot Security..................................................................................... 298

OpenBoot Diagnostics................................................................................ 300

Input and Output Control.................................................................. 305

OpenBoot PROM Versions.......................................................................... 307

Booting a SPARC System........................................................................... 307

The boot Command.......................................................................... 309

The BIOS....................................................................................... 319

GRUB............................................................................................ 320

Configuring the Video Display on the x86/x64 Platform....................... 329

The Kernel................................................................................................. 331

The init Phase............................................................................................. 335

The Service Management Facility (SMF)........................................... 337

Using the Run Control Scripts to Stop or Start Services..................... 366

System Shutdown...................................................................................... 370

Commands to Shut Down the System.............................................. 371

Stopping the System for Recovery Purposes: SPARC........................ 375

Stopping the System for Recovery Purposes: x86/x64....................... 377

Turning Off the Power to the Hardware.............................................. 377

Summary................................................................................................... 378

Key Terms..................................................................................... 378

Exercises...................................................................................... 380

Exam Questions............................................................................. 384

Answers to Exam Questions........................................................... 392

Suggested Readings and Resources............................................................ 397

CHAPTER four
User and Security Administration............................................................................. 399

Introduction................................................................................................ 402

Administering User Accounts....................................................................... 402

Managing User and Group Accounts with the SMC............................ 402

Managing User and Group Accounts from the Command Line............. 417

Setting Up Shell Initialization Files............................................................... 425

C Shell Initialization Files................................................................ 425

Bourne Shell Initialization Files........................................................ 426

Korn Shell Initialization Files............................................................ 426

Additional Shells Included with Solaris 10......................................... 426

Default Initialization Files................................................................. 427

Customizing User Initialization Files................................................. 428

The Home Directory........................................................................ 431

Projects......................................................................................... 432

Name Services............................................................................... 432

System Security......................................................................................... 433

Controlling Physical Security........................................................... 434

Controlling System Access............................................................. 434

Controlling File Access................................................................... 443

Access Control Lists (ACLs)........................................................................ 447

Setting ACL Entries........................................................................ 448

Checking the New File Permissions................................................. 450

Verifying ACL Entries...................................................................... 450

Copying a File’s ACL to Another File................................................ 450

Modifying ACL Entries on a File....................................................... 451

Deleting ACL Entries from a File...................................................... 451

Auditing Users................................................................................ 454

Controlling Network Security............................................................ 459

Securing Superuser Access............................................................ 466

The Secure Shell (ssh)................................................................................. 468

ASET 471

Common-Sense Security Techniques........................................................... 473

Summary................................................................................................... 474

Key Terms..................................................................................... 457

Exercises...................................................................................... 475

Exam Questions............................................................................. 480

Answers to Exam Questions........................................................... 489

Suggested Reading and Resources.............................................................. 492

CHAPTER five
Managing System Processes.................................................................................. 493

Introduction................................................................................................ 496

Viewing a Process...................................................................................... 496

pgrep................................................................................................ 500

prstat................................................................................................ 502

mpstat............................................................................................... 506

ptree................................................................................................. 507

time.................................................................................................. 507

Process Manager........................................................................... 508

SMC Process Tool.......................................................................... 511

pargs................................................................................................ 512

svcs................................................................................................. 514

Process Types........................................................................................... 515

Using Signals............................................................................................. 517

Scheduling Processes................................................................................ 521

Scheduling Priorities................................................................................... 522

Changing the Priority of a Time-Sharing Process with nice................... 522

Changing the Scheduling Priority of Processes with priocntl................. 524

Fair Share Scheduler (FSS) and the Fixed Scheduler (FX).................. 525

Using the Solaris Batch-Processing Facility.................................................. 525

Configuring crontab........................................................................... 525

Scheduling a Single System Event (at).............................................. 528

Job Scheduler................................................................................ 531

Summary................................................................................................... 533

Key Terms..................................................................................... 533

Exercises...................................................................................... 534

Exam Questions............................................................................. 535

Answers to Exam Questions........................................................... 539

Suggested Reading and Resources.............................................................. 540

