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Overview

"The Solaris™Internals volumes are simply the best and most comprehensive treatment of the Solaris (and OpenSolaris) Operating Environment. Any person using Solaris--in any capacity--would be remiss not to include these two new volumes in their personal library. With advanced observability tools in Solaris (likeDTrace), you will more often find yourself in what was previously unchartable territory. Solaris™ Internals, Second Edition, provides us a fantastic means to be able to quickly understand these systems and further explore the Solaris architecture--especially when coupled with OpenSolaris source availability."

--Jarod Jenson, chief systems architect, Aeysis

"The Solaris™ Internals volumes by Jim Mauro and Richard McDougall must be on your bookshelf if you are interested in in-depth knowledge of Solaris operating system internals and architecture. As a senior Unix engineer for many years, I found the first edition of Solaris™ Internals the only fully comprehensive source for kernel developers, systems programmers, and systems administrators. The new second edition, with the companion performance and debugging book, is an indispensable reference set, containing many useful and practical explanations of Solaris and its underlying subsystems, including tools and methods for observing and analyzing any system running Solaris 10 or OpenSolaris."

--Marc Strahl, senior UNIX engineer

Solaris™ Internals, Second Edition, describes the algorithms and data structures of all the major subsystems in the Solaris 10 and OpenSolaris kernels. The text has been extensively revised since the first edition, with more than 600 pages of new material. Integrated Solaris tools and utilities, including DTrace, MDB, kstat, and the process tools, are used throughout to illustrate how the reader can observe the Solaris kernel in action. The companion volume, Solaris™ Performance and Tools, extends the examples contained here, and expands the scope to performance and behavior analysis. Coverage includes:

  • Virtual and physical memory
  • Processes, threads, and scheduling
  • File system framework and UFS implementation
  • Networking: TCP/IP implementation
  • Resource management facilities and zones

The Solaris™ Internals volumes make a superb reference for anyone using Solaris 10 and OpenSolaris.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780131482098
  • Publisher: Prentice Hall
  • Publication date: 6/30/2006
  • Series: Solaris Series
  • Edition description: Revised Edition
  • Edition number: 2
  • Pages: 1022
  • Product dimensions: 7.30 (w) x 9.67 (h) x 1.71 (d)

Meet the Author

Richard McDougall is a Distinguished Engineer at Sun Microsystems, specializing in operating systems technology and systems performance.

Jim Mauro is a Senior Staff Engineer in the Performance, Architecture, and Applications Engineering group at Sun Microsystems, where his most recent efforts have focused on Solaris performance on Opteron platforms.

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Read an Excerpt

Welcome to the second edition of Solaris™ Internals and its companion volume, Solaris™ Performance and Tools. It has been almost five years since the release of the first edition, during which time we have had the opportunity to communicate with a great many Solaris users, software developers, system administrators, database administrators, performance analysts, and even the occasional kernel hacker. We are grateful for all the feedback, and we have made specific changes to the format and content of this edition based on reader input. Read on to learn what is different. We look forward to continued communication with the Solaris community.

About These Books

These books are about the internals of Sun’s Solaris Operating System—specifically, the SunOS kernel. Other components of Solaris, such as windowing systems for desktops, are not covered. The first edition of Solaris™ Internals covered Solaris releases 2.5.1, 2.6, and Solaris 7. These volumes focus on Solaris 10, with updated information for Solaris 8 and 9.

In the first edition, we wanted not only to describe the internal components that make the Solaris kernel tick, but also to provide guidance on putting the information to practical use. These same goals apply to this work, with further emphasis on the use of bundled (and in some cases unbundled) tools and utilities that can be used to examine and probe a running system. Our ability to illustrate more of the kernel’s inner workings with observability tools is facilitated in no small part by the inclusion of some revolutionary and innovative technology in Solaris 10—DTrace, a dynamic kernel tracing framework. DTrace is one of many new technologies in Solaris 10, and is used extensively throughout this text.

