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Spanish Grammar For Dummies is a logical extension and complement to the successful language learning books, Spanish For Dummies and 500 Spanish Verb For Dummies. In plain English, it teaches you the grammatical rules of the Spanish language, including parts of speech, sentence construction, pronouns, adjectives, punctuation, stress and verb tenses, and moods. Throughout the book, you get plenty of ...
Spanish Grammar For Dummies is a logical extension and complement to the successful language learning books, Spanish For Dummies and 500 Spanish Verb For Dummies. In plain English, it teaches you the grammatical rules of the Spanish language, including parts of speech, sentence construction, pronouns, adjectives, punctuation, stress and verb tenses, and moods. Throughout the book, you get plenty of practice opportunities to help you on your goal of mastering Spanish grammar.
Whether you're a student studying Spanish or a professional looking to get ahead of the pack by learning a second language, Spanish Grammar For Dummies is your hands-on guide to quickly and painlessly master the written aspect of this popular language.
Part I: Starting with the Basics 7
Chapter 1: Spanish Grammar in a Nutshell 9
Chapter 2: Sounding Out Spanish Words 19
Chapter 3: Naming Things with Nouns and Articles 29
Chapter 4: Describing Stuff with Adjectives 47
Chapter 5: Dealing with Numbers, Dates, and Time 67
Part II: Constructing Simple Sentences and Asking Questions 81
Chapter 6: Writing in the Present Tense 83
Chapter 7: Expressing a State of Being with Ser and Estar 107
Chapter 8: Talking about Action in Progress with the Present Progressive 121
Chapter 9: Replacing Nouns with Pronouns 133
Chapter 10: Expressing Likes and Dislikes 149
Chapter 11: Handling Questions and Exclamations 163
Part III: Beefing Up Your Sentences with More Description 179
Chapter 12: Describing Action with Adverbs 181
Chapter 13: Modifying Meaning with Prepositions 195
Chapter 14: Acting on Oneself with the Reflexive 213
Chapter 15: Using the Passive Voice 227
Chapter 16: It’s All Relative: Making Comparisons 237
Chapter 17: Just Say "No": Negative Words and Expressions 249
Part IV: Talking about the Past or Future 261
Chapter 18: Looking Back with the Preterit 263
Chapter 19: Describing Ongoing Past Action with the Imperfect 281
Chapter 20: Projecting Forward with the Future Tense 295
Chapter 21: Forming Compound Tenses with the Helping Verb Haber 305
Part V: Expressing Conditions and Giving Commands 319
Chapter 22: Wondering "What If" with the Conditional Mood 321
Chapter 23: Taking Command with the Imperative Mood 329
Part VI: The Part of Tens 345
Chapter 24: Ten Common Spanish Grammar Mistakes (And How to Avoid Them) 347
Chapter 25: Ten Useful Spanish Idioms 353
Cheat Sheet for Spanish Grammar For Dummies
From Spanish Grammar For Dummies by Cecie Kraynak
Spanish grammar covers a lot of territory. To start writing grammatically correct sentences in the present tense, you need to know about masculine and feminine nouns, adjectives, and regular verbs in Spanish
Telling a Masculine Noun from a Feminine Noun in Spanish
In Spanish grammar, you need to be able to distinguish a noun's gender (either masculine or feminine) so that you can use the correct gender of any article or adjective that describes it. You can follow some simple guidelines to help you identify a Spanish noun's gender.
Masculine nouns include the following:
• Most nouns that end in -o, such as año (year)
• Nouns that identify males, such as tío (uncle)
• Nouns that end in -aje or -ambre, such as equipaje (luggage) and alambre (wire)
• Certain nouns that end in -or or -án, such as amor (love) and champán (champagne)
• Nouns that end in -ama, -ema, -oma, -ma, or -ía, such as programa (program) and dilema (dilemma)
• Days of the week and months of the year
• Colors used as nouns
• Names of languages, rivers, seas, and oceans
• Compound nouns that consist of noun-verb combinations and that usually end in -s, such as abrelatas (can opener)
Feminine nouns include the following:
• Most nouns that end in -a, such as ensalada (salad)
• Nouns that identify females, such as hija (daughter)
• Nouns that end in -dad or -tad, such as ciudad (city) and libertad (liberty)
• Nouns that end in -ie, -eza, -sis, or -itis, such as especie (species), riqueza (richness), tesis (thesis), and sinusitis (sinusitis)
• Nouns that end in -ción, -sión, -tud, or -umbre, such as canción (song) and misión (mission)
Making Spanish Adjectives Agree with the Nouns They Modify
In Spanish grammar, adjectives have to agree with the nouns they modify in both gender and number, no matter what:
• Gender: If a noun is feminine, like la muchacha (the girl), the adjective must be feminine, too. For example, to talk about a tall girl, you'd say la muchacha alta (the tall girl). If the girl has a brother who's also tall, you'd say el muchacho alto (the tall boy).
• Number: If a noun is plural, the adjective must also be plural. For example, to describe a group of tall girls, you'd say las muchachas altas. To describe a group of tall boys, you'd say los muchachos altos. Similarly, if a noun is singular, the adjective must be singular, too (see the preceding bullet for examples).
Following are some general rules about making adjectives agree with the nouns they modify:
• Like nouns, most adjectives follow the general rule that masculine adjectives end in -o and pluralize with -s and feminine adjectives end in -a and pluralize with -s.
• Adjectives that end in a consonant, -e, or -ista usually don't have masculine and feminine forms, but they do have singular and plural forms. To make an adjective that ends in -e or -ista plural, simply add -s. To make an adjective that ends in a consonant plural, add -es.
• With some adjectives that end in -dor, -ón, or -án, you add -a to form the feminine, -es to form the masculine plural, and -as to form the feminine plural.
Here are a few more examples of adjectives that agree with the nouns they modify in both gender and number:
• un examen difícil (a difficult exam)
• una chica inteligente (a smart girl)
• unos peces caros (some expensive fish)
• unas reglas importantes (some important rules)
Conjugating Regular Spanish Verbs in the Present Tense
In Spanish grammar, as in English, you conjugate verbs to reflect the tense (when the action occurred, is occurring, or will occur) and to agree with the subject in person and number. To conjugate regular Spanish verbs ending in -ar, -er, or -ir in the present tense, you drop the ending and add endings to specify the subject (in person and number) that's performing the action. Here's what those endings look like:
|-ar||-o, -as, -a,||-amos,||-áis,||-an|
|-er||-o, -es, -e,||-emos,||-éis,||-en|
|-ir||-o, -es, -e,||-imos,||-ís,||-en|
Posted February 19, 2013
The Best Learning spanish book Ever! When i read the first page of this book i knew i was in for a journey and then i was right a helpful journey of the spanish language.
I would recommend this to everyone! :D
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Posted August 30, 2013