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Solaris Operating Environment Boot Camp

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Complete solutions for every Solaris OE sysadmin.

  • Step-by-step solutions for every key Solaris OE system administration task
  • From basic user administration to complex enterprise networking
  • Filesystems, kernels, shells, Internet/DNS, email, PPP, NIS, backup/restore, and much more
  • Extensive examples, sample ...
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Overview

Complete solutions for every Solaris OE sysadmin.

  • Step-by-step solutions for every key Solaris OE system administration task
  • From basic user administration to complex enterprise networking
  • Filesystems, kernels, shells, Internet/DNS, email, PPP, NIS, backup/restore, and much more
  • Extensive examples, sample output, and shell scripts
  • Includes coverage of Solaris 8 and 9 Operating Environments

You already have the man pages: what you need are the answers! With Solaris OE Boot Camp, the answers are right at your fingertips. Drawing on nearly 30 years of experience with Sun Microsystems hardware and software, David Rhodes and Dominic Butler walk you through every facet of Solaris OE system administration, from simple user management on standalone servers to building and managing a fully networked enterprise environment. Rhodes and Butler explain every task in detail-with sample commands, specific output, lists of impacted system files, and in some cases, complete shell scripts. Coverage includes:

  • User Administration
  • Permissions & Security
  • Networking
  • Filesystems, including NFS, DFS & Autofs
  • Serial & SCSI Connections
  • Internet & DNS
  • Disk Quotas
  • Shells
  • Email Configuration & Management
  • Backup/Restore
  • System Boot/Halt
  • PPP Remote Connections
  • Kernels & Patches
  • Naming Services & NIS
  • Package Administration
  • Time, Date, & NTP
  • And much more...

Whether you've been running the Solaris Operating Environment for a week or a decade, Solaris Operating Environment Boot Camp will help you do more, do it faster, and do it better!

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780130342874
  • Publisher: Prentice Hall
  • Publication date: 9/28/2002
  • Series: Solaris Series
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Pages: 608
  • Product dimensions: 6.94 (w) x 9.30 (h) x 1.55 (d)

Meet the Author

DAVID RHODES is an independent UNIX professional with broad experience throughout the IT industry, including system builds, program development, support and maintenance. He has worked with the Solaris Operating Environment and Sun Microsystems hardware for more than 13 years, with products ranging from Sun 3/50s and SunOS 3.5 to Sun Enterprise 10000 (Star Fire) servers and Solaris 9 OE.

DOMINIC BUTLER is a freelance technology consultant specializing in Solaris OE and UNIX-related projects. Working with IBM's e-business delivery development team, he helped develop and manage processes for building, updating, and recovering e-business servers within IBM's Universal Server Farm environment throughout the UK, Holland, and Nordic countries.

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Read an Excerpt

IntroductionObjectives

The aim of this book is not to be just another "Guide for System Administrators," but rather a workshop manual that describes the tasks that need to be performed to build a complex network using the standard components delivered with the system.

We present the chapters in the same chronological order that the system administrator follows to build systems in real life. For example, we start by adding users onto a single system, add the system to the network, move on to configuring services such as NFS and NTP (which rely on the newly configured network), and so forth until we have built a complex of networked machines using NIS, NTP, and a multitude of other services.

We describe an environment consisting of a number of networked machines, including connections to the outside world. These systems will be used as the basis for all the examples, although the chapters can be isolated and will remain general enough to be adapted to any system.

So, what will you see in the book? We've covered all the tasks you'll need to get the environment up and running, including some of the following:

