Sonars and Underwater Acoustics [NOOK Book]

Overview

Sonar and Underwater Acoustics brings together all the concepts necessary for designers and users of sonar systems. Unlike other books on this subject, which are often too specialized, this book is accessible to a wider audience. The first part focuses on the acoustic environment, antenna structures, and electric acoustic interface. The latter provides knowledge required to design, as well as the development and implementation of chain processes for an active sonar from the conditioning input to output ...

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Sonars and Underwater Acoustics

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Overview

Sonar and Underwater Acoustics brings together all the concepts necessary for designers and users of sonar systems. Unlike other books on this subject, which are often too specialized, this book is accessible to a wider audience. The first part focuses on the acoustic environment, antenna structures, and electric acoustic interface. The latter provides knowledge required to design, as well as the development and implementation of chain processes for an active sonar from the conditioning input to output processing. The reader will find a comprehensive range of all problems encountered in underwater acoustics for a sonar application, from physical phenomena governing the environment and the corresponding constraints, through to the technical definition of transducers and antennas, and the types of signal processing involved. In one section, measures in underwater acoustics are also proposed.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781118600658
  • Publisher: Wiley
  • Publication date: 2/7/2013
  • Series: ISTE
  • Sold by: Barnes & Noble
  • Format: eBook
  • Edition number: 1
  • File size: 14 MB
  • Note: This product may take a few minutes to download.

