Spacecraft Structures and Mechanisms: From Concept to Launch / Edition 1

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Overview

Spacecraft Structures and Mechanisms describes the integral process of developing cost-effective, reliable structures and mechanical products for space programs. Processes are defined, methods are described and examples are given. It has been written by 24 engineers in the space industry, who cover the themes of (1) ensuring a successful mission, and (2) reducing total cost through good designs and intelligent risk management. Topics include: Introduction and requirements (development process, requirements documentation, requirements definition, space mission environments); Analysis (statics, dynamics and load analysis, fatigue and fracture mechanics, mechanics of materials, strength analysis, heat transfer and thermal effects); Verification and quality assurance (verification planning, structural, mechanical and environmental testing, quality assurance and configuration control, compliance documentation, structural reliability analysis, verification criteria - factors of safety, margins of safety, fracture control, test options); Design (spacecraft configuration development, finite element analysis, mechanism development, designing for producibility, structural design, materials, designing to control loads, load cycles, sensitivity analysis); Final verification (model correlation, risk management, launch readiness reviews).
For system engineers, mechanical designers, stress analysts, dynamics and load analysts, technical leads, program managers.

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Editorial Reviews

Booknews
Describes the integrated process of developing cost-effective, reliable structures and mechanical products for space programs. The volume defines processes, describes methods, and gives examples. Written by 24 space-industry engineers, its themes are ensuring a successful mission and reducing total cost through good designs and intelligent risk management. Topics include: introduction and requirements; analysis; verification and quality assurance; design; and final verification. For system engineers, mechanical designers, stress analysts, dynamics and load analysts, technical leads, and program managers. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (booknews.com)
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780792334767
  • Publisher: Springer Netherlands
  • Publication date: 5/31/1995
  • Series: Space Technology Library Series , #4
  • Edition description: 1995
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 864

