Sources in Chinese History: Diverse Perspectives from 1644 to the Present / Edition 1

Sources in Chinese History: Diverse Perspectives from 1644 to the Present / Edition 1

by David Atwill, Yurong Atwill

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ISBN-10: 013233089X

ISBN-13: 9780132330893

Pub. Date: 03/10/2009

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

Glance at any recent newspaper, magazine or mainstream website and one will encounter some mention of China. The number of Americans and Europeans studying the Chinese language has soared in recent years. Foreign investment in China and Chinese exports to the world are increasing at a record pace. Western political leaders ponder how to join or combat the country's


Glance at any recent newspaper, magazine or mainstream website and one will encounter some mention of China. The number of Americans and Europeans studying the Chinese language has soared in recent years. Foreign investment in China and Chinese exports to the world are increasing at a record pace. Western political leaders ponder how to join or combat the country's expanding influence. Yet, this emerging discovery of China should more correctly be described as a re-discovery. European and American churches have sent missionaries to China for more than five centuries. Western traders and businesses have sought Chinese products, and pursued new markets for their own goods, for a commensurate period. Still, this newfound interest in China suggests there is a need for a sourcebook that goes beyond the narrow boundaries of political and intellectual thought; a sourcebook that explores the broad cultural, social and ethnic trends that are the foundation of a 21st century China.

A variety of perspectives introduce readers to the issues, trends and challenges of each particular period. This text goes beyond boundaries of political and intellectual thought; a sourcebook that explores the broad cultural, social and ethnic trends that are the foundation of a 21st century China. The different viewpoints presented will lead students to rethink the way in which historical events are commonly understood.

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Table of Contents


A Note on Romanization, Names and Pronunciation



PART I - Timeline

CHAPTER 1 Early to Mid-Qing

IMAGE: Reading a Between the Vermillion Lines: A Qing Memorial (1718)

Rise of Qing: Conquest, Consolidation and Preservation

1.1 Shunzhi's Head-shaving Decree (1644)
1.2 Sacred Edict of the Kangxi Emperor (1670)
1.3 Kangxi's Edict Regarding Wu Sangui (1674)
1.4 Qing Rulers Promoting and Preserving Manchu Identity (1635-1850)
1.5 Qing's 29 Regulations for Reorganizing Tibet (1792)

Qing China & Relations with Europe

1.6 Kangxi's Edict of Toleration (1692)
1.7 A Letter from King George III to Qianlong Emperor (1792)
1.8 Journal Entries During Lord Macartney's Journey to China (1793-1794)
1.9 Qianlong's Edict to King George III of England (1793)