  • We'll describe the boot process and talk about details such as the PROM, starting the system, the initialization process, and the shutdown process.
  • We'll discuss users, create them with useradd and RBAC, and work through assigning quotas to them. When we move on to permissions, we'll look at "general" details, along with setuid, setgid, and Access Control Lists (ACLs).
  • We'll add SCSI devices and look at how things like the device tree, instances, and path_to_inst work. We'll also add a custom tape device and create an st.conf entry for it. We'll learn about the different types of file systems and how things like superblocks and inodes are used. Then we'll partition, add, and use the devices within our system.
  • We'll discuss class-based and classless IP addressing schemes. Then we'll split our environment into two subnets and configure them both. We'll include routing and external gateways to the Internet. We'll also use PPP to provide connectivity into remote networks, which also means configuring the associated UUCP databases.
  • We'll configure services on the system to aid administration. We'll create an NTP server, after looking at how "time" works, and add some NIS masters/slaves to provide centralized administration. Within NIS we'll also create a custom map and tighten password security.
  • We'll look at DNS and configure our domain for the public-facing machines. We'll also add a small mail server to the system, configure sendmail.cf using the m4 macroprocessor, and update the DNS entries to suit.
  • We'll take an in-depth look at packages—building our own in the process. We'll also work through the patching mechanism.
  • Lastly, we'll look at some of the tools that are available to back up and restore all this data that we've created.

We firmly believe that showing lots of code examples is a very good way of explaining how the operating system works. As anyone who has worked with UNIX knows, there are many different ways of performing nearly every task. All users have their favorite commands they use to do this; some people will only use awk, while others know sed inside out. For this reason, we have tried to use different commands to perform the same task throughout the book. We hope this will be a useful way of showing some of the various options.

All the tasks we carry out are command-line based, which means they will all work regardless of whether you are using a graphics console or working remotely via a telnet connection. We've adopted this approach because we think it's a better way of seeing what's happening, rather than simply clicking on a button in a GUI.

The major system configuration details are described in Appendix A to allow you to see which machine we are talking about at a glance, which we hope will let you become familiar with the system we are describing.

Chapter Format

Each chapter begins with a list of all the relevant online manual pages (along with their section numbers). We have taken the view that it is better to use code examples, wherever possible, to illustrate how commands may be used rather than provide a series of reference pages, which the user must determine how to use. Everyone has access to the manual pages, either online or at sites such as Sun's documentation site (http://docs.sun.com), these can be referred to for further information about any of the commands that have been run.

After that, we list the files that may be affected when carrying out any actions shown within the chapter. This allows the reader to follow the changes to these files as the reader progresses.

Next, we describe the task in depth: explaining what is taking place, showing the commands that need to be run, and showing the output that will be seen during execution.

We also have a section that shows ways of checking the parts of the system that relate to the chapter. For example, in the chapter that talks about adding users, we show how to check the password, shadow, and group files for invalid entries or corruption. These may be built into a suite of utility programs that are useful to the administrator for both general use and checking the health of the system.

In short, the aim is to provide the user with enough information to determine how commands are working while providing the information to allow them to determine how to take things further.

Code Examples

The code examples used have all been built and tested on the systems used to describe the setup. We have tried to achieve a balance between including lots of comments in the code and making it readable.

We create a number of tools, which can be used to monitor and manage the system, and define a hierarchy that we will use to configure both the servers and the clients. The examples try to use this defined hierarchy, but again it can be easily altered should you not wish to use our definition.

Public Domain Tools

There is no denying that many public domain tools are very useful, and that some are even considered irreplaceable! Even so, we are aware that several companies do not allow these to be loaded on to their systems. For this reason, we have tried to limit the commands we use to those supplied with the operating system.

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Table of Contents

Introduction.

1. The System Administrator's Role.

The Importance of a System Administrator. Who Is the System Administrator? Role Based Access Control. Who's Been Logging In? Checking the Sulog. Automating the Check.

2. Booting and Halting the System.

Objectives. Switching On. The Boot Process. Run Levels. RC Scripts. Solaris Processes. Killing Processes. Trapping Signals. Additional Process Management Tools. Defunct Processes. Switching Off. The OpenBoot PROM.

3. User Administration.

Objectives. What Are Users? What Are Groups? UIDs and GIDs. Password File. Field 1: Login Name. Field 2: Password. Field 3: User ID Number. Field 4: Group ID Number. Field 5: Comment Field. Field 6: The Home Directory. Field 7: The Program to Run on Login. Shadow File. Field 1: Login Name. Field 2: Encrypted Password. Field 3: Password Change Date. Field 4: Minimum Change Days. Field 5: Maximum Valid Days. Field 6: Number of Warning Days. Field 7: Number of Inactive Days. Field 8: Expiry Date. Field 9: Not Used. Group File. Field 1: Group Name. Field 2: Group Password. Field 3: Group Identity Number. Field 4: Group User List. Primary and Secondary Groups. The Implementation. Our “Company Standards”. Adding a Test User with Groupadd and Useradd. Setting the Password. Testing the Account. Modifying with Usermod. Removing the User. Useradd Defaults. Manually Updating the System Files. Real and Effective IDs. Using RBAC. How It Works. Authorizations. Profiles. Roles. Create the System Administrator Role. Creating a Custom Script. Checking the Files. Pwconv. Pwck and Grpck. Passwd. Conclusion.