Table of Contents

Contributing Authors ix

Preface xi

Part I Introduction

1 Developing Spacecraft Structures and Mechanisms 1

1.1 Key Considerations for Spacecraft Structures and Mechanisms 6

1.2 The Process of Developing Spacecraft Structures and Mechanisms 12

1.3 The Iterative Verification of Structural Requirements 16

1.4 Keys to High Quality and Reduced Cost 20

Part II Requirements

2 Developing Mechanical Requirements and Conceptual Designs 23

2.1 Characterizing Key Requirements 26

2.2 Evaluating System Concepts 29

2.3 Identifying Areas of High Risk 32

2.4 Early Roles for the Mechanical Design Team 34

2.5 Summary: Arriving at the Best Concept 35

3 Space Mission Environments 37

3.1 Sources of Structural Loading 38

3.2 Ground Environments 56

3.3 The Space Environment for Earth-orbiting Satellites 60

Part III Analysis

4 Structural Mechanics 77

4.1 Statics 79

4.2 Dynamics 83

4.3 Mass Properties 90

5 Loads Analysis for Single-Degree-of-Freedom Systems 95

5.1 Introduction to Forcing Functions 96

5.2 Time-Domain Analysis for an Undamped System 98

5.3 Analysis for a Damped System 103

5.4 Base-Drive Analysis 108

5.5 Frequency-Domain Solutions 112

5.6 Loads Analysis for Base-Driven Random Vibration 118

6 Mechanics of Materials 125

6.1 Stress and Strain 126

6.2 Bending of Beams 131

6.3 Beam Deflections 143

6.4 Two-Axis Bending 148

6.5 Torsion 156

6.6 Nonlinear Effects of Axial Load on Bending Moment 170

6.7 Flat Plates 171

6.8 Pressure Vessels 172

6.9 Statically Indeterminate Structures 175

7 Flexible-Body Dynamics 183

7.1 Introduction to Modes of Vibration 184

7.2 Discrete-Mass Representations 188

7.3 Modal Strain Energy and Kinetic Energy 199

7.4 Static Reduction and Modal Coupling 202

7.5 Time-Domain Loads Analysis for Multiple Response Modes 205

7.6 Dynamic Analysis for Continuous-Mass Representations 210

7.7 Vibroacoustic Response Analysis 215

8 Strength Analysis 227

8.1 Uniaxial Stress 231

8.2 Interaction of Stresses 239

8.3 Failure Modes for Mechanically Fastened Joints 245

8.4 Compression Members with Compact, Stable Cross Sections 260

8.5 Buckling of Plates, Shells, and Members with Thin Walls 268

9 Structural Life Analysis 283

9.1 Fatigue 284

9.2 Fracture Mechanics 287

10 Thermal Effects 295

10.1 Thermal Analysis 296

10.2 Thermal Stresses and Strains 302

Part IV Verification and Quality Assurance

11 Developing Confidence in Mechanical Designs and Products 309

11.1 Verifying Mechanical Requirements 312

11.2 Tests for Verifying Mechanical Requirements 319

11.3 Validating Critical Analyses 325

11.4 The Sequence of Testing 328

11.5 Developing a Mechanical Verification Plan 328

11.6 Documenting Compliance 332

11.7 Gaining Confidence by Making Designs Robust 336

12 Verification Criteria 339

12.1 Structural Reliability 341

12.2 Establishing Appropriate Loads for Design 352

12.3 Strength Criteria 364

12.4 Criteria for Verifying Structural Life 386

12.5 Establishing Environments for Dynamic Tests 397

12.6 Criteria for Design and Test Temperatures 411

12.7 Summary 413

13 Ensuring Quality 417

13.1 Developing Manufacturing Processes 417

13.2 Controlling Parts, Materials, and Processes 425

13.3 Responding to Discrepancies and Damage 429

13.4 Managing and Controlling the Configuration 434

13.5 Analyzing Failures 440

Part V Design

14 Configuring a Spacecraft 449

14.1 Introduction to the Elements of a Spacecraft 449

14.2 The Process of Configuring a Spacecraft 458

14.3 Packaging and System Integration 463

14.4 FireSat: an Example for Configuration Development 482

14.5 Mass Properties 502

15 Conceptual Design of Structures 507

15.1 Deriving Structural Requirements from the Conceptual Configuration 508

15.2 Trade Studies for Structural Design 518

15.3 Types of Structures and Forms of Construction 522

15.4 Materials 525

15.5 Methods of Attachment 543

15.6 Arranging and Sizing Structural Members 550

16 Idealizing and Modeling Structures 571

16.1 Idealizing Structures 572

16.2 Introduction to Finite-Element Analysis 574

16.3 Effective Finite-Element Analysis 581

16.4 Quality Assurance for Finite-Element Analysis 591

17 Controlling Structural Responses 595

17.1 Introduction to Loads Control 595

17.2 Adding Passive Damping 602

17.3 Placing Components 620

17.4 Isolating Frequencies 629

17.5 Controlling the Forcing Function 636

18 Design Loads Cycles 649

18.1 Introduction to Loads Cycles 650

18.2 Calculating Loads in a Loads Cycle 652

18.3 Integrating the Loads-Cycle Process 656

19 Developing Mechanisms 665

19.1 Introduction to Space-Mission Mechanisms 666

19.2 The Mechanism Development Process 668

19.3 Developing a Mechanism Specification 675

19.4 Selecting the Mechanism Concept 682

19.5 Mechanism Components 684

19.6 Mechanism Analysis 719

19.7 Developing Reliable Mechanisms 721

Part VI Final Verification

20 Designing for Producibility 735

20.1 What is Producibility, and How Do We Achieve It? 736

20.2 Fabrication Processes 740

20.3 Dimensions and Tolerances 757

21 Final Verification 767

21.1 Test-Correlating the Loads-Analysis Math Model 769

21.2 The Verification Loads Cycle 774

21.3 The Decision to Launch: Weighing Our Options 781

Appendixes

A Units and Conversion Factors 783

B Effective Verification Documentation 786

C Structural Reliability Analysis 797

D Standard Normal Probability Table 803

E Preparing for and Documenting Tests 807

F Spacecraft Integration and Test 819

G Estimating Structural Damping 823

Index 827

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