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Speak Up!: An Illustrated Guide to Public Speaking / Edition 3
     

Speak Up!: An Illustrated Guide to Public Speaking / Edition 3

by Douglas M. Fraleigh, Joseph S. Tuman
 

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ISBN-10: 1457623943

ISBN-13: 9781457623943

Pub. Date: 01/10/2014

Publisher: Bedford/St. Martin's

An introduction to public speaking that’s smart, compelling, fun, and affordable, Speak Up offers great writing and examples, strong coverage of course topics, practical guidelines for creating effective presentations, and hundreds of custom-drawn illustrations that bring speech concepts to life.  

This new edition adapts Speak Up to

Overview

An introduction to public speaking that’s smart, compelling, fun, and affordable, Speak Up offers great writing and examples, strong coverage of course topics, practical guidelines for creating effective presentations, and hundreds of custom-drawn illustrations that bring speech concepts to life.  

This new edition adapts Speak Up to the emerging world of virtual meetings, vlogs, digital platforms, and e-learning with new coverage throughout that helps students develop and deliver presentations online. Speak Up takes advantage of the media by integrating speech video and assessment right into the book, modeling techniques and helping students apply their knowledge to their own speeches. Access is automatic and includes more than 200 video clips, the largest library available. Even better, students get all of this at less than half the price of competing texts. See what's in the LaunchPad

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9781457623943
Publisher:
Bedford/St. Martin's
Publication date:
01/10/2014
Edition description:
Third Edition
Pages:
768
Sales rank:
23,655
Product dimensions:
6.00(w) x 8.30(h) x 1.00(d)

Table of Contents

THE BASICS OF PUBLIC SPEAKING

1  INTRODUCING PUBLIC SPEAKING

[Image] "Julius Caesar.”

What Is Public Speaking? 
Why Study Public Speaking?  
      Using Public Speaking as a Student 
      Using Public Speaking in Your Career
            [Video] Activity 1.1: “Gehrig, Farewell Address”
      Using Public Speaking in Your Community 
Public Speaking: A Great Tradition
            [Video] Activity 1.2: “Kennedy, I am a Berliner”
Public Speaking: A Dynamic Discipline
      From Linear to Transactional: Evolving Views of the Public Speaking Process 
      New Technologies, New Channels
      Awareness of Audiences’ Cultural Diversity
            [Video] Activity 1.3: “Lama, Spirituality in Today’s World” 
      Emphasis on Critical Thinking 
      A Focus on Free and Ethical Communication 
Chapter Review
            [Video] Activity 1.4: “Churchill, St. James Palace Speech”
            [Video] Activity 1.5: “Bush, September 2001 Address to Congress”

2 DEVELOPING YOUR FIRST SPEECH 

[Image] “Get the Butterflies Flying in Formation.”

Why Prepare? 
The Classical Approach to Speech Preparation 
Preparing and Delivering Your First Speech 
      Analyze Your Audience 
      Select Your Topic 
      Determine Your Speech’s Rhetorical Purpose 
      Create a Thesis Statement 
      Determine Your Main Points
            [Video] Activity 2.1: “Previews, Transitions, and Summaries”
      Develop Supporting Materials 
      Organize and Outline the Body of Your Speech 
      Outline Your Introduction and Conclusion 
      Incorporate Transitions 
      Consider Your Word Choice 
      Consider Presentation Aids 
      Practice Your Speech
            [Video] Activity 2.2: “Mandela, Acceptance of Congressional Gold Medal”
      Deliver Your Speech 
            [Video] Activity 2.3: “Gentz, My Hero, Marilyn Hamilton”
Overcoming Speech Anxiety 
      Prepare Early and Follow a Plan 
      Take Care of Yourself 
      Visualize Success 
      Use Relaxation Techniques 
      Volunteer to Speak First
      Never Defeat Yourself 
Chapter Review
            [Video] Activity 2.4: “How to Purchase a Guitar” 

3 SPEECH ETHICS 

[Image] "Ethical Signposts.”

Codes of Ethics: Absolute, Situational, and Culturally Relative 
Legal Speech, Ethical Speech 
Communicating Truthfully 
      Lying 
      Half-Truths 
      False Inference 
Acknowledging the Work of Others
            [Video] Activity 3.1: “Citing Sources (Statistics and Testimony)”
      Quoting from a Source
            [Video] Activity 3.2: “Citing Someone Else’s Idea”
      Paraphrasing the Work of Others 
      Common Knowledge 
Using Sound Reasoning 
Being an Ethical Listener 
      Show Courtesy 
      Demonstrate an Open Mind 
      Hold the Speaker Accountable 
Chapter Review 

4 LISTENING SKILLS

[Image] “Oh I Get It Now. All I Need To Do Is Listen.”