In working on the second edition, we enlisted the help of several friends and colleagues, many of whom are part of Solaris kernel engineering. Their expertise and guidance contributed significantly to the quality and content of these books. We also found ourselves expanding topics along the way, demonstrating the use of dtrace(1), mdb(1), kstat(1), and other bundled tools. So much so that we decided early on that some specific coverage of these tools was necessary, and chapters were written to provide readers with the required background information on the tools and utilities. From this, an entire chapter on using the tools for performance and behavior analysis evolved.

As we neared completion of the work, and began building the entire manuscript, we ran into a bit of a problem—the size. The book had grown to over 1,500 pages. This, we discovered, presented some problems in the publishing and production of the book. After some discussion with the publisher, it was decided we should break the work up into two volumes.

Solaris™ Internals. This represents an update to the first edition, including a significant amount of new material. All major kernel subsystems are included: the virtual memory (VM) system, processes and threads, the kernel dispatcher and scheduling classes, file systems and the virtual file system (VFS) framework, and core kernel facilities. New Solaris facilities for resource management are covered as well, along with a new chapter on networking. New features in Solaris 8 and Solaris 9 are called out as appropriate throughout the text. Examples of Solaris utilities and tools for performance and analysis work, described in the companion volume, are used throughout the text.

Solaris™ Performance and Tools. This book contains chapters on the tools and utilities bundled with Solaris 10: dtrace(1), mdb(1), kstat(1), etc. There are also extensive chapters on using the tools to analyze the performance andbehavior of a Solaris system.

The two texts are designed as companion volumes, and can be used in conjunction with access to the Solaris source code on

http://www.opensolaris.org

Readers interested in specific releases before Solaris 8 should continue to use the first edition as a reference.

Intended AudienceWe believe that these books will serve as a useful reference for a variety of technical staff members working with the Solaris Operating System.Application developers can find information in these books about how Solaris OS implements functions behind the application programming interfaces. This information helps developers understand performance, scalability, and implementation specifics of each interface when they develop Solaris applications. The system overview section and sections on scheduling, interprocess communication, and file system behavior should be the most useful sections.Device driver and kernel module developers of drivers, STREAMS modules, loadable system calls, etc., can find herein the general architecture and implementation theory of the Solaris OS. The Solaris kernel framework and facilities portions of the books (especially the locking and synchronization primitives chapters) are particularly relevant.Systems administrators, systems analysts, database administrators, and Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) managers responsible for performance tuning and capacity planning can learn about the behavioral characteristics of the major Solaris subsystems. The file system caching and memory management chapters provide a great deal of information about how Solaris behaves in real-world environments. The algorithms behind Solaris tunable parameters are covered in depth throughout the books.Technical support staff responsible for the diagnosis, debugging, and support of Solaris will find a wealth of information about implementation details of Solaris. Major data structures and data flow diagrams are provided in each chapter to aid debugging and navigation of Solaris systems.System users who just want to know more about how the Solaris kernel works will find high-level overviews at the start of each chapter.

Beyond the technical user community, those in academia studying operating systems will find that this text will work well as a reference. Solaris OS is a robust, feature-rich, volume production operating system, well suited to a variety of workloads, ranging from uniprocessor desktops to very large multiprocessor systems with large memory and input/output (I/O) configurations. The robustness and scalability of Solaris OS for commercial data processing, Web services, network applications, and scientific workloads is without peer in the industry. Much can be learned from studying such an operating system.

OpenSolaris

In June 2005, Sun Microsystems introduced OpenSolaris, a fully functional Solaris operating system release built from open source. As part of the OpenSolaris initiative, the Solaris kernel source was made generally available through an open license offering. This has some obvious benefits to this text. We can now include Solaris source directly in the text where appropriate, as well as refer to full source listings made available through the OpenSolaris initiative.

