Spare Parts: Organ Replacement in American Society

Overview

Spare Parts examines major developments in the field of organ replacement that occurred in the United States over the course of the 1980s and the beginning of the 1990s. It focuses upon significant medical and social changes in the transplantation of human organs and on the development and clinical testing of the Jarvik-7 artificial heart, with special emphasis on how these biomedical events were related to the political, economic, and social climate of American society.

Part I ...

See more details below
Paperback (Reprint)
$29.95
BN.com price
Other sellers (Paperback)
  • All (11) from $20.97   
  • New (7) from $20.97   
  • Used (4) from $20.97   
Sending request ...

Overview

Spare Parts examines major developments in the field of organ replacement that occurred in the United States over the course of the 1980s and the beginning of the 1990s. It focuses upon significant medical and social changes in the transplantation of human organs and on the development and clinical testing of the Jarvik-7 artificial heart, with special emphasis on how these biomedical events were related to the political, economic, and social climate of American society.

Part I examines the important biomedical advances and events in organ transplantation and their social and cultural concomitants. In Part II, the focus shifts to the story of the rise and fall of the Jarvik-7 artificial heart in the United States, its relation to American social institutions and cultural patterns, and its bearing on social control issues associated with therapeutic innovation and the patient-oriented clinical research it entails. Part III is a personal conclusion, which explains why the authors left the field of organ transplantation after so many years.

Spare Parts is written in a narrative, ethnographic style, with thickly descriptive, verbatim, and atmospheric detail. The primary data it is based upon includes qualitative materials, collected via participant observation, interviews in a variety of medical milieu, and content analysis of medical journals, newspapers, and magazine articles, and a number of television transcripts. The new introduction provides an overview of some of the recent developments in transplantation and also underscores how tenacious many of the patterns associated with organ replacement have been. Spare Parts should be read by all medical professionals, sociologists, and historians.

Read More Show Less

Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher

“The issue of organ transplantation has attracted growing interest from sociologists and anthropologists over the last decade. As high medical technology, organ transplantation raises serious philosophical, ethical, and sociological problems. . . . [This] is the most comprehensive book on organ transplantation published so far. . . . Spare Parts is very well written, and the material is well organized and presented.”

—Orit Ben-David, Contemporary Sociology

Spare Parts: Organ Replacement in American Society. . . considers medical history and new major developments in the field of organ replacement. . . . College-level readers will appreciate the survey of biomedical advances, social and cultural changes in the perception of organ transplantation, and the history of the Jarvik-7 artificial heart in the U.S. Descriptions are based on primary data gained from interviews, participant observation, and analysis of medical journals and newspapers alike, with a new introduction reviewing some recent developments in the field.”

The Health/Medicine Shelf

Spare Parts is a historical, sociological, and moral essay on organ replacement in American society, culminating 40 years of research into the biomedical and sociocultural significance of kidney dialysis. . . and transplantation. . . . But this is more than just an academic study. Through its careful, grounded analysis, Spare Parts is a powerful indictment of recent trends in American biomedicine and American culture.”

—Gail Henderson, American Journal of Sociology

“Fox and Swazey are the most knowledgeable and experienced analysts of the development of organ transplantation. Their previous study, The Courage to Fail, set the standard for studies of the social, ethical, and policy implications of medical research. This book continues their study of organ transplantation by concentrating on developments in the 1980s and early 1990s.”

—George J. Annas, Annals of Internal Medicine

“In some ways a continuation of their earlier work (The Courage to Fail, 1974), Renée Fox and Judith Swazey’s Spare Parts: Organ Replacement in American Society offers a close, critical examination of the contemporary American project of organ transplantation. They undertake this examination in two parts, dividing their discussion into a review of biomedical advances in transplantation in the 1980s and an in-depth analysis of the rise and fall of the artificial heart that draws on their sojourn as participant-observers of the first human trials of the device at the University of Utah and Humana Hospital Audubon, St. Louis. . . . In addition to extensive endnotes for each chapter, Fox and Swazey include a lengthy biography of sources on organ transplantation in particular and bioethics in general.”

—Bette-Jane Crigger, Medical Anthropology Quarterly

“In Spare Parts, Renee Fox and Judith Swazey have updated us on their continued and lifelong study of the ethical, moral, social, and cultural processes of therapeutic innovation. . . . Their 'research physicians' have adapted to market forces as the field of transplantation exploded from the experimental kidney transplant. . . to broad acceptance of transplantation of the heart, liver, heart and lung, and more experimental segmented organ transplants, in efforts to save or prolong life. . . . Much can be learned from the experiences reported by Fox and Swazey in Spare Parts and applied to AIDS and other new fields of endeavor in this decade.”

