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Spatial Aspects of Crime: Theory and Practice / Edition 1
     

Spatial Aspects of Crime: Theory and Practice / Edition 1

by Derek J. Paulsen
 

ISBN-10: 0205361099

ISBN-13: 9780205361090

Pub. Date: 10/17/2003

Publisher: Allyn & Bacon, Inc.

This first-of-its-kind text provides comprehensive coverage of the theoretical and practical aspects of crime mapping as well as hands-on instruction in the practical use of GIS for the spatial analyses of crime data.

Spatial Aspects of Crime: Theory and Practice is the first book specifically designed to teach the theoretical and practical

Overview

This first-of-its-kind text provides comprehensive coverage of the theoretical and practical aspects of crime mapping as well as hands-on instruction in the practical use of GIS for the spatial analyses of crime data.

Spatial Aspects of Crime: Theory and Practice is the first book specifically designed to teach the theoretical and practical aspects of mapping for criminal justice purposes. The authors include the most current uses for GIS in the criminal justice system, theoretical aspects of the geography of crime and practical instruction, and exercises on how to use GIS to conduct crime mapping and spatial analysis of crime. Section III of the book is a complete GIS workbook, including exercises and sample data, to provide readers with an understanding of a full range of topics from entering data into a GIS to advanced spatial analysis methods such as hot spot analysis and density mapping.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780205361090
Publisher:
Allyn & Bacon, Inc.
Publication date:
10/17/2003
Edition description:
Older Edition
Pages:
384
Product dimensions:
8.17(w) x 10.90(h) x 0.85(d)

Table of Contents

Each chapter begins with an introduction, and most conclude with “Review Questions” and “Exercises.”

I. INTRODUCTION TO SPATIAL ASPECTS OF CRIME: THEORY AND PRACTICE.

1. Spatial Aspects of Crime: Theory.

Introduction To Criminological Theory.

An Introduction To The Book.

2. Crime and Place.

Introduction to Crime and Place.

International Differences in Crime Distribution.

Regional Differences in Crime Distribution.

Focus On: Keith Harries.

Differences in Urban and Rural Distributions of Crime.

Within City Differences in Distributions of Crime.

Focus On: Richard and Becky Block.

Spatial Aspects of Fear of Crime and Public Perception of Crime.

Summary of Major Findings and Implications.

Case Study: Hate Crimes and Space.

3. Social Disorganization.

Introduction to Social Disorganization.

Pre-History of Social Disorganization Theory: Cartographic School of Criminology.

Early Social Disorganization Theory.

The Chicago School of Criminology.

Focus On: Clifford Shaw.

Focus On: Testing Social Disorganization.

Modern Social Disorganization Research.

Focus On: Levels of Social Control.

Problems and Criticisms of Theory.

Summary of Major Findings and Implications.

Case Study: Chicago Area Project.

4. Ecological Theories of Crime.

Introduction to the Major Schools of Thought in Ecological Theory.

Defensible Space.

Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED).

FocusOn: The Three D's of CPTED.

Focus On: C. Ray Jeffrey.

Situational Crime Prevention.

Routine Activity Theory.

Crime Pattern Theory.

Focus On: Paul and Patricia Brantingham.

Summary of Major Findings and Implications.

Case Study: Environmental Design in the Nation's Cities and Architecture.

5. Behavioral Geography and Criminal Behavior.

Introduction to Behavioral Geography.

Mental Maps.

Awareness Space.

Journey to Crime.

Geographic Profiling.

Focus Box: Geographic Profiling: Hype or Not?

Summary of Major Findings and Implications.

Case Study: Successful Geoprofile of a Serial Offender.

6. Epidemics, Diffusion, and Displacement of Crime.

Introduction To Epidemics, Diffusion, and Displacement.

Epidemics.

Focus On: Media Coverage of the “Crack Cocain Epidemic.”

Displacement.

Diffusion.

Summary of Major Findings and Implications.

Case Study: The Place of School Violence.

II. SPATIAL ASPECTS OF CRIME: PRACTICE.

7. Mapping in the Criminal Justice System.

History of Mapping in Criminal Justice.

The Development of Mapping in American Policing.

Uses of Crime Mapping Within Policing.

Mapping in Courts and Corrections.

Focus Box: NIJ MAPS Office.

Future Uses of GIS and Crime Mapping.

Summary of Major Findings and Implications.

8. Major Issues in the Practice of Crime Mapping.

Introduction.

Barriers to the Use of Computerized Mapping.

Data Issues.

Critical Issues Concerning the Use of Computerized Mapping.

Ethical and Legal Issues in Crime Mapping.

Case Study: Geography of Social Control.

Conclusion.

III. SPATIAL ANALYSIS OF CRIME: CRIME MAPPING WORKBOOK.

Introduction to Workbook.

1. Getting Started with Arcview 3.3.

Introduction.

Getting Started.

Exploring Selected Arcview Tools.

Review Questions.

Further Readings.

2. Understanding Data Issues.

Introduction.

Different Types of Data.

Sources of Data.

Working With Different Data Types.

Project: Contextual Data Analysis.

Review Questions.

3. Entering Data.

Introduction.

Geocoding Data.

Practical Geocoding.

Adding GPS Coordinates.

Project: Geocoding Accuracy.

4. Querying and Merging Data.

Introduction.

Why Query and Merge Data.

Querying Themes.

Merging Themes.

Project: Merge and Query Data.

5. Understanding Layouts and Map Design.

Introduction.

Scale and Map Design.

Map Elements.

Map Layout.

Editing Map Elements.

Adding Other Elements to the Layout.

Printing and Exporting a Layout.

Map Design.

Chapter Project: Designing Effective Maps.

Workbook Section II: Basic Spatial Analysis.

6. Proximity Analysis.

Introduction.

What Is It and Why Use It.

Buffer Zone Analysis.

Theme Selection.

7. Spatial Distribution Analysis.

Introduction.

Mean Center Analysis.

Standard Deviation of X and Y Coordinates.

Performing Standard Deviation Analysis.

Spatial Autocorrelation Analysis.

Interpretation of Moran's “I.”

Interpretation of Geary's “C.”

8. Distance Analysis.

Introduction.

Nearest Neighbor Index.

K-Order Nearest Neighbor Analysis.

Workbook Section III: Advanced Spatial Analysis.

9. Hot Spot Analysis.

Introduction.

Hot Spot Methods.

Fuzzy Mode.

Nearest Neighbor Hierarchical Clustering (Nnh).

Risk Adjusted Nearest Neighbor Analysis (Rnnh).

10. Density Mapping.

Introduction.

Single Kernel Density Interpolation.

Dual Kernel Density Interpolation.

11. Spatial Dispersion Mapping.

Introduction.

Performing Spatial Dispersion Mapping Using Dual Kernel Density Interpolation.

Bibliography.

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