The Listening Process 
      Listening vs. Hearing
      Processing What You’ve Heard 
      Retaining What You’ve Processed 
      Listening Styles
The Culprits Behind Poor Listening 
      Unprocessed Note Taking 
      Nonlistening 
      Interruptive Listening 
      Agenda-Driven Listening 
      Argumentative Listening 
      Nervous Listening 
Becoming a Better Listener 
      Filter Out Distractions 
      Focus on the Speaker 
      Show That You Are Listening 
Maximizing Your Audience’s Listening 
      Anticipate Ineffective Listening Before Your Speech 
      Encourage Active Listening during Your Speech 
Listening When You Are in the Audience 
Chapter Review 

PREPARATION FUNDAMENTALS

5 AUDIENCE ANALYSIS 

[Image] “Group of Diverse Audience Members.”

Understanding Situational Characteristics 
      Size 
      Time 
      Location 
      Mobility 
Incorporating Demographics 
      Age
            [Video] Activity 5.1: “Poplin, The Importance of Community Service and Civic Engagement” 
      Gender Composition
            [Video] Activity 5.2: “Singh, The Importance of Playing Sports Has Grown Over Time” 
      Sexual Orientation 
      Race and Ethnicity 
      Religious Orientation 
      Socioeconomic Background 
      Political Affiliation 
      Putting the Demographic Pieces Together 
Seeking Common Ground 
            [Video] Activity 5.3: “Churchill, St. James Palace Speech”
Identifying Prior Exposure 
Identifying Audience Disposition 
Gathering Information about Your Audience 
      Surveying Your Audience 
      Interviewing Your Audience 
      Considering and Observing Your Audience
      Situational Audience Analysis 
Chapter Review 

6 SELECTING YOUR TOPIC

[Image] “Word Association Sample Ending In Identity Theft.”

Developing a Set of Potential Topics 
      Research 
      Brainstorming  
      Word Association 
      Mind Mapping 
Selecting the Best Topic 
      Consider the Assignment 
      Consider Your Audience  
      Consider Your Own Knowledge and Interests
            [Video] Activity 6.1: “Moise, Humanity 4 Haitian Development”
      Consider the Speech Context 
      Choose a Topic and Stick to It 
Refining Your Topic 
      Decide Your Rhetorical Purpose 
      Narrow Your Topic
            [Video] Activity 6.2: “Overused Topic”
Drafting Your Specific Purpose Statement 
Drafting Your Thesis Statement
            [Video] Activity 6.3
Chapter Review
            [Video] Activity 6.4: “Wiesel, 2006 Dartmouth College Commencement”

7 RESEARCHING YOUR SPEECH 

[Image] “Man Researching on Laptop.”

Why Research?
            [Video] Activity 7.1: “Roth, Emergency in the Emergency Room”
Creating a Research Plan 
      Inventory Your Research Needs 
      Find the Sources You Need 
      Keep Track of Your Sources 
Evaluating a Source’s Credibility 
      Expertise 
      Objectivity 
      Observational Capacity 
       Recency
            [Video] Activity 7.2: “Citing Sources (Statistics and Testimony)” 
Conducting Library Research 
      Books 
      Periodicals 
      Newspapers 
      Reference Works 
      Government Documents  
Using the Internet 
      Benefits of Internet Research 
      Disadvantages of Internet Research 
      Evaluating the Credibility of Online Sources
      Credibility of Social Media 
      Searching the World Wide Web 
Interviewing Sources 
      Prepare for Your Interview 
      Set Up Your Interview 
      Plan Your Interview Questions 
      Conduct the Interview 
      Evaluate Your Notes 
Presenting Evidence in Your Speeches
            [Video] Activity 7.3: “Citing Sources (Statistics)”  
Chapter Review
            [Video] Activity 7.4: “John Kanzius and the Quest to Cure Cancer”

8 USING SUPPORTING MATERIALS FOR YOUR SPEECH 

[Image] “Strengthening Audience Memory."

Why Use Supporting Materials? 
      Building Audience Interest 
      Enhancing Audience Understanding
      Strengthening Audience Memory 
      Winning Audience Agreement 
      Evoking Audience Emotion 
Types of Supporting Materials 
      Examples 
      Definitions 
      Testimony
            [Video] Activity 8.1: “Royzspal, Litter”
 Statistics
            [Video] Activity 8.2: “Citing Sources (Statistics and Facts)”
      Narratives 
      Analogies 
Guidelines for Using Supporting Materials 
      Choose the Most Credible Proof 
      Use a Variety of Supporting Materials 
      Appeal to Different Learning Styles 
      Avoid Long Lists 
      Consider Your Audience
            [Video] Activity 8.3: “Examples (Humorous)”
      Respect the Available Time 
Chapter Review 
            [Video] Activity 8.4: “Kim, The Nonmonetary Uses of Gold”

ORGANIZING AND OUTLINING

9 ORGANIZING YOUR SPEECH 

[Image] “Speaker At Podium.”