Cases of Justice and Transgression in 18th Century Qing

1.10 Heshen's Twenty Crimes (1799)

1.11 Two Short Stories by Yuan Mei (c.1788)

CHAPTER 2 The Opium War

Trade in Early 19th Century Guangzhou

2.1 Description of European Factories in Guangzhou (1825-1844)

2.2 Deqing's Memorial on the Responsibilities of the Gonghang (1813)

2.3 Rules Regulating Foreign Trading in Guangzhou (1832-1835)

Opium in Early 19th Century Guangzhou

2.4 Chart #1: British Opium Imported to China

Chart #2: British Opium Imports versus Chinese Tea Exported to Britain

2.5 Huang Juezi on the Evil of Opium (1838)

2.6 The Opium Question Among Westerners in China (1836-1837)

Commissioner Lin Zexu and the Opium War

2.7 Edict from Commissioner Lin Zexu to the Foreigners (1839)

2.8 Charles Elliot's Public Notice to British Subjects (1839)

2.9 A Letter from Lin Zexu to Queen Victoria (1839)

Popular Responses & Diplomatic Resolutions to the Opium War

2.10 Guangdong Residents Denunciation of the British (1841)

2.11 British Parliamentary, Resolution on the "Suppression of the Opium Trade," (1843)

2.12 Treaty of Nanjing(1842)

CHAPTER 3 Mid-nineteenth Century Rebellions & Qing Responses

Taiping Rebellion

3.1 Taiping Anti-Manchu Proclamation (1852)

3.2 The Days When the Taipings Arrived at Nanjing (1853-54)

3.3 Taiping Ten Commandments (1852)

3.4 The Taiping Plan for Reorganizing Chinese Society (1853)

Muslim Rebellions

3.5 Panthay Rebellion Summons to Arms (1868)

3.6 Rocher's Description on the Great Muslim Rebellion of Yunnan (1873)

3.7 Rumors of a Tungan Massacre (1864)

3.8 Robert Shaw's Visit to Yarkand and Kashgar (1870)

Self Strengthening Movement

3.9 Feng Guifen on the Adoption of Western Learning (1860)

3.10 Zeng Guofan on Founding the Shanghai Arsenal (1868)

3.11 Li Hongzhang's Memorial Advocating Foreign Language Training (1863)

3.12 Woren's Memorial Objecting to Western Learning (1867)

CHAPTER 4 The Deepening Crisis of Imperialism in China (1856-1890)