—Robert E. McCabe, Journal of the American Medical Association

“A collaboration of nearly a quarter century between medical sociologist Renée Fox and biologist and historian of medicine Judith Swazey has produced the second of two major works on organ transplantation in America. . . . The text under review brings the earlier work up to date by charting the extraordinary developments of the 1980s, including an astonishing proliferation of organs and organ groups considered transplantable and a significant shift in the medical discourse on transplantation from 'gift giving' to commodities in short supply. . . . The authors’ long engagement in the field provides a unique perspective on the medical and sociocultural issues attending the expansion of organ replacements.”

—Donald Joralemon, Medical Anthropology Quarterly

“Transplantation of hearts, livers, and kidneys is now accepted therapy for a variety of end-stage organ diseases. . . . Despite its successes, many people remain deeply troubled by organ transplantation. . . . It is refreshing to see a book that cuts through the perfervid media attention that often surrounds organ transplantation and challenges us to assess the practice more realistically. . . . Fox and Swazey provide valuable insights into the abuses that can occur in the process of technological innovation and identify many of the problematics of solid-organ transplantation.”

—John A. Robertson, Science

"Provides a unique view of the world of transplantation. . . . a fascinating behind-the-scenes view."

—Paul J. Brooks, American Journal of Hospital Pharmacy

"Can be profitably read by those looking for a concise source of details about recent trends in transplantation. Readers will find many useful references and quotations, as well as interview materials gathered by the authors that are not available elsewhere. . . . A wealth of details and analysis."

—Peter A. Ubel, The Journal of Clinical Ethics

"Spare Parts offers a critical and compelling account of US medicine's ongoing fascination with organ replacement. In Spare Parts, Fax and Swazey deliver an engrossing account of medicine's preoccupation with organ replacement through a combination of insightful observations, lively argumentation, and moving personal accounts."

AMA

"The authors' perspective highlights the personal and societal problems engendered by these immensely difficult, risky, costly procedures. This fascinating book has messages for all of us."

The Pharos

"An encyclopedic source. . . . This is an important book which warrants close study and thought by all those who share an in-depth or even cursory interest in the area of replacement therapy or organ transplantation."

—vor Lensworth Livingston, Howard University, Social Science and Medicine, UK

"Excellent—very current information, easy, enjoyable to read."

—Lydia D. Schafer, PhD

Read More Show Less

Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781412851572
  • Publisher: Transaction Publishers
  • Publication date: 4/30/2013
  • Edition description: Reprint
  • Pages: 292
  • Product dimensions: 6.00 (w) x 9.00 (h) x 0.70 (d)

Meet the Author

Renée C. Fox is Annenberg Professor Emerita of the Social Sciences and emerita senior fellow of the Center for Bioethics at the University of Pennsylvania. She is the author of numerous books, including Observing Bioethics.

Judith Swazey is an independent scholar and an adjunct professor of social and behavioral sciences at Boston University Schools of Medicine and Public Health. Her many works include Merger Games and The Courage to Fail.

Renée C. Fox is Annenberg Professor Emerita of the Social Sciences and emerita senior fellow of the Center for Bioethics at the University of Pennsylvania. She is the author of numerous books, including Observing Bioethics.

Judith Swazey is an independent scholar and an adjunct professor of social and behavioral sciences at Boston University Schools of Medicine and Public Health. Her many works include Merger Games and The Courage to Fail.

