The Sources of Innovation / Edition 1

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It has long been assumed that new product innovations are typically developed by product manufacturers, an assumption that has inevitably had a major impact on innovation-related research and activities ranging from how firms organize their research and development to how governments measure innovation. In this synthesis of his seminal research, von Hippel challenges that basic assumption and demonstrates that innovation occurs in different places in different industries. Presenting a series of studies showing that end-users, material suppliers, and others are the typical sources of innovation in some fields, von Hippel explores why this variation in the "functional" sources of innovation occurs and how it might be predicted. He also proposes and tests some implications of replacing a manufacturer-as-innovator assumption with a view of the innovation process as predictably distributed across users, manufacturers, and suppliers. Innovation, he argues, will take place where there is greatest economic benefit to the innovator.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780195094220
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
  • Publication date: 9/22/1994
  • Edition description: Reprint
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 232
  • Product dimensions: 9.19 (w) x 6.13 (h) x 0.68 (d)

Table of Contents

1. Overview
The Functional Source of Innovation
Variations in the Source of Innovation
An Economic Explanation
Understanding the Distributed Innovation Process: Know-How Between Rivals
Managing the Distributed Innovation Process: Predicting and Shifting the Sources of Innovation
Implications for Innovation Research
Implications for Innovation Management
Implications for Innovation Policy
2. Users as Innovators
The Sources of Scientific Instrument Innovations
The Sources of Semiconductor and Printed Circuit Board Assembly Process Innovations
The User-Dominated Innovation Process
3. Variations in the Functional Source of Innovation
Users as Innovators: Pultrusion
Manufacturers as Innovators: The Tractor Shovel
Manufacturers as Innovators: Engineering Thermoplastics
Manufacturers as Innovators: Plastics Additives
Suppliers as Innovators
Supplier/Manufacturers as Innovators: Wire Termination Equipment
Suppliers as Innovators: Process Equipment Utilizing Industrial Gases and Thermoplastics
Additional Evidence on Nonmanufacturer Innovation
4. The Functional Source of Innovation as an Economic Phenomenon
The Hypothesis
Necessary Preconditions
Patents and Liscensing
Trade Secrets and Licsensing
5. Testing the Relationship Between the Functional Source of Innovation and Expected Innovation Rents
Five Empirical Tests
Pultrusion Process Machinery: Innovation and Innovation Rents
The Tractor Shovel: Innovation and Innovation Rents
Engineering Plastics: Innovation and Innovation Rents
Process Equipment Utilizing Industrial Gases and Thermoplastics: Innovation and Innovation Rents
Conclusions and Discussion
6. Cooperation Between Rivals: The Informal Trading of Technical Know-how
Case Study: Informal Trading of Proprietary Process Know-how Between U.S. Steel Minimill Producers
An Economic Explanation for Know-how Trading
Informal Know-how Trading in Context
7. Shifting the Functional Source of Innovation
Nature of the Test
The Test
Commercial Value of User-Developed Innovations
8. Predicting the Source of Innovation: Lead Users
Root of the Problem: Marketing Research Constrained by User Experience
Lead Users as a Solution
Testing the Method
9. Epilougue: Applications for Innovation Management
Identifying an Innovation Process Role
Organizing for an Innovation Process Role
The Distributed Innovation Process as a System
Appendix: Innovation Histories
Data set for scientific Instrument Innovations
Data set for Semiconductor Process Innovation
Data set for Pultrusion Process Machinery Innovations
Data set for The Tractor Shovel
Data set for Engineering Plastics
Data set for Plastics Additives

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