With OpenSolaris, a worldwide community of developers now has access to Solaris source code, and developers can contribute to whatever component of the operating system they find interesting. Source code accessibility allows us to structure the books such that we can cross-reference specific source files, right down to line numbers in the source tree.

OpenSolaris represents a significant milestone for technologists worldwide; a world-class, mature, robust, and feature-rich operating system is now easily accessible to anyone wishing to use Solaris, explore it, and contribute to its development.

Visit the Open Solaris Website to learn more about OpenSolaris:

http://www.opensolaris.org

The OpenSolaris source code is available at:

http://cvs.opensolaris.org/source

Source code references used throughout this text are relative to that starting location.

How the Books Are Organized

We organized the Solaris™ Internals volumes into several logical parts, each part grouping several chapters containing related information. Our goal was to provide a building block approach to the material by which later sections could build on information provided in earlier chapters. However, for readers familiar with particular aspects of operating systems design and implementation, the individual parts and chapters can stand on their own in terms of the subject matter they cover.

Volume 1: Solaris™ Internals

Part One: Introduction to Solaris Internals
Chapter 1 — Introduction

Part Two: The Process Model
Chapter 2 — The Solaris Process Model
Chapter 3 — Scheduling Classes and the Dispatcher
Chapter 4 — Interprocess Communication
Chapter 5 — Process Rights Management

Part Three: Resource Management
Chapter 6 — Zones
Chapter 7 — Projects, Tasks, and Resource Controls

Part Four: Memory
Chapter 8 — Introduction to Solaris Memory
Chapter 9 — Virtual Memory
Chapter 10 — Physical Memory
Chapter 11 — Kernel Memory
Chapter 12 — Hardware Address Translation
Chapter 13 — Working with Multiple Page Sizes in Solaris

Part Five: File Systems
Chapter 14 — File System Framework
Chapter 15 — The UFS File System

Part Six: Platform Specifics
Chapter 16 — Support for NUMA and CMT Hardware
Chapter 17 — Locking and Synchronization

Part Seven: Networking
Chapter 18 — The Solaris Network Stack

Part Eight: Kernel Services
Chapter 19 — Clocks and Timers
Chapter 20 — Task Queues
Chapter 21 — kmdb Implementation

Volume 2: Solaris™ Performance and Tools

Part One: Observability Methods
Chapter 1 — Introduction to Observability Tools
Chapter 2 — CPUs
Chapter 3 — Processes
Chapter 4 — Disk Behavior and Analysis
Chapter 5 — File Systems
Chapter 6 — Memory
Chapter 7 — Networks
Chapter 8 — Performance Counters
Chapter 9 — Kernel Monitoring

Part Two: Observability Infrastructure
Chapter 10 — Dynamic Tracing
Chapter 11 — Kernel Statistics

Part Three: Debugging
Chapter 12 — The Modular Debugger
Chapter 13 — An MDB Tutorial
Chapter 14 — Debugging Kernels

Updates and Related Material

To complement these books, we created a Web site at which we will place updated material, tools we refer to, and links to related material on the topics covered. We will regularly update the Web site (http://www.solarisinternals.com) with information about this text and future work on Solaris™ Internals. The Web site will be enhanced to provide a forum for Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) related to the text, as well as general questions about Solaris internals, performance, and behavior. If bugs are discovered in the text, we will post errata on the Web site as well.

A Note from the Authors

Once again, a large investment in time and energy proved enormously rewarding for the authors. The support from Sun’s Solaris kernel development group, the Solaris user community, and readers of the first edition has been extremely gratifying. We believe we have been able to achieve more with the second edition in terms of providing Solaris users with a valuable reference text. We certainly extended our knowledge in writing it, and we look forward to hearing from readers.