Chapter six
Managing the LP Print Service................................................................................. 541

The Solaris OS Print Service (LP)................................................................. 544

The Solaris Print Service............................................................................. 544

LP Print Service Directories............................................................. 546

The Print Spooler............................................................................ 547

The LP Print Daemons.................................................................... 548

Setting Up the Printer Hardware................................................................... 550

Ethernet Connections...................................................................... 550

Parallel Connections....................................................................... 550

Serial Connections.......................................................................... 550

USB Connections........................................................................... 551

Setting Up a Network Printer ....................................................................... 551

BSD Versus SVR4 Printing Software................................................ 551

Print Servers Versus Print Clients.................................................... 553

Configuring Software for a Solaris Printer........................................... 554

Administering Printers................................................................................. 560

Deleting Printers and Managing Printer Access................................. 560

Creating Printer Classes.................................................................. 562

Checking Printer Status.................................................................. 564

Managing Printer Queues................................................................ 565

Restarting the Print Scheduler......................................................... 571

Setting a User’s Default Printer........................................................ 572

Modifying the Printer with Print Manager........................................... 572

Troubleshooting the Print Scheduler................................................. 574

Summary................................................................................................... 574

Key Terms..................................................................................... 575

Exercises...................................................................................... 576

Exam Questions............................................................................. 582

Answers to Exam Questions........................................................... 586

Suggested Reading and Resources.............................................................. 587

chapter Seven
Performing System Backups and Restorations.......................................................... 589

Introduction................................................................................................ 592

Backup Media............................................................................................ 592

Tape Device Names........................................................................ 593

Solaris Backup and Restoration Utilities....................................................... 595

The tar Utility.................................................................................. 595

The dd Utility.................................................................................. 597

The cpio Utility................................................................................ 599

The pax Utility................................................................................. 603

The ufsdump Utility........................................................................... 606

The ufsrestore Utility......................................................................... 612

Recovering the Root (/) or /usr File System........................................ 618

Additional Notes About Restoring Files............................................. 622

Tape Drive Control....................................................................................... 623

The UFS Snapshot Utility.............................................................................. 624

zip and unzip.............................................................................................. 629

Solaris Flash Archive.................................................................................. 629

The jar Utility.............................................................................................. 631

Summary................................................................................................... 633

Key Terms..................................................................................... 634

Exercises...................................................................................... 635

Exam Questions............................................................................. 637

Answers to Exam Questions........................................................... 640

Suggested Readings and Resources............................................................ 641

Part II: Final Review

Fast Facts............................................................................................................. 645

Managing File Systems............................................................................... 645

Devices and Drivers......................................................................... 646

Instance Names............................................................................. 647

File Systems.................................................................................. 647

Creating a UFS............................................................................... 650

Volume Management...................................................................... 651

Installing the Solaris 10 Operating Environment............................................. 651

Tools for Managing Software............................................................ 653

Software Patches........................................................................... 654

System Startup and Shutdown..................................................................... 655

OpenBoot Environment (SPARC Systems Only)................................ 656

The Kernel..................................................................................... 659

Commands to Shut Down the System.............................................. 661

User and Security Administration................................................................. 661

Shells and Initialization Files............................................................ 662

System Security............................................................................. 665

Protecting Data.............................................................................. 666

Access Control Lists (ACLs)............................................................ 667

Monitoring Users............................................................................ 668

Network Security............................................................................ 668

Restricting Root Access.................................................................. 669

Managing Processes.................................................................................. 669

Using the kill Command.................................................................... 670

Using the Solaris Batch-Processing Facility...................................... 671

Managing the LP Print Service..................................................................... 672

The LP Print Daemons.................................................................... 674

Performing System Backups and Restorations.............................................. 675

Practice Exam ...................................................................................................... 677

Practice Exam Questions............................................................................ 677

Answers to the Practice Exam ................................................................................ 685

Answers at a Glance to the Practice Exam................................................... 685

Part III: Appendix

Appendix
What’s on the CD-ROM .......................................................................................... 693

ExamGear, Exam Prep Edition ................................................................... 693

Glossary 695

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