The Second Opium War, the Treaty of Tianjin & the Burning of Yuanming Yuan

4.1 Harry Parkes Letter to Commissioner Ye Mingchen (1856)

4.2 Reflections of Lord Elgin on the Treaty of Tianjin (1858)

4.3 Treaty of Tianjin (1858)

4.4 A Narrative on the Burning of the Yuanming Yuan (1860)

4.5 A Narrative on the Looting & Prize Money at the Yuanming Yuan (1860)

Margary Affair & the Effects of Imperialism on China

4.6 Thomas Wade's Description and Protest of Margary Murder (1875)

4.7 Memorial Recounting Margary's Murder (1875)

4.8 Zhifu (Yantai) Convention (1876)

4.9 Zongli Yamen Circular on Unequal Treaties (1878)

Sino-Japanese War

4.10 China's Declaration of War (1894)

4.11 Japan's Declaration of War (1894)

4.12 The Treaty of Shimonoseki(1895)

4.13 John Hay's Open Door Note (1899)

CHAPTER 5 Seeking to Solve China's Ills

100 Days Reform Movement

5.1 Kang Youwei's Memorial on Institutional Reform (1898)

5.2 The Examination System as an Obstruction to Reform (1898)

5.3 Guangxu's Three Secret Decrees (1898)

Boxer Uprising

5.4 Malan Boxer Proclamations (1900)

5.5 Spirit Boxer Possession (1900)

5.6 Imperial Edict to "Declare War" (1900)

5.7 Imperial Edict to Slay Foreigners and Converts (1900)

5.8 Boxer Protocol (1901)

Post-Boxer Reform and the Push for Revolution

5.9 Qing Officials' Joint Proposals for Post-Boxer Reform (1901)

5.10 The Abolition of the Competitive Examinations in China (1905)

5.11 The Three People's Principles & the Future of the Chinese People (1906)

5.12 Wang Jingwei's We Want a Republic, Not a Constitutional Monarchy (1910)

CHAPTER 6 Qing Society, Culture and Peoples


6.1 Eight-Legged Essay Civil Service Examination (1818)

6.2 Description of Provincial Examination (c. 1845)

6.3 Pu Songling's "Three Genii" (c.1679)

Government, Daily Life & Culture

6.4 Description of a Chinese Family Life (1883)

6.5 Wang Zhuotang's Advice to the Troops (1884)

6.6 Legal Case Study: Fraudulent Sale of Land (1889)

6.7 Pu Songling's "The Boatmen of Laolong" (c.1679)


6.8 Lan Dingyuan on Female Education (1712)

6.9 Legal Case Study: Marriage

6.10 Shen Fu's "Wedded Bliss" (1808)

6.11 Qiu Jin's Address to Two Hundred Million Fellow Countrywomen(1904)



PART II - Timeline

CHAPTER 7 Revolution, Warlordism, & Intellectual Transformation

1911 Revolution

7.1 Demands of the National Assembly (1911)

7.2 First Provisional President's Proclamation (1912)

7.3 The Last Emperor's Abdication Edict (1912)

7.4 Sun Zhongshan's Reply to Yuan Shikai and Resignation (1912)

Warlord Era

7.5 Convention between Great Britain, China and Tibet: Simla (1914)

7.6 Zhang Xun's Reasons for Restoring the Monarchy (1917)

7.7 General Wu Peifu and Other Warlords (1924)

7.8 Remembering the Brutal and Corrupt Warlord Zhang Zongchang (1936)

May Fourth Movement

7.9 Japan's Twenty-One Demands (1915)

7.10 May Fourth Manifesto (1919)

7.11 Chen Duxiu's New Youth Manifesto (1919)

7.12 Lu Xun's Call to Arms (1922)

7.13 Hu Shi's Literary Revolution and Renaissance in China (1926)

CHAPTER 8 China in the Twenties: The Struggle for Unity

Origins of the CCP

8.1 First Manifesto of the CCP on the Current Situation (1922)

8.2 Mao Zedong's Investigation of Peasant Movement in Hunan (1927)

8.3 Land Law of the Jiangxi Soviet (1932)

8.4 Three Main Rules of Discipline and Six Points for Attention (1928)

Rise of the Guomindang

8.5 The Three Principles of the People (1921)

8.6 Manifesto on the Northern Expedition (1924)

8.7 Sun Zhongshan's Last Wills and Testament (1925)

8.8 "Qingdang" - Purge the Party of all Undesirable Elements (1927)

8.9 GMD's Purge the Party Slogans (1927)

8.10A Proclamation from the Headquarters of the 26th Army (1927)

Literary Currents in 1920s China

8.11 Yang Zhihua's Love and Socializing Between Men and Women (1922)

8.12 Ding Ling's Miss Sophie's Diary(1928)

8.13 Ba Jin's Family (1931)

CHAPTER 9 Fractured Visions: Manchuria, Nanjing, and Yan'an in the 1930s

Manchukuo: Japan in Manchuria

9.1 Japanese Assertion that China is not an Organized State (1932)

9.2 Principles for the Organization of the "Manchukuo" Government (1932)

9.3 Lytton Commission Report (1932)

9.4 Japanese Declaration and Withdrawal from League (1933)

The Nanjing Decade

9.5 Man and Wife of the Year (1937)

9.6 Emergency Law for the Suppression of Crimes Against the Safety of the Republic (1931)

9.7 New Life Movement (1934)

9.8 Zhang Xueliang's Xi'an Incident Speech (1936)

CCP: Long March to the United Front

9.9 Otto Braun on the Long March (1934-1935)

9.10 Mao Zedong's Statement on Chiang Kai-shek's Statement (1936)

9.11 Communist Co-Operation by the Central Committee of the CCP (1937)

CHAPTER 10 China at War (1937-1949)

Occupied China

10.1 Letter to the Japanese Embassy from Nanjing Safety Zone (1937)

10.2 Wang Jingwei's Telegraph to Jiang Jieshi Indicating His Collaboration with Japanese (1938)

10.3 [Occupied] China-Japan: Treaty Concerning Basic Relations-Annexed Protocol (1940)

10.4 Jiang Wen's Film Devils on the Doorstep(2000)

Life in Yan'an

10.5 Edgar Snow's Soviet Society (1937)

10.6 Ding Ling'sThoughts on March 8, Women's Day (1942)

10.7 Wang Shiwei's Wild Lily (1942)

The GMD's Road to Defeat & Taiwan

10.8 Eulogy of Li Gongpu (1946)

10.9 Li Zongren's the Disintegration of Our Military Forces

10.10 Republic of China's Declaration of the State of Siege in Taiwan (1949)

10.11 Progress on Formosa (1952)



PART III Timeline

CHAPTER 11 New China Finding a New Way

Shaping A New China: External & Internal Challenges

11.1 Proclamation of the People's Republic of China (1949)

11.2 Two Telegrams Relating to the Korean War (1950)

11.3 U.S. Imperialism is a Paper Tiger (1956)

11.4 Seventeen-Point Plan for the Peaceful Liberation of Tibet (1951)

A New Society in a New China – Farther, Further, Faster

11.5 The Marriage Law (1950)

11.6 Birth Control and Planned Families (1957)

11.7 Liu Shaoqi's Blue Print for the Great Leap Forward (1958)

11.8 Close Planting (1950s)

11.9 Once Again Our Country Sets New World Record of First-Crop Rice Harvest (1958)

11.10 Peng Dehuai's Letter to Chairman Mao (1959)

11.11 Tian Zhuangzhuang's Film Blue Kite (1992)

CHAPTER 12 China in the 60s

Pursuing New Loyalties

12.1 The Khrushchev Revisionists Are Betrayers of People's War (1965)

12.2 Lei Feng, a Fine Example of Chinese (1963)

12.3 What is Dazhai Spirit? (1969)

The Great Proletariat Revolution

12.4 Mao Zedong's My Big-Character Poster (1966)

12.5 The Sixteen Points: Decision of the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party Concerning the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution (1966)

12.6 Chairman Mao Joins a Million People to Celebrate the Great Cultural Revolution (1966)

12.7 The Road for China's School Graduates (1976)

12.8 Revolutionary Masses of Various Nationalities in Lhasa Thoroughly Smash the "Four Olds" (1966)

The Music, Opera and Plays - Creating a Culture Befitting a Revolution

12.9 Jiang Qing's Speech on the Revolution in Beijing Opera (1964)

12.10 Songs Play Their Part in Revolution (1965)

12.11 Revolutionary Song Lyrics

CHAPTER 13 China Reemerges (Political Trends in 1970s)

Shifting Alliances: The Two Chinas & the United States

13.1 Resolution on the Restoration of the Lawful Rights of the People's Republic of China in the United Nations (1971)

13.2 Jiang Jieshi Declaration to Compatriots Regarding the Republic of China's Withdrawal from the United Nations (1971)

13.3 Shanghai Communiqué (1972)

Who's Next: Choosing a Successor

13.4 Hua Guofeng's Two "Whatevers" Policy (1977)

13.5 Deng Xiaoping on the Four Modernizations (1978)

13.6 Wei Jingsheng's the Fifth Modernization: Democracy (1978)

13.7 Trial of Lin Biao and Jiang Qing Cliques (1980)

Life in the 1970s

13.8 University Entrance Examinations (1977)

13.9 Shen Rong's At Middle Age (1980)

13.10 Advertisement: Modern Clothes for Pants Created in Line with Government's Policy (1979)

CHAPTER 14 Life in China Under Deng Xiaoping (1980s and 1990s)


14.1 Building Socialism with a Specifically Chinese Character (1984)

14.2 Deng Xiaoping Talks On the Importance of Special Economic Zones (1992)

14.3 Panchen Lama's Speech to the Tibet Autonomous Region Standing Committee Meeting of the National People's Congress in Beijing (1987)


14.4 Transcript of May 18 Meeting between Premier Li Peng and Students (1989)

14.5 The Truth About the Beijing Turmoil (1989)

14.6 Songs and Tiananmen (1989)

Shifting Roles and Representation of Women in Policy, Cinema and Literature

14.7 One Couple, One Child (1980)

14.8 Over-the-limit of Births Guerrilla Unit - New Year's Eve Television Gala Comedy Sketch (1990)

14.9 Zhang Yimou's the Story of Qiuju (1992)

14.10 Zhang Jie's Love Must Not Be Forgotten

Chapter 15 China in the 21st Century

Political Currents

15.1 Jiang Zemin's Three Represents(2001)

15.2 Hu Jintao Proposes Scientific Outlook on Development for Tackling China's Immediate Woes, Challenges (2007)

15.3 Associated Press Interview with President Chen Shuibian (2007)

15.4 Interview with His Holiness the Dalai Lama (2007)

Contemporary Issues in Contemporary China

15.5 Open Letter Protesting Decision on "Freezing Point Weekly" (2006)

15.6 China Warns of Environmental "Catastrophe" from Three Gorges Dam (2007)

15.7 Jia Zhangke's Still Life (2006)

15.8 Fudan University Relaxes Sex Rules for Students (2005)

15.9 China Vows to Halt Growing Sex Ratio Imbalance (2007)

15.10 Wei Hui's Shanghai Baby (1999)





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