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This brief, two-volume primary source reader emphasizes the history of ideas. Based on the full-length Sources of the Western Tradition, 6/e, this text allows instructors to introduce a limited number of documents in Western Civilization and present an affordable option to students. While this reader works as an accompaniment to any Western Civilization course, it makes an ideal companion for Perry's Western Civilization, 7/e, or Western Civilization: A Brief History, 5/e.
I. The Ancient World 1. The Ancient Near East 1. Mesopotamian Protest Against Death Epic of Gilgamesh 2. Mesopotamian Concepts of Justice Code of Hammurabi 3. Divine Kingship in Egypt Hymns to the Pharaohs Guidelines for the Ruler 4. Religious Inspiration of Akhenaten Hymn to Aton 5. The Myth-Making Outlook of the Ancient Near East Personification of Natural Objects Enuma Elish: The Babylonian Genesis 6. God's Greatness and Human Dignity Psalm 8 7. Humaneness of Hebrew Law Exodus: The Ten Commandments Leviticus: Neighbor and Community Deuteronomy: Judges, Witnesses, and Justice 8. The Age of Classical Prophecy Amos and Isaiah: Social Justice Isaiah: Peace and Humanity 2. The Greeks 1. Homer: The Educator of Greece Homer: The Iliad 2. The Expansion of Reason Hippocrates: The Sacred Disease: The Separation of Medicine from Myth Thucydides: Method of Historical Inquiry Critias: Religion as a Human Invention 3. Greek Drama Sophocles: Antigone 4. Athenian Greatness Thucydides: The Funeral Oration of Pericles 5. The Status of Women in Classical Greek Society Euripides: Medea Aristophanes: Lysistrata The Peloponnesian War Thucydides: The Melian Dialogue 7. Socrates: The Rational Individual Plato: The Apology 8. Plato: The Philosopher-King Plato: The Republic 9. Aristotle: Science, Politics, and Ethics Aristotle: History of Animals, Politics, and Nicomachean Ethics 10. Hellenistic Culture: Universalism and Individualism Plutarch: Cultural Fusion Epicurus: Self-Sufficiency 3. The Romans 1. Rome's March to World Empire Polybius: The Roman Army Livy: The Second Punic War: The Threat from Hannibal 2. The Spread of Greek Philosophy to Rome Cicero: Advocate of Stoicism Cato the Elder: Hostility to Greek Philosophy 3. Roman Slavery Diodorus Siculus: Slaves: Torment and Revolt 4. Women in Republican Society Quintus Lucretius Vespillo: A Funeral Eulogy for a Roman Wife 5. The Decline of the Republic Plutarch: Tiberius Gracchus Cicero: Justifying Caesar's Assassination Sallust: Moral Deterioration 6. The Roman Peace Aelius Aristides: The Roman Oration: The Blessings of the Pax Romana Tacitus: The Other Side of the Pax Romana 7. Imperial Culture Virgil: The Aeneid Juvenal: The Satires 8. Roman Law Justinian: Corpus Iurius Civilis 9. The Demise of Rome Salvian: Political and Social Injustice Jerome: The Fate of Rome Pope Gregory I: The End of Roman Glory 4. Early Christianity 1. The Teachings of Jesus The Gospel According to Saint Mark The Gospel According to Saint Matthew 2. Christianity and Greco-Roman Learning Tertullian: What Has Jerusalem to Do with Athens? Clement of Alexandria: In Defense of Greek Learning 3. Monastic Life Saint Jerome: The Agony of Solitude in the Desert Saint Benedict of Nursia: The Benedictine Rule 4. Christian Way of Life Saint Benedict of Nursia: The Virtuous Christian 5. Christian Demonization of Jews Saint John Chrysostom: Discourses Against Judaizing Christians 6. The Christian World-View St. Augustine: The City of God II. The Middle Ages 5. The Early Middle Ages 1. The Byzantine Cultural Achievement Theophylact Simocattes: The Value of Reason and History 2. Islam Muhammed: The Koran 3. Islam and Greek Learning Avicenna: Love and Learning 4. Converting the Germanic Peoples to Christianity Bede: History of the English