Table of Contents

Preface

Part 1 The Marine Environment 1

Part 1 Introduction 3

Chapter 1 Problematics 5

1.1 History 5

1.2 Underwater acoustics 7

1.2.1 Communications channel 8

1.2.2 Knowledge of the Channel 8

1.3 Applications 9

1.3.1 Civil applications 9

1.3.2 Military applications 9

1.4 Comparison with radar 10

1.5 Submarine detection and warfare 11

1.6 Submarine detection 12

1.7 Submarine detection: a veritable challenge 12

1.8 Overcoming the effects of the ocean 13

1.8.1 Acoustics 13

1.8.2 Propagation 14

1.8.3 Unknown noise 16

1.8.4 Unknown signal 16

1.9 Sonar and information processing 16

Chapter 2 Sound Propagation in the Marine Environment 19

2.1 General points 19

2.2 Characteristics of the marine environment 19

2.3 Models used 22

2.4 Propagation phenomena 28

2.4.1 Deep water 28

2.4.2 Reflection 32

2.4.3 Coherence and stability of sound channels 33

2.5 Application examples 33

2.5.1 Simplified equations, range and optimum frequency 33

2.5.2 Use of towed sonar 38

2.5.3 Study of transmission problems 38

2.5.4 Vertical telemetry 38

Chapter 3 Noises and Reverberation 41

3.1 Classification of ambiend noises 41

3.2 Analysis of noise sources 45

3.2.1 Hydrodynamic sources 45

3.2.2 Maritime traffic 49

3.2.3 Seismic sources 50

3.2.4 Biological sources 51

3.2.5 Additional sources 51

3.3 Wenz' model of sea noise 51

3.4 Directivity of sea noise 52

3.4.1 Application to antenna production 54

3.5 Reverberation 55

3.5.1 Surface reverberation 56

3.5.2 Volume reverberation 59

3.5.3 Seabed reverberation 62

Chapter 4 Radiated and Inherent Noises 65

4.1 Radiated noise 65

4.1.1 Engine noise 65

4.1.2 Propeller noises 67

4.1.3 Hydrodynamic noise 70

4.1.4 Summary of the sources of radiated noise 71

4.1.5 Directivity 72

4.1.6 Level of radiated noise 72

4.1.7 Inherent noise 75

4.1.8 Inherent and radiated noises 78

Chapter 5 Transmission of the Acoustic Signal: Sonar Equations 79

5.1 Introduction 79

5.2 Detection contrast and detection index 80

5.3 Transmission equation 81

5.4 Equation of passive sonar 88

5.5 Equation of active sonar 89

Part 2 Acoustic-Electric Interface Antenna Structures 93

Part 2 Introduction 95

Chapter 6 Electric-acoustic and Acoustic-electric Transformations 97

6.1 Transducers and hydrophones 97

6.1.1 General points 97

6.1.3 Magnetostriction 97

6.1.3 Electrostriction 102

6.1.4 Piezoelectricity 103

6.1.5 Electromagnetism 105

6.1.6 Optics 106

6.1.7 The responses of transducers and hydrophones 106

Chapter 7 Performance and Structures of Acoustic Antennas 113

7.1 Antennas and radiation 113

7.1.1 Equations governing propagation 113

7.1.2 Plane wave solutions 122

7.1.3 Spherical wave solutions 128

7.1.4 Acoustic sources: wave production 132

7.1.5 Directivity and gain of sources and antennas 144

7.1.6 Radiation impedance 185

7.2 Structures of sources and antennas 189

7.2.1 Sources and sensors 189

7.2.2 Antenna structures 200

Chapter 8 Electronic Transducer-hydrophone Adaptation 211

8.1 Hydrophones 211

8.1.1 Simplified equivalent electric diagram of a hydrophone 212

8.1.2 Association of a hydrophone and an amplifier 215

8.1.3 Noise sources of a hydrophone 227

8.1.4 Noise characterization of a hydrophone-amplifier assembly 231

8.1.5 Hydrophone association 239

8.2 Transducers 243

8.2.1 Equivalent diagram of a transducer 244

8.2.2 Input immittance 251

8.2.3 Transfer function of the transducer 254

8.2.4 Adaption circuit and the emitter 261

Chapter 9 Electro-mechano-acoustic Analogies 269

9.1 Methods of studying transducers and hydrophones 269

9.2 Mechanic-electric equivalence 270

9.2.1 Properties of the two equivalences 271

9.2.2 Electric-mechanic relationships 273

9.3 Electric-acoustic equivalence 275

9.3.1 Acoustic ⇔ mechanic connection 278

9.3.2 Acoustic ⇔ electric matching 304

9.3.3 Equivalent diagram of a piezoelectric ceramic 304

9.4 Finite element method (FEM) 320

Part 3 Processing Chain of Active Sonar 323

Part 3 Introduction 325

Chapter 10 Selection Criteria in Active Processing 327

10.1 Selection criteria related to propagation 327

10.1.1 Dipping sonar 330

10.1.2 Towed sonar 330

10.2 Selection criteria relative to noise 331

10.3 Selection criteria related to reverberation 332

10.4 Selection criteria related to emission power 333

10.5 Selection criteria related to the antenna 335

10.6 Selection criteria for the oprating frequency 336

10.7 Selection criteria related to operational considerations 337

10.8 Selection criteria related to the nature to targets 337

Chapter 11 Processing Chain in Active Sonar 341

11.1 General points 341

11.2 Emission 341

11.2.1 The pilot generator 342

11.2.2 Delay control 342

11.2.3 The power amplifier 343

11.2.4 Emission reception switching 344

11.3 Reception 345

11.3.1 Input conditioning 346

11.3.2 Gain control AGC-TVG 365

11.3.3 Beamforming 383

11.3.4 Adapted processing 406

11.3.5 Information processing of sonar channels 427

11.3.6 Channel stabilization 435

11.3.7 Audiofrequency channels 449

Chapter 12 Basic Theoretical Notions in Active Processing 459

12.1 The Doppler effect 459

12.1.1 Definition of the Doppler effect 459

12.1.2 Typical cases of the Doppler effect 461

12.2 The Doppler effect in active sonar conditions 464

12.2.1 Doppler effect on the signal 464

12.2.2 Doppler effect on reveberation 466

12.2.3 Reverberation on a sonar reception channel 468

12.3 Treatment of the signal 485

12.3.1 Detection 485

12.3.2 Estimation 493

12.3.3 Detection performances 497

12.4 Choice of an emission signal under active sonar conditions 503

12.4.1 The active sonar problem 503

12.4.2 The ambiguity function 504

12.4.3 Ambiguity functions of useful signals 509

Chapter 13 Measurement in Underwater Acoustics 525

13.1 Introduction 525

13.1.1 Background 525

13.1.2 Far-Field conditions 526

13.2 Wave train method 531

13.2.1 Determination of measuring parameters 531

13.2.2 Limitations of the wave train method 533

13.3 Precautions before measuring 539

13.3.1 Preparation and set up of transducers within the tank 539

13.3.2 Identification and treatment of disruptive noises 540

13.4 Acoustic measurements and calibrations of transducers 542

13.4.1 Measurements of the sensitivities of the transmitter and receiver 543

13.4.2 Comparison calibration method 546

13.4.3 Reciprocity calibration methods 546

13.5 Notion of uncertainty estimation and of maximum tolerated difference 551

13.6 Other types of measurements in underwater acoustics 553

13.6.1 Regular/usual measurement types 553

13.6.2 Unusual/specific measurement types 553

13.6.3 Conclusion 554

Appendices 555

Appendix 1 Logarithmic Scales 557

Appendix 2 Equation of Sound in Fluids 563

Appendix 3 Piezoelectricity Fundamentals 571

Appendix 4 Vector Analysis-Fundamentals 579

Appendix 5 Reciprocity Theorem 593

Appendix 6 Concrete Example of uncertainty Estimation Based on the Reciprocity Calibration Method 601

Bibliography 619

Index 623

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