Solder Joint Technology: Materials, Properties, and Reliability / Edition 1by King-Ning Tu
The European Union’s directive banning the use of lead-based (Pb) solders in electronic consumer products has created an urgent need for research on solder joint behavior under various driving forces in electronic manufacturing, and for development of lead-free solders. This book provides a comprehensive examination of advanced materials reliability issues… See more details below
The European Union’s directive banning the use of lead-based (Pb) solders in electronic consumer products has created an urgent need for research on solder joint behavior under various driving forces in electronic manufacturing, and for development of lead-free solders. This book provides a comprehensive examination of advanced materials reliability issues related to copper-tin reaction and electromigration in solder joints, and presents methods for preventing common reliablity problems.
Table of Contents
Introduction. -Surface mount technology, pin-through-hole technology, & flip chip technology. -Reliability issues of solder joints: spalling, low cycle fatigue, electromigration, ductile-to-brittle transition in impact, Sn whisker. -Trend in electronic packaging: Chip-packaging interaction, more IMC formation in smaller solder joints. -Cu-Sn reaction in bulk samples. -Wetting reaction in bulk samples of eutectic SnPb on Cu foil. -Ternary phase diagram of Sn-Pb-Cu. -Wetting reaction in bulk samples of Pb-free solders on Cu foil . -Solid state reaction in bulk samples of eutectic SnPb on Cu foil. -Solid state reaction in bulk samples of Pb-free on Cu foil. -Comparison between wetting and solid state reactions. -Cu-Sn reaction in thin film samples. -Room temperature reaction in bimetallic thin films of Sn and Cu. -Wetting reaction of molten SnPb solders on thin films of Au/Cu/Cr. -Spalling of Cu-Sn IMC. -Wetting reaction of molten eutectic SnPb on thin films of Cu/Ni(V)/Al. -Wetting tip reaction. -Cu-Sn reaction in flip chip solder joints and electromigration. -Processing a flip chip solder joint. -Thick film UBM of electroless Ni(P), electrolytic Ni. -Very thick Cu under-bump metallization and Cu bond-pack. -Interaction between UBM and bond-pad; Effect of Ni on (Cu,Ni)Sn IMC formation across a flip chip solder joints. -Reaction in composite solder joints. -Thermal stress across flip chip solder joint. -Effect of electromigration and current crowding. -Kinetic analysis of flux-driven ripening of Cu-Sn scallops. -Theory of non-conservative ripening with a constant surface area and increasing volume with time. -Size and orientation distribution of scallops. -Nano channels between scallops. -Polarity effect of electromigration on solder reactions. -V-groove samples. -Parabolic growth of IMC at the anode. -Dissolution of Cu and dynamic equilibrium at the cathode. -Critical product and back stress. -Narrow current density range. -Diffusivity of Pb and Sn as a function of temperature. -Ductile–to-brittle transition of solder joints affected by Cu-Sn reactions. -One-dimensional samples. -Tensile, shear, and creep tests. -Impact test. -Ductile-to-brittle transition. -Spontaneous Sn whisker growth on Cu leadframe finished with Pb-free. -Irreversible processes in Sn whisker growth. -Mechanism of compressive stress generation and relaxation. -Prevention of Sn whisker growth. -Comparison to solder reactions on other metals. -Solder reactions on Ni. -Solder reactions on Au. -Solder reactions on Pd (A ring sample was used to avoid wetting tip spread). -Sn-Zn solder on Cu.
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