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Table of Contents

Foreword xxvii

Preface xxix

About the Authors xxxvii

Acknowledgments xxxix

Part One: Introduction to Solaris Internals 1

Chapter 1: Introduction 3

1.1 Key Features of Solaris 10, Solaris 9, and Solaris 8 4

1.2 Key Differentiators 12

1.3 Kernel Overview 15

1.4 Processes, Threads, and Scheduling 18

1.5 Interprocess Communication 23

1.6 Signals 25

1.7 Memory Management 26

1.8 Files and File Systems 29

1.9 Resource Management 30

Part Two: The Process Model 41

Chapter 2: The Solaris Process Model 43

2.1 Components of a Process 44

2.2 Process Model Evolution 48

2.3 Executable Objects 52

2.4 Process Structures 55

2.5 Kernel Process Table 79

2.6 Process Resource Attributes 84

2.7 Process Creation 89

2.8 System Calls 98

2.9 Process Termination 106

2.10 The Process File System 110

2.11 Signals 129

2.12 Sessions and Process Groups 150

2.13 MDB Reference 156

Chapter 3: Scheduling Classes and the Dispatcher 157

3.1 Fundamentals 157

3.2 Processor Abstractions 162

3.3 Dispatcher Queues, Structures, and Variables 171

3.4 Dispatcher Locks 183

3.5 Dispatcher Initialization 190

3.6 Scheduling Classes 192

3.7 Thread Priorities 207

3.8 Dispatcher Functions 234

3.9 Preemption 246

3.10 The Kernel Sleep/Wakeup Facility 253

3.11 Interrupts 262

3.12 Summary 270

3.13 MDB Reference 271

Chapter 4: Interprocess Communication 273

4.1 The System V IPC Framework 274

4.2 System V IPC Resource Controls 282

4.3 Configuring IPC Tuneables on Solaris 10 285

4.4 System V Shared Memory 286

4.5 System V Semaphores 295

4.6 System V Message Queues 299

4.7 POSIX IPC 303

4.8 Solaris Doors 312

4.9 MDB Reference 321

Chapter 5: Process Rights Management 323

5.1 Then and Now 323

5.2 Least Privilege in Solaris 324

5.3 Process Privilege Models 325

5.4 Privilege Awareness: The Details 334

5.5 Least Privilege Interfaces 344

Part Three: Resource Management 365

Chapter 6: Zones 367

6.1 Introduction 367

6.2 Zone Runtime 371

6.3 Booting Zones 375

6.4 Security 379

6.5 Process Model 386

6.6 File Systems 389

6.7 Networking 393

6.8 Devices 398

6.9 Interprocess Communication 405

6.10 Resource Management and Observability 407

6.11 MDB Reference 414

Chapter 7: Projects, Tasks, and Resource Controls 415

7.1 Projects and Tasks Framework 415

7.2 The Project Database 418

7.3 Project and Task APIs 419

7.4 Kernel Infrastructure for Projects and Tasks 420

7.5 Resource Controls 423

7.6 Interfaces for Resource Controls 432

7.7 Kernel Interfaces for Resource Controls 437

Part Four: Memory 445

Chapter 8: Introduction to Solaris Memory 447

8.1 Virtual Memory Primer 447

8.2 Two Levels of Memory 448

8.3 Memory Sharing and Protection 448

8.4 Pages: Basic Units of Physical Memory 448

8.5 Virtual-to-Physical Translation 449

8.6 Physical Memory Management: Paging and Swapping 450

8.7 Virtual Memory as a File System Cache 450

8.8 New Features of the Virtual Memory Implementation 451

Chapter 9: Virtual Memory 455

9.1 Design Overview 455

9.2 Virtual Address Spaces 457

9.3 Tracing the VM System 466

9.4 Virtual Address Space Management 467

9.5 Segment Drivers 476

9.6 Anonymous Memory 485

9.7 The Anonymous Memory Layer 487

9.8 The swapfs Layer 489

9.9 Virtual Memory Watchpoints 492

9.10 Changes to Support Large Pages 494

9.11 MDB Reference 501

Chapter 10: Physical Memory 503

10.1 Physical Memory Allocation 503

10.2 Pages: The Basic Unit of Solaris Memory 506

10.3 The Page Scanner 516

10.4 MDB Reference 525

Chapter 11: Kernel Memory 527

11.1 Kernel Virtual Memory Layout 527

11.2 Kernel Memory Allocation 534

11.3 The Vmem Allocator 552

11.4 Kernel Memory Allocator Tracing 562

11.5 MDB Reference 578

Chapter 12: Hardware Address Translation 581

12.1 HAT Overview 581

12.2 The UltraSPARC HAT Layer 583

12.3 The x64 HAT Layer 625

12.4 MDB Reference 636

Chapter 13: Working with Multiple Page Sizes in Solaris 639

13.1 Determining When to Use Large Pages 639

13.2 Measuring Application Performance 640

13.3 Configuring for Multiple Page Sizes 645

Part Five: File Systems 655

Chapter 14: File System Framework 657

14.1 File System Framework 657

14.2 Process-Level File Abstractions 658