Selecting Your Main Points 
      Consider Your Purpose 
      Take Your Audience into Account 
      Select an Appropriate Number of Main Points 
Organizing Your Supporting Materials 
      Subordination and Coordination
            [Video] Activity 9.1: “Overholser, What is Good Journalism?”
      When a Subpoint Doesn’t Fit 
Arranging Your Main Points 
      Spatial Pattern 
      Chronological Pattern 
      Causal Pattern 
      Comparison Pattern 
      Categorical Pattern
            [Video] Activity 9.2: “Singh, The Importance of Playing Sports Has Grown Over Time”
      Persuasive Speech Pattern
Using Organizing Words and Sentences 
      Transitions
            [Video] Activity 9.3: “Patterns of Arrangement (Causal)” 
      Signposts 
      Internal Previews and Internal Summaries 
Chapter Review 
            [Video] Activity 9.4: “List, Gender-based Responses in Sports Chatrooms”

10 INTRODUCTIONS AND CONCLUSIONS 

[Image] “Introduction Worm on Hook.”  

[Image] “Conclusion Fish.”

Introducing Your Speech 
      Gain Your Audience’s Attention
            [Video] Activity 10.1: “Anecdote (Personal) in an Informative Introduction” 
      Signal Your Thesis 
      Show Your Audience “What’s in It for Them” 
      Establish Your Credibility 
      Preview Your Main Points
            [Video] Activity 10.2: “Attention Getter, Support, Creative Preview” 
Concluding Your Speech 
     Transition to Your Conclusion 
      Summarize Your Main Points 
      Finish with a Memorable Clincher
            [Video] Activity 10.3: “Clincher: Evokes response”   
Chapter Review
            [Video] Activity 10.4 

11 OUTLINING YOUR SPEECH

[Image] “Notes With Delivery Cues.”   

Two Stages of Outlining 
      The Working Outline 
      The Speaking Outline 
Creating Your Working Outline 
      Outlining the Body of Your Speech
            [Video] Activity 11.1: “Roth, Emergency in the Emergency Room”
      Outlining Your Introduction 
      Outlining Your Conclusion
            [Video] Activity 11.2: “Morales, Without Liberty and Justice for All”
      Creating a Works Cited List 
      Inserting the Title, Specific Purpose, and Thesis 
A Sample Working Outline 
Creating Your Speaking Outline 
      Formatting Your Speaking Outline 
      Elements of Your Speaking Outline 
            [Video] Activity 11.3: “Rate: Too Fast” 
A Sample Speaking Outline 
Chapter Review
            [Video] Activity 11.4: “Hutchison, Freedom and Success”

LANGUAGE AND DELIVERY

12 LANGUAGE AND STYLE 

[Image] "ASL Language.”

The Importance of Language and Word Choice 
Differences between Oral and Written Language 
Denotative and Connotative Meaning 
      Denotative Meaning 
      Connotative Meaning 
Presenting Your Message Clearly 
      Understandable Language 
      Concrete Words 
      Proper Use of Words 
      Concise Language 
Expressing Your Ideas Effectively 
      Repetition 
      Hypothetical Examples
      Personal Anecdotes 
      Vivid Language
            [Video] Activity 12.1: “Roth, Emergency in the Emergency Room”
      Figurative Language
            [Video] Activity 12.2: “Figures of Speech: Simile” 
            [Video] Activity 12.3: “Figures of Speech: Metaphor” 
Choosing Respectful and Unbiased Language 
      Avoid Stereotypes 
      Use Gender-Neutral References 
      Make Appropriate References to Ethnic Groups 
      Steer Clear of Unnecessary References to Ethnicity, Religion, Gender, or Sexuality 
      A Note on Appropriate Language and Political Correctness 
Chapter Review 

13 DELIVERING YOUR SPEECH 

[Image] "Awkward Delivery Company.”
[Image] “A+ Delivery Company.”  

Selecting the Right Mode of Delivery 
      Reading from a Manuscript 
      Memorizing from a Manuscript 
      Speaking from an Outline 
      Impromptu Speaking 
Using Vocal Delivery Skills 
      Volume 
      Tone 
      Rate of Delivery
            [Video] Activity 13.1: “Rate Too Fast”
      Projection 
      Articulation 
      Pronunciation 
      Pausing 
Using Nonverbal Delivery Skills 
      Eye Contact 
      Gestures
            [Video] Activity 13.2: “Gestures: Overly Scripted” 
      Physical Movement 
      Proxemics 
      Personal Appearance 
Chapter Review 

14 USING PRESENTATION AIDS 

[Image] “And that, Ladies and Gentlemen…”

Why Use Presentation Aids? 
Types of Presentation Aids 
      The Speaker 
      Assistants 
      Objects 
      Visual Images 
      Graphs 
      Lists, Tables, and Other Text-Based Visuals 
      Audio and Video 
Using Technology Wisely 
      Using