4. Permissions and All That.

Objectives. Why Do We Need Permissions? How Permissions Are Represented. Setting Permissions. Default Permissions. File Ownership. Sticky Bits. Access Control Lists. The Implementation. Octal Permissions Lookup Table.

5. Shells.

Objectives. What Is a Shell? What Shells? C Shells? Shell Variables. Using Shell Variables. Using Variables in Shell Scripts. Positional Parameters. Scope of Shell Variables. The Environment. Assigning Shells to Users. Running Commands. Wildcards. Additional Notes on Wildcards. Hiding Things from the Shell. Command Substitution. Shortcuts. Home Directory. Previous Directory. Aliases. What Else Does the Shell Do? File Redirection. Pipelines. And the Rest. Shell Start-Up Files. The Implementation. /Etc/profile. Root User's .profile. Other Users' .profile. Example Shell Scripts.

6. The Filesystem and Its Contents.

Objectives. What Is a Filesystem? Why Do We Use Filesystems? Preparing the Disk to Receive Filesystems. What Type of Filesystem Should We Use? System V Filesystem Type. UFS Type. TMPFS Type. PROCFS Type. File Descriptor Filesystem (FDFS) Type. Creating and Removing Filesystems. Checking and Repairing Filesystems. Lost+found Directories. Files and Directories. Devices. Solaris Directories. Log Files. The Implementation. Housekeeping the Log Files. Checking Filesystem Usage.

7. Swap Space.

Objectives. Swapping and Paging. Paging. Swapping. Which Is Best? Is Swap Really Needed? The Scheduler. How Big Should It Be? The 2 GB Swap Limit. Swap Locations. Raw Disk Partitions. Swap Files. Adding the Swap Devices. Monitoring Swap Space. Using Sar. Using Vmstat.

8. Administering Packages.

Objectives. What Is a Package? Using Packages. What Packages Have I Got Loaded? Adding, Removing, and Checking Packages. Adding Packages. Removing Packages. Checking Packages. Dissecting a Package. Pkginfo. Pkgmap. Reloc. Install. Archive. Advanced Concepts. Creating Your Own Packages.

9. Patching the System.

Objectives. What Are Patches? Recommended Patches. Kernel Patches. Security Patches. Public Patches. Maintenance Updates. Files and Their Locations. Progressive versus Direct Instance Patching. /Var/sadm/patch. /Var/sadm/pkg. Disk Space. Determining What's Installed. Detecting Patches. Adding Patches. Removing Old Revisions. Installing Recommended Patches. Adding Individual Patches. Loading Multiple Patches. Obsolete Patches. Removing Patches. Checking the System.

10. Administering Quotas.

Objectives. What Are Quotas? Enabling Quotas. Configuring the User's Quotas. Checking the Limits. Setting Default User Quotas. Disabling User Quotas. Automatically Checking the Limits. The Crontab Entry. Should We Use Them?

11. Connecting to the Local Area Network.

Objectives. Description. IP Addressing Schemes. Class-Based. Subnetting. CIDR. Unicast, Multicast, and Broadcast Addresses. Illegal Addresses. Choosing an IP Address. Reserved Addresses. Our Values. Naming Systems. Host Names. Loopback Interface. Initial Network Testing. Configuring the Interface. Dynamic Configuration. Permanent Changes. The Rest of the Subnet. Routing. Connecting the Second Subnet. Adding the Gateway. Routing-A Second Look. Disabling Router Discovery. Manually Adding Static Routes. Address Resolution. Determining the MAC Address. Multiple Network Cards. Deleting Table Entries. Reverse Address Resolution. IPV6-The Next Generation. IPV6 Addresses. Traceroute. Conclusion.

