Space Psychology and Psychiatry

Space Psychology and Psychiatry

by Nick Kanas, N. Kanas, Dietrich Manzey
     
 

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ISBN-10: 1402013418

ISBN-13: 9781402013416

Pub. Date: 09/28/2003

Publisher: Microcosm Press

This 2nd Edition contains 28% more text, which been revised and updated; includes several recent studies involving astronauts and cosmonauts; and discusses the new field of space tourism. It deals with psychological, psychiatric, and psychosocial issues that affect people who live and work in space. Unlike other books that focus on anecdotal reports and ground-based

Overview

This 2nd Edition contains 28% more text, which been revised and updated; includes several recent studies involving astronauts and cosmonauts; and discusses the new field of space tourism. It deals with psychological, psychiatric, and psychosocial issues that affect people who live and work in space. Unlike other books that focus on anecdotal reports and ground-based simulation studies, this book emphasizes the findings from psychological research conducted during actual space missions. Both authors have been active in such research. What is presented in this readable text has previously been found only in scientific journal articles. Topics that are discussed include: behavioral adaptation to space; human performance and cognitive effects; crewmember interactions; psychiatric responses; psychological counter-measures related to habitability factors, work-design, selection, training, and in-flight monitoring and support; and the impact of expeditionary missions to Mars and beyond.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9781402013416
Publisher:
Microcosm Press
Publication date:
09/28/2003
Series:
Space Technology Library
Pages:
210
Product dimensions:
6.40(w) x 9.50(h) x 0.70(d)