Read More Show Less

Table of Contents

Introduction: Rebuilding People
I Organ Transplantation: Patterns and Issues in the 1980s
1 Of Wonder Drugs, the Transplant "Boom," and Moratoria 3
The "Advent" of Cyclosporine 3
The Expansion of Organ Transplantation 7
The Experiment-Therapy Status of Organ Transplantation 8
A Multiplicity of Clinical Moratoria 13
The Coming of FK 506 24
2 Organ Transplantation as Gift Exchange 31
Marcel Mauss' Gift-Exchange Paradigm 32
Obligations to Give Organs 33
Obligations to Receive Organs and Patients' Reservations About Accepting Them 35
Obligations to Receive Organs and Surgeons' Reservations About Live Donations 38
Obligations to Repay the "Gift of Life" and the "Tyranny of the Gift" 39
3 Alterations in the Theme of the Gift 43
Who Are My Kin? Who Are My Strangers? Live-Donor Kidney Transplants 46
The Debut of Live-Donor Liver and Lung Transplants 49
Making a Live Donor: Bone Marrow Transplants 55
Efforts to Increase Gifts of Life 56
From Gifts of Life to Market Commodities? 64
4 Transplantation and the Medical Commons 73
The Transplantation Commons 74
Transplantation and the Medical Commons 83
Transplantation, Medicine, and the Societal Commons 89
II The Jarvik-7 Artificial Heart Experiment
5 Desperate Appliance: A Short History of the Jarvik-7 Artificial Heart 95
Cast of Characters and Their Locales 95
Prologue 98
Act I: The Development of the Jarvik Heart 100
Act II: Barney Clark's Heart 109
Act III: The Move to Humana 117
Act IV: The Experiment Continues 121
Entr'acte: The Artificial Heart as a Bridge to Transplant 128
Act IV: Continued 130
Act V: Endings 138
Epilogue 149
6 "Made in the U.S.A.": American Features in the Rise and Fall of the Jarvik-7 Artificial Heart 154
American Places, Portraits, and Scenarios 155
American Astronaut Imagery 158
The American Land of Oz 158
Factors Shaping the American Features of the Artificial Heart Experiment 159
Meanings of the Heart 161
The Role of Mormonism 162
Corporate Connections 166
The Rise and Fall of Cold Fusion 168
7 Who Shall Guard the Guardians? 170
Initiating Human Testing 172
Jarvik-7 Implants as Clinical Research 174
The Gatekeepers 178
Moratoria and Endings 189
III The Participant Observers: Final Journeys
8 Leaving the Field 197
Notes 211
References 223
Index 245
Read More Show Less

Customer Reviews

Be the first to write a review
( 0 )
Rating Distribution

5 Star

(0)

4 Star

(0)

3 Star

(0)

2 Star

(0)

1 Star

(0)

Your Rating:

Your Name: Create a Pen Name or

Barnes & Noble.com Review Rules

Our reader reviews allow you to share your comments on titles you liked, or didn't, with others. By submitting an online review, you are representing to Barnes & Noble.com that all information contained in your review is original and accurate in all respects, and that the submission of such content by you and the posting of such content by Barnes & Noble.com does not and will not violate the rights of any third party. Please follow the rules below to help ensure that your review can be posted.

Reviews by Our Customers Under the Age of 13

We highly value and respect everyone's opinion concerning the titles we offer. However, we cannot allow persons under the age of 13 to have accounts at BN.com or to post customer reviews. Please see our Terms of Use for more details.

What to exclude from your review:

Please do not write about reviews, commentary, or information posted on the product page. If you see any errors in the information on the product page, please send us an email.

Reviews should not contain any of the following:

  • - HTML tags, profanity, obscenities, vulgarities, or comments that defame anyone
  • - Time-sensitive information such as tour dates, signings, lectures, etc.
  • - Single-word reviews. Other people will read your review to discover why you liked or didn't like the title. Be descriptive.
  • - Comments focusing on the author or that may ruin the ending for others
  • - Phone numbers, addresses, URLs
  • - Pricing and availability information or alternative ordering information
  • - Advertisements or commercial solicitation

Reminder:

  • - By submitting a review, you grant to Barnes & Noble.com and its sublicensees the royalty-free, perpetual, irrevocable right and license to use the review in accordance with the Barnes & Noble.com Terms of Use.
  • - Barnes & Noble.com reserves the right not to post any review -- particularly those that do not follow the terms and conditions of these Rules. Barnes & Noble.com also reserves the right to remove any review at any time without notice.
  • - See Terms of Use for other conditions and disclaimers.
Search for Products You'd Like to Recommend

Recommend other products that relate to your review. Just search for them below and share!

Create a Pen Name

Your Pen Name is your unique identity on BN.com. It will appear on the reviews you write and other website activities. Your Pen Name cannot be edited, changed or deleted once submitted.

 
Your Pen Name can be any combination of alphanumeric characters (plus - and _), and must be at least two characters long.

Continue Anonymously

    If you find inappropriate content, please report it to Barnes & Noble
    Why is this product inappropriate?
    Comments (optional)