12. Naming Services and NIS.

Objectives. Naming Services. Local Files. NIS. DNS. NIS+. LDAP. Why Use Them? Name Service Switch File. Status Codes and Actions. Template Switch Files. How NIS Works. NIS Domain Names. NIS Maps. Makedbm. Make and Makefiles. DNS Forwarding. Machine Types and Daemons. Master Server. Slave Server. Client. Booting and Binding. Our Machines. The Packages. Build the Master Server. Build the Clients. Build the Slave Servers. The Server Map. Map Propagation. Ypxfr. Yppush. Customizing NIS. The “userAccessList” File. Custom Map Propagation. NIS Passwords. Update the User Creation Script. Update the Makefile. User Password Changes. Passwd.adjunct File. Update the User Creation Script-Again. Disabling NIS. Disabling a Slave Server. Disabling a Client.

13. Connecting to the Internet.

Objectives. The Design. Allocating an IP Address. Domain Names and Addresses. Registering a Domain Name. Our Values. Configuring the Interface. Adding a Default Route. Host Names or Addresses. Enabling Host Name Resolving. Checking the Connection. Nslookup. Traceroute. Ping. Configuring the Remaining Systems. Multiple Default Routes.

14. Connecting Serial Devices.

Objectives. Serial Communication. Synchronous versus Asynchronous. Start Bit. Data Bit. Parity. Speed. Baud and BPS. Characters per Second. Serial Devices. DTE-DCE Connection. DTE-DTE Connection. Serial Ports. Service Access Facility. Port Monitors. SAF Hierarchy. SAF Log Location. Administration Programs. Remove Existing Port Monitors. Adding a Terminal. Add a Port Monitor. Configure the Port Monitor. Ttyadm. Line Settings. Consoles and Serial Ports. Adding a Modem. Test the Modem. Configure /Etc/remote. Test Incoming Connections. Conclusion.

15. Dialing in with PPP.

Objectives. Point-to-Point Protocol. Why Use PPP? The Components. The System. Building the Connection. The Serial Port. UUCP. Chat Scripts. Devices File. Dialers File. Systems File. Checking UUCP. PPP. Which Configuration? Link Manager. Log Files. Testing the Link. Host Name Resolving. Name Service Caching. Routing. The Completed Network. Custom Scripts. Conclusion.

16. Configuring DNS.

Objectives. What Is the Domain Name System? Why Do We Need It? DNS Hierarchy. Domain Name Space. What's a Domain? Registering Domains. Servers and Resolving. Name Servers. Root Servers. Resolvers. Forward and Reverse Lookups. Zones. Zone Transfers. Is It DNS, BIND, or Named? Named Versions. The Boot File. Our Configuration. Our Domain. Zone Files. SOA Records. NS Records. Master Server. Boot File. Root Cache. “Localhost” Reverse File. Master Forward File. Master Reverse File. Resolv.conf File. Starting Named. Slave Server. Boot File. Testing the Servers. Enabling Resolving. Configuring the Clients. Conclusion.

17. Adding SCSI Devices.

Objectives. Introduction. What Is SCSI? Single-Ended versus Differential. High versus Low Voltage Differential. Multimode LVD. Narrow and Wide. Termination. SCSI IDs. Logical Units. Solaris Devices. Physical Devices. Logical Devices. Instance Names. Naming Conventions. Autoconfiguration and /etc/path_to_inst. Adding the Disk. Device Tree. Format. Prtvtoc. Formatting Multiple Disks. Add a Filesystem. Mount the Filesystem. Configuring LUNs. Adding the Tape Drive. Drvconfig and Devfsadm. Checking the Tape. Nonstandard Tape Drives. Configuring St.conf. SCSI Options.

18. NFS, DFS, and Autofs.

Objectives. Network Filesystem. Distributed Filesystem. Autofs. The Build Order. Remote Procedure Call. Rpcbind. Program and Version Numbers. Transport and Machine Independency. External Data Representation. RPC Database. NFS Daemons. Resources and Filehandles. Client-Server Communication. NFS Versions. DFS Files. Configuring the Server. Checking RPC. Setting Up the Clients. Server Share Options. Access Lists. Using Netgroups. Client Mount Options. Authentication. Secure NFS. Client Failover. NFS URL. The Autofs. Master Map. Predefined Maps. Direct and Indirect Maps. Map Naming Conventions. Our Configuration. The Master Map. The Direct Map. The Indirect Maps. Metacharacters. Client Failover. Preferred Servers and Weighting. Testing. Naming Services and Autofs. Direct Maps. Included Maps. Conclusion.

19. Time, Date, and NTP.

Objectives. Introduction. System Time. GMT or UTC. Displaying Time. Date. Time Zones. Host Names. Rdate. Network Time Protocol. How NTP Works. Stratum Levels. Delays, Offsets, and Dispersion. Servers. Our Configuration. Kernel System Variables. Build the Clients. Checking the Clients. Build the Local NTP Server. Checking NTP on the Server. Configuring the Clients. Checking the Clients. The Final Configuration. Check the Final Configuration. Which Is Best?

20. Setting Up the Mail System.

Objectives. What Is Mail? 1. Write the Letter. 2. Address It. 3/4. Put It in an Envelope/Post It. 5. Send It to the Correct Area. 6. Local Delivery. Mail Protocols. Simple Mail Transfer Protocol. Post Office Protocol. Internet Message Access Protocol. Web Mail. Secure Communication. Which Is Best? DNS and Mail. Sendmail. M4. Sendmail and M4. Generating the Configuration File. Adding Functionality. Our Configuration. Update DNS. The Mail Host. Configure the Clients. Aliases. Conclusion.

21. Kernels and All About Them.

Objectives. What Is the Kernel? How Does It All Fit Together? Troubleshooting. Truss. Pargs. Prex. Kernel Modules. The /etc/system File. Kernel Parameters. Listing Kernel Parameters. Modifying Kernel Parameters. Kernel Messages.

22. Backing Up and Restoring the System.

Objectives. Why Do We Need a Backup Strategy? What Is a Backup Strategy? How Do We Back Up the System? Dd. Tar. Cpio. How Do We Fit More Data on the Tape? Ufsdump and Ufsrestore. Remote Backups. Backup Consistency. The Implementation. System File Backup. Our Backup Strategy. The Backup Script.

A. Settings Used Throughout the Book.

Overview. Chapter 1: User Details. Chapter 6: Standard Disk Layout. Chapter 11: System Details. Chapter 14: Serial Device Details. Chapter 15: PPP Connection Details. Root Crontab Entry.

B. Security Checklist.

Objectives. Description. User Security. File Security. Network Security. General Security.

Index.

Read More Show Less

Preface

Introduction

Objectives

The aim of this book is not to be just another "Guide for System Administrators," but rather a workshop manual that describes the tasks that need to be performed to build a complex network using the standard components delivered with the system.

We present the chapters in the same chronological order that the system administrator follows to build systems in real life. For example, we start by adding users onto a single system, add the system to the network, move on to configuring services such as NFS and NTP (which rely on the newly configured network), and so forth until we have built a complex of networked machines using NIS, NTP, and a multitude of other services.

We describe an environment consisting of a number of networked machines, including connections to the outside world. These systems will be used as the basis for all the examples, although the chapters can be isolated and will remain general enough to be adapted to any system.

So, what will you see in the book? We've covered all the tasks you'll need to get the environment up and running, including some of the following:

  • We'll describe the boot process and talk about details such as the PROM, starting the system, the initialization process, and the shutdown process.
  • We'll discuss users, create them with useradd and RBAC, and work through assigning quotas to them. When we move on to permissions, we'll look at "general" details, along with setuid, setgid, and Access Control Lists (ACLs).
  • We'll add SCSI devices and look at how things like the device tree, instances, and path_to_inst work. We'll also add a custom tape device and create an st.conf entry for it. We'll learn about the different types of file systems and how things like superblocks and inodes are used. Then we'll partition, add, and use the devices within our system.
  • We'll discuss class-based and classless IP addressing schemes. Then we'll split our environment into two subnets and configure them both. We'll include routing and external gateways to the Internet. We'll also use PPP to provide connectivity into remote networks, which also means configuring the associated UUCP databases.
  • We'll configure services on the system to aid administration. We'll create an NTP server, after looking at how "time" works, and add some NIS masters/slaves to provide centralized administration. Within NIS we'll also create a custom map and tighten password security.
  • We'll look at DNS and configure our domain for the public-facing machines. We'll also add a small mail server to the system, configure sendmail.cf using the m4 macroprocessor, and update the DNS entries to suit.
  • We'll take an in-depth look at packages—building our own in the process. We'll also work through the patching mechanism.
  • Lastly, we'll look at some of the tools that are available to back up and restore all this data that we've created.

We firmly believe that showing lots of code examples is a very good way of explaining how the operating system works. As anyone who has worked with UNIX knows, there are many different ways of performing nearly every task. All users have their favorite commands they use to do this; some people will only use awk, while others know sed inside out. For this reason, we have tried to use different commands to perform the same task throughout the book. We hope this will be a useful way of showing some of the various options.

All the tasks we carry out are command-line based, which means they will all work regardless of whether you are using a graphics console or working remotely via a telnet connection. We've adopted this approach because we think it's a better way of seeing what's happening, rather than simply clicking on a button in a GUI.

The major system configuration details are described in Appendix A to allow you to see which machine we are talking about at a glance, which we hope will let you become familiar with the system we are describing.

Chapter Format

Each chapter begins with a list of all the relevant online manual pages (along with their section numbers). We have taken the view that it is better to use code examples, wherever possible, to illustrate how commands may be used rather than provide a series of reference pages, which the user must determine how to use. Everyone has access to the manual pages, either online or at sites such as Sun's documentation site (http://docs.sun.com), these can be referred to for further information about any of the commands that have been run.

After that, we list the files that may be affected when carrying out any actions shown within the chapter. This allows the reader to follow the changes to these files as the reader progresses.

Next, we describe the task in depth: explaining what is taking place, showing the commands that need to be run, and showing the output that will be seen during execution.

We also have a section that shows ways of checking the parts of the system that relate to the chapter. For example, in the chapter that talks about adding users, we show how to check the password, shadow, and group files for invalid entries or corruption. These may be built into a suite of utility programs that are useful to the administrator for both general use and checking the health of the system.

In short, the aim is to provide the user with enough information to determine how commands are working while providing the information to allow them to determine how to take things further.

Code Examples

The code examples used have all been built and tested on the systems used to describe the setup. We have tried to achieve a balance between including lots of comments in the code and making it readable.

We create a number of tools, which can be used to monitor and manage the system, and define a hierarchy that we will use to configure both the servers and the clients. The examples try to use this defined hierarchy, but again it can be easily altered should you not wish to use our definition.

Public Domain Tools

There is no denying that many public domain tools are very useful, and that some are even considered irreplaceable! Even so, we are aware that several companies do not allow these to be loaded on to their systems. For this reason, we have tried to limit the commands we use to those supplied with the operating system.

Read More Show Less

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Reviews by Our Customers Under the Age of 13

We highly value and respect everyone's opinion concerning the titles we offer. However, we cannot allow persons under the age of 13 to have accounts at BN.com or to post customer reviews. Please see our Terms of Use for more details.

What to exclude from your review:

Please do not write about reviews, commentary, or information posted on the product page. If you see any errors in the information on the product page, please send us an email.

Reviews should not contain any of the following:

  • - HTML tags, profanity, obscenities, vulgarities, or comments that defame anyone
  • - Time-sensitive information such as tour dates, signings, lectures, etc.
  • - Single-word reviews. Other people will read your review to discover why you liked or didn't like the title. Be descriptive.
  • - Comments focusing on the author or that may ruin the ending for others
  • - Phone numbers, addresses, URLs
  • - Pricing and availability information or alternative ordering information
  • - Advertisements or commercial solicitation

Reminder:

  • - By submitting a review, you grant to Barnes & Noble.com and its sublicensees the royalty-free, perpetual, irrevocable right and license to use the review in accordance with the Barnes & Noble.com Terms of Use.
  • - Barnes & Noble.com reserves the right not to post any review -- particularly those that do not follow the terms and conditions of these Rules. Barnes & Noble.com also reserves the right to remove any review at any time without notice.
  • - See Terms of Use for other conditions and disclaimers.
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