14.3 Solaris File System Framework 668

14.4 File System Modules 672

14.5 The Virtual File System (vfs) Interface 675

14.6 The Vnode 685

14.7 File System I/O 707

14.8 File Systems and Memory Allocation 718

14.9 Path-Name Management 722

14.10 The Directory Name Lookup Cache 726

14.11 The File System Flush Daemon 734

14.12 File System Conversion to Solaris 10 734

14.13 MDB Reference 736

Chapter 15: The UFS File System 737

15.1 UFS Development History 737

15.2 UFS On-Disk Format 739

15.3 The UFS Inode 751

15.4 Access Control in UFS 764

15.5 Extended Attributes in UFS 767

15.6 Locking in UFS 768

15.7 Logging 775

15.8 MDB Reference 790

Part Six: Platform Specifics 793

Chapter 16: Support for NUMA and CMT Hardware 795

16.1 Memory Hierarchy Designs 796

16.2 Memory Placement Optimization Framework 799

16.3 Initial Thread Placement 802

16.4 Scheduling 802

16.5 Memory Allocation 803

16.6 Lgroup Implementation 804

16.7 MPO APIs 807

16.8 Locality Group Hierarchy 811

16.9 MPO Statistics 813

16.10 MDB Reference 814

Chapter 17: Locking and Synchronization 815

17.1 Synchronization 815

17.2 Parallel Systems Architectures 816

17.3 Hardware Considerations for Locks and Synchronization 819

17.4 Introduction to Synchronization Objects 824

17.5 Mutex Locks 827

17.6 Reader/Writer Locks 835

17.7 Turnstiles and Priority Inheritance 840

17.8 Kernel Semaphores 844

17.9 DTrace Lockstat Provider 846

Part Seven: Networking 853

Chapter 18: The Solaris Network Stack 855

18.1 STREAMS and the Network Stack 855

18.2 Solaris 10 Stack: Design Goals 862

18.3 Solaris 10 Network Stack Framework 863

18.4 TCP as an Implementation of the New Framework 870

18.5 UDP 875

18.6 Synchronous STREAMS 878

18.7 IP 880

18.8 Solaris Device Driver Framework 882

18.9 Interrupt Model and NIC Speeds 891

18.10 Summary 895

18.11 MDB Reference 895

Part Eight: Kernel Services 899

Chapter 19: Clocks and Timers 901

19.1 The System Clock Thread 901

19.2 Callouts and Callout Tables 904

19.3 System Time Facilities 910

19.4 The Cyclic Subsystem 912

Chapter 20: Task Queues 927

20.1 Overview of Task Queues 927

20.2 Dynamic Task Queues 928

20.3 Task Queues Kernel Programming Interfaces 932

20.4 Device Driver Interface for Task Queues 934

20.5 Task Queue Observability 935

20.6 Task Queue Implementation Notes 937

Chapter 21: kmdb Implementation 943

21.1 Introduction 943

Appendices 963

Appendix A: Kernel Virtual Address Maps 965

Appendix B: Adding a System Call to Solaris 971

Appendix C: A Sample Procfs Utility 975

Bibliography 979

Index 983

Read More Show Less

Preface

Welcome to the second edition of Solaris™ Internals and its companion volume, Solaris™ Performance and Tools. It has been almost five years since the release of the first edition, during which time we have had the opportunity to communicate with a great many Solaris users, software developers, system administrators, database administrators, performance analysts, and even the occasional kernel hacker. We are grateful for all the feedback, and we have made specific changes to the format and content of this edition based on reader input. Read on to learn what is different. We look forward to continued communication with the Solaris community.

About These Books

These books are about the internals of Sun’s Solaris Operating System—specifically, the SunOS kernel. Other components of Solaris, such as windowing systems for desktops, are not covered. The first edition of Solaris™ Internals covered Solaris releases 2.5.1, 2.6, and Solaris 7. These volumes focus on Solaris 10, with updated information for Solaris 8 and 9.

In the first edition, we wanted not only to describe the internal components that make the Solaris kernel tick, but also to provide guidance on putting the information to practical use. These same goals apply to this work, with further emphasis on the use of bundled (and in some cases unbundled) tools and utilities that can be used to examine and probe a running system. Our ability to illustrate more of the kernel’s inner workings with observability tools is facilitated in no small part by the inclusion of some revolutionary and innovative technology in Solaris 10—DTrace, a dynamic kernel tracing framework. DTrace is one of many new technologies in Solaris 10, and is used extensively throughout this text.

In working on the second edition, we enlisted the help of several friends and colleagues, many of whom are part of Solaris kernel engineering. Their expertise and guidance contributed significantly to the quality and content of these books. We also found ourselves expanding topics along the way, demonstrating the use of dtrace(1), mdb(1), kstat(1), and other bundled tools. So much so that we decided early on that some specific coverage of these tools was necessary, and chapters were written to provide readers with the required background information on the tools and utilities. From this, an entire chapter on using the tools for performance and behavior analysis evolved.

As we neared completion of the work, and began building the entire manuscript, we ran into a bit of a problem—the size. The book had grown to over 1,500 pages. This, we discovered, presented some problems in the publishing and production of the book. After some discussion with the publisher, it was decided we should break the work up into two volumes.

Solaris™ Internals. This represents an update to the first edition, including a significant amount of new material. All major kernel subsystems are included: the virtual memory (VM) system, processes and threads, the kernel dispatcher and scheduling classes, file systems and the virtual file system (VFS) framework, and core kernel facilities. New Solaris facilities for resource management are covered as well, along with a new chapter on networking. New features in Solaris 8 and Solaris 9 are called out as appropriate throughout the text. Examples of Solaris utilities and tools for performance and analysis work, described in the companion volume, are used throughout the text.

Solaris™ Performance and Tools. This book contains chapters on the tools and utilities bundled with Solaris 10: dtrace(1), mdb(1), kstat(1), etc. There are also extensive chapters on using the tools to analyze the performance andbehavior of a Solaris system.

The two texts are designed as companion volumes, and can be used in conjunction with access to the Solaris source code on

http://www.opensolaris.org

Readers interested in specific releases before Solaris 8 should continue to use the first edition as a reference.

Intended Audience

We believe that these books will serve as a useful reference for a variety of technical staff members working with the Solaris Operating System.
Application developers can find information in these books about how Solaris OS implements functions behind the application programming interfaces. This information helps developers understand performance, scalability, and implementation specifics of each interface when they develop Solaris applications. The system overview section and sections on scheduling, interprocess communication, and file system behavior should be the most useful sections.
Device driver and kernel module developers of drivers, STREAMS modules, loadable system calls, etc., can find herein the general architecture and implementation theory of the Solaris OS. The Solaris kernel framework and facilities portions of the books (especially the locking and synchronization primitives chapters) are particularly relevant.
Systems administrators, systems analysts, database administrators, and Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) managers responsible for performance tuning and capacity planning can learn about the behavioral characteristics of the major Solaris subsystems. The file system caching and memory management chapters provide a great deal of information about how Solaris behaves in real-world environments. The algorithms behind Solaris tunable parameters are covered in depth throughout the books.
Technical support staff responsible for the diagnosis, debugging, and support of Solaris will find a wealth of information about implementation details of Solaris. Major data structures and data flow diagrams are provided in each chapter to aid debugging and navigation of Solaris systems.
System users who just want to know more about how the Solaris kernel works will find high-level overviews at the start of each chapter.

Beyond the technical user community, those in academia studying operating systems will find that this text will work well as a reference. Solaris OS is a robust, feature-rich, volume production operating system, well suited to a variety of workloads, ranging from uniprocessor desktops to very large multiprocessor systems with large memory and input/output (I/O) configurations. The robustness and scalability of Solaris OS for commercial data processing, Web services, network applications, and scientific workloads is without peer in the industry. Much can be learned from studying such an operating system.

OpenSolaris

In June 2005, Sun Microsystems introduced OpenSolaris, a fully functional Solaris operating system release built from open source. As part of the OpenSolaris initiative, the Solaris kernel source was made generally available through an open license offering. This has some obvious benefits to this text. We can now include Solaris source directly in the text where appropriate, as well as refer to full source listings made available through the OpenSolaris initiative.

With OpenSolaris, a worldwide community of developers now has access to Solaris source code, and developers can contribute to whatever component of the operating system they find interesting. Source code accessibility allows us to structure the books such that we can cross-reference specific source files, right down to line numbers in the source tree.

OpenSolaris represents a significant milestone for technologists worldwide; a world-class, mature, robust, and feature-rich operating system is now easily accessible to anyone wishing to use Solaris, explore it, and contribute to its development.

Visit the Open Solaris Website to learn more about OpenSolaris:

http://www.opensolaris.org

The OpenSolaris source code is available at:

http://cvs.opensolaris.org/source

Source code references used throughout this text are relative to that starting location.

How the Books Are Organized

We organized the Solaris™ Internals volumes into several logical parts, each part grouping several chapters containing related information. Our goal was to provide a building block approach to the material by which later sections could build on information provided in earlier chapters. However, for readers familiar with particular aspects of operating systems design and implementation, the individual parts and chapters can stand on their own in terms of the subject matter they cover.

Volume 1: Solaris™ Internals

Part One: Introduction to Solaris Internals
Chapter 1 — Introduction

Part Two: The Process Model
Chapter 2 — The Solaris Process Model
Chapter 3 — Scheduling Classes and the Dispatcher
Chapter 4 — Interprocess Communication
Chapter 5 — Process Rights Management

Part Three: Resource Management
Chapter 6 — Zones
Chapter 7 — Projects, Tasks, and Resource Controls

Part Four: Memory
Chapter 8 — Introduction to Solaris Memory
Chapter 9 — Virtual Memory
Chapter 10 — Physical Memory
Chapter 11 — Kernel Memory
Chapter 12 — Hardware Address Translation
Chapter 13 — Working with Multiple Page Sizes in Solaris

Part Five: File Systems
Chapter 14 — File System Framework
Chapter 15 — The UFS File System

Part Six: Platform Specifics
Chapter 16 — Support for NUMA and CMT Hardware
Chapter 17 — Locking and Synchronization

Part Seven: Networking
Chapter 18 — The Solaris Network Stack

Part Eight: Kernel Services
Chapter 19 — Clocks and Timers
Chapter 20 — Task Queues
Chapter 21kmdb Implementation

Volume 2: Solaris™ Performance and Tools

Part One: Observability Methods
Chapter 1 — Introduction to Observability Tools
Chapter 2 — CPUs
Chapter 3 — Processes
Chapter 4 — Disk Behavior and Analysis
Chapter 5 — File Systems
Chapter 6 — Memory
Chapter 7 — Networks
Chapter 8 — Performance Counters
Chapter 9 — Kernel Monitoring

Part Two: Observability Infrastructure
Chapter 10 — Dynamic Tracing
Chapter 11 — Kernel Statistics

Part Three: Debugging
Chapter 12 — The Modular Debugger
Chapter 13 — An MDB Tutorial
Chapter 14 — Debugging Kernels

Updates and Related Material

To complement these books, we created a Web site at which we will place updated material, tools we refer to, and links to related material on the topics covered. We will regularly update the Web site ( http://www.solarisinternals.com ) with information about this text and future work on Solaris™ Internals. The Web site will be enhanced to provide a forum for Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) related to the text, as well as general questions about Solaris internals, performance, and behavior. If bugs are discovered in the text, we will post errata on the Web site as well.

A Note from the Authors

Once again, a large investment in time and energy proved enormously rewarding for the authors. The support from Sun’s Solaris kernel development group, the Solaris user community, and readers of the first edition has been extremely gratifying. We believe we have been able to achieve more with the second edition in terms of providing Solaris users with a valuable reference text. We certainly extended our knowledge in writing it, and we look forward to hearing from readers.

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Customer Reviews

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Sort by: Showing all of 3 Customer Reviews
  • Anonymous

    Posted August 1, 2014

    Frostedtears and Shadowdawn

    Name: Frostedtears<br>
    Age: 24 moons<br>
    Gender: Tom<br>
    Description: Pure white with ice blue eyes<br>
    Rank: Warrior<br>
    Crush:<br>
    Mate: <br>
    Kits:<br>
    Kin: Shadowdawn<br>
    Persona: reserved and quiet, strong willed<br>
    Former Clan: Celestialclan<br>
    Theme Song: "Dear Agony" by Breaking Benjamin<br>
    <p>
    Name: Shadowdawn<br>
    Age: 24 moons<br>
    Gender: She cat<br>
    Description: jet black with mercury red paws and emerald green eyes<br>
    Rank: Warrior<br>
    Crush:<br>
    Mate:<br>
    Kits:<br>
    Kin: Frostedtears<br>
    Persona: Bubbly and outgoing, speaks her mind<br>
    Former Clan: Celestialclan<br>
    Theme Song: "Welcome to the Black Parade" by My Chemical Romance

    Was this review helpful? Yes  No   Report this review
  • Anonymous

    Posted July 30, 2014

    Mistyclaw and co

    Name:mistyclaw pelt color:gray eye color kinda greyish fogish (shes not blind) parents:hawkstar and blizzardstorm both dead <p> personity:meet her <p> old clan bloodclan <p> mate:unknown history ask <p> kits:specklekit (blind) rosekit and leafkit <p> specklekits bio:pelt clor:gray with small black dots eye color foggy gray <p> tail color is black gender:&male or male <p> rosekits bio:pelt color:tortishel color eye color:brown <p> gender:&female paw color:white history:inkniwn <p> anything else ask <p> leafkits bio:pelt color:sandy color <p> eye color:grey <p> geder:&female history unknown <p> anything else ask <p> there all four moons and specklekit likes to play nd explore rosekit:is bossy and likes to be incharge and likes to have fun leafkit is shy and dosent like to be round big crownds nd is scared of things bigger than her like foxes bagers etc they also need rpers all are open except specklekit

    Was this review helpful? Yes  No   Report this review
  • Anonymous

    Posted July 30, 2014

    Silverclaw and her kits

    Silverclaw

    Gender: female
    Dicription: blue eyes silver fur
    Mate:ashfur
    Kits: greykit and firekit



    Greykit

    Gender:male
    Discription:blue eyes gray fur
    Mate: none
    Kits: none

    Firekit
    Gender: male
    Discription: green eyes black fur with red streaks
    Mate: none
    Kits: none

    Was this review helpful? Yes  No   Report this review
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