Table of Contents

Preface (1st Edition) xi

Preface (2nd Edition) xv

1 Introduction 1

1.1 Humans in space 1

1.2 Stressors and stress in space 1

1.3 Sources of information 3

1.3.1 Anecdotal reports 3

1.3.2 Space analog and simulation studies 3

1.3.2.1 Settings 3

1.3.2.2 Relevance to actual space missions 4

1.3.3 Research in space 5

1.4 Basic assumptions 6

1.4.1 Human performance 6

1.4.2 Crew heterogeneity 6

1.4.3 Cultural differences 7

1.4.4 Time effects 7

1.4.5 Crew-ground relationship 8

1.4.6 Psychological countermeasures 8

1.5 Summary 9

References 10

2 Basic Issues Of Human Adaptation to Space Flight 15

2.1 Space as an extreme environment 15

2.2 Issues of physiological adaptation 16

2.2.1 Cardiovascular system 17

2.2.2 Vestibular and sensory-motor system 19

2.2.3 Musculo-skeletal system 23

2.2.4 Physiological deconditioning and countermeasures 24

2.3 Sleep and circadian rhythms 27

2.3.1 Empirical findings from space: phenomenology of sleep disturbances 27

2.3.2 Empirical findings from space: sleep disturbances and circadian rhythms 29

2.3.3 Operational significance 31

2.4 Psychological adaptation to long-duration space flight: general characteristics 34

2.4.1 Stages of adaptation over time 34

2.4.2 Empirical findings from ground research: stages of adaptation in analog environments and isolation studies 35

2.4.3 Empirical findings from space: stages of psychological adaptation during space missions 36

2.5 Summary 39

References 40

3 Human Performance 49

3.1 Basic issues 49

3.2 Possible origins of cognitive performance decrements in space 50

3.2.1 Effects of microgravity on specific brain mechanisms50

3.2.2 Effects of stress on mental performance 52

3.3 Empirical findings from space: cognitive neuroscience research 55

3.3.1 Spatial orientation 55

3.3.2 Spatial perception and representation 58

3.3.3 Mental rotation and object recognition 59

3.3.4 Mass discrimination 60

3.3.5 Aimed voluntary movements 61

3.4 Empirical findings from space: human performance monitoring 63

3.4.1 Results of performance monitoring during short-duration space flight 64

3.4.2 Results of performance monitoring during long-duration space missions 71

3.4.3 Impairments of tracking and dual-task performance in space: effects of microgravity, stress, or both? 74

3.5 Complex cognitive and perceptual-motor skills 78

3.5.1 Ground-based studies 78

3.5.2 Empirical findings from space: effects of stressors on complex cognitive and perceptual-motor skills 79

3.6 Summary 80

References 81

4 Human Interactions 89

4.1 Interpersonal issues 89

4.2 Crew heterogeneity 90

4.2.1 Gender 91

4.2.2 Cultural differences 93

4.2.3 Career motivation and experiences 95

4.2.4 Personality 96

4.2.5 Problems related to crew heterogeneity 97

4.3 Crew cohesion 98

4.3.1 Time effects and mission stage 98

4.3.2 Problems related to changes in cohesion 99

4.4 Language and dialect variations 100

4.4.1 Native language versus space terminology 100

4.4.2 Problems related to language and dialect variations 101

4.5 Crew size 102

4.5.1 The impact of size in small groups 102

4.5.2 Problems related to crew size 102

4.6 Leadership roles 103

4.6.1 Task versus supportive roles 103

4.6.2 Problems related to leadership roles 104

4.7 Crew-ground interactions 105

4.7.1 Ingroup versus outgroup issues 105

4.7.2 Displacement 105

4.7.3 Problems related to crew-ground interactions 106

4.8 Empirical findings from space: ISS operations challenges as seen by junior and senior mission control personnel 106

4.8.1 Procedures 107

4.8.2 Results 107

4.8.3 Conclusions 107

4.9 Empirical findings from space: human interactions during the Shuttle/Mir program 108

4.9.1 Procedures 108

4.9.2 Results 110

4.10 Empirical findings from space: human interactions during the International Space Station (ISS) program 113

4.10.1 Procedures 113

4.10.2 Results 115

4.10.3 Culture and Language Questionnaire findings 118

4.11 Empirical findings from space: conclusions from the Shuttle/Mir and International Space Station human interactions studies 119

4.11.1 Time effects 119

4.11.2 Displacement 120

4.11.3 National and organizational culture 121

4.11.4 Cultural and language experiences and attitudes 122

4.11.5 Leadership roles 122

4.11.6 Critical incidents 123

4.11.7 Implications for future space missions 123

4.12 Empirical findings from space: cultural challenges facing ISS personnel 124

4.12.1 Procedures 124

4.12.2 Results 124

4.12.3 Conclusions 125

4.13 Summary 125

References 127

5 Psychiatric Issues 135

5.1 Behavioral health and salutogenesis 135

5.2 Empirical findings from space: positive psychological aspects of space flight 136

5.2.1 Procedures 136

5.2.2 Results 136

5.2.3 Conclusions 138

5.3 Psychiatric problems in space 139

5.3.1 Adjustment disorders 140

5.3.2 Somatoform disorders 140

5.3.3 Mood and thought disorders 141

5.3.4 Post-mission effects: personality changes and marital problems 144

5.4 Asthenia 144

5.4.1 A common space syndrome? 144

5.4.1.1 Cultural issues 144

5.4.1.2 Russian views of asthenia in space 146

5.4.2 Empirical findings from space: asthenia and the Shuttle/Mir program 147

5.4.2.1 Procedures 147

5.4.2.2 Results 148

5.4.2.3 Conclusions 148

5.4.3 Empirical findings from space: cultural differences in patterns of mood states on-orbit 149

5.5 Treatment considerations 150

5.5.1 Counseling and psychotherapy 150

5.5.2 Psychoactive medications 151

5.6 Psychiatric research in space 153

5.7 Summary 154

References 154

6 Psychological Countermeasures 161

6.1 General aspects 161

6.2 Habitability factors 162

6.3 Work design issues 167

6.4 Selection and crew composition 169

6.4.1 General issues 169

6.4.2 Select-out: avoiding psychopathology 170

6.4.3 Select-in: the "right stuff" 171

6.4.4 Crew composition: the problem of interpersonal compatibility 175

6.5 Training 179

6.5.1 Who should be trained? 179

6.5.2 Towards a competency model for astronauts 180

6.5.3 Kinds of training 185

6.5.3.1 Briefings, lectures, and workshops 185

6.5.3.2 Field exercises 186

6.5.3.3 Crew-oriented sensitivity training and team-building 186

6.6 Crew monitoring 188

6.6.1 Remote monitoring from Earth 189

6.6.2 Empirical findings from space: monitoring stress through voice analysis 190

6.6.3 On-board monitoring 191

6.7 In-flight support 193

6.7.1 Supportive measures for preventing feelings of monotony, boredom, and isolation 194

6.7.2 Maintaining contact with family and friends 195

6.7.3 Private psychological conferences 196

6.7.4 Support of families on Earth 197

6.8 Post-flight readjustment support 197

6.8.1 Individual issues 198

6.8.2 Family issues 198

6.9 Summary 199

References 200

7 Future Challenges 211

7.1 Space tourism 211

7.2 Going beyond the Earth's orbit 213

7.3 Future human missions to the Moon and Mars 214

7.3.1 Missions to the Moon and the establishment of a lunar base 214

7.3.2 Exploratory missions to Mars 215

7.4 Applicability of current psychological knowledge to space missions beyond the Earth's orbit 216

7.5 Empirical findings from space: cosmonaut survey regarding a mission to Mars 219

7.5.1 Goals and Procedures 219

7.5.2 Results 219

7.5.3 Conclusions 220

7.6 Human missions to Mars: new psychological challenges 220

7.6.1 Individual adaptation and human performance 220

7.6.2 Interpersonal issues 223

7.6.3 Psychiatric issues 225

7.6.4 Psychological countermeasures 226

7.6.5 The Earth-out-of-view phenomenon 228

7.7 Research directions 229

7.8 Summary 231

References 232

Index 237

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