Church and People Einhard: Forcible Conversion Under Charlemagne 5. The Carolingian Renaissance Einhard: Charlemagne's Appreciation of Learning Charlemagne: An Injunction to Monasteries to Cultivate Letters 6. The Feudal Lord: Vassal and Warrior Galbert of Bruges: Commendation and the Oath of Fealty Fulbert, Bishop of Chartres: Obligations of Lords and Vassals 6. The High and Late Middle Ages 1. The Revival of Trade and the Growth of Towns How to Succeed in Business 2. Theological Basis for Papal Power Pope Gregory VII: The Second Letter to Bishop Herman of Metz and the Dictatus Papae 3. The First Crusade Robert the Monk: Appeal of Urban II to the Franks 4. Religious Dissent Emperor Frederick II: Heretics: Enemies of God and Humanity 5. Medieval Learning: Synthesis of Reason and Christian Faith Saint Thomas Aquinas: Summa Theologica 6. Jews in the Middle Ages Albert of Aix-la-Chapelle: Massacre of the Jews of Mainz The Libel of Ritual Murder Maimonides: Jewish Learning 7. Troubadour Love Songs Love as Joyous, Painful, Humorous 8. The Status of Women in Medieval Society Christine de Pisan: The City of Ladies 9. The Fourteenth Century: An Age of Adversity Jean de Venette: The Black Death 10. The Medieval World-View Lothario dei Segni (Pope Innocent III): On the Misery of the Human Condition The Vanity of This World Dante Alighieri: The Divine Comedy III. Early Modern Europe 7. The Renaissance and Reformation 1. The Humanists' Fascination with Antiquity Petrarch: The Father of Humanism Leonardo Bruni: Study of Greek Literature and a Humanist Educational Program 2. Human Dignity Pico della Mirandola: Oration on the Dignity of Man 3. Break with Medieval Political Theory Niccolò Machiavelli: The Prince 4. The Ideal Gentleman Baldassare Castiglione: The Book of the Courtier 5. The Lutheran Reformation Martin Luther: On Papal Power, Justification by Faith, the Interpretation of the Bible, and the Nature of the Clergy Ulrich von Hutten: Resentment of Rome 6. The Calvinist Reformation John Calvin: The Institutes, Ecclesiastical Ordinances, and the Obedience Owed Rulers 7. The Catholic Response to Protestantism Canons and Decrees of the Council of Trent 8. Religious Persecution Chronicle of King Francis I: Burning of Protestants in Paris The Persecution of Anabaptists: The Examination of Elizabeth Dirks 8. Early Modern Society and Politics 1. Toward the Modern Economy: The Example of Holland William Carr: The Dutch East India Company 2. The Atlantic Slave Trade Seventeenth-Century Slave Traders: Buying and Transporting Africans Malachy Postlethwayt: Slavery Defended John Wesley: Thoughts Upon Slavery 3. The Court of Louis XIV Duc de Saint-Simon: An Assessment of Louis XIV 4. Justification of Absolute Monarchy James I: "...Kings Are God's Lieutenants Upon Earth..." Thomas Hobbes: Leviathan 5. The Triumph of Constitutional Monarchy in England: The Glorious Revolution The English Declaration of Rights 8. Intellectual Revolutions 1. Expanding the New Astronomy Galileo Galilei: The Starry Messenger Galileo Galilei: Letter to the Grand Duchess Christina and Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems—Ptolemaic and Copernican 2. The Autonomy of the Mind Rene Descartes: Discourse on Method 3. The Mechanical Universe Isaac Newton: Principia Mathematica 4. Political Liberty John Locke: Second Treatise on Government Thomas Jefferson: Declaration of Independence 5. Attack on Religion Voltaire: A Plea for Tolerance and Reason Thomas Paine: The Age of Reason 6. Compendium of Knowledge Denis Diderot: Encyclopedia 7. Humanitarianism Caesare Beccaria: On Crime and Punishments Denis Diderot: Encyclopedia: "Men and Their Liberty Are Not Objects of Commerce..." 8. Literature as Satire: Critiques of European Society Denis Diderot: Supplement to the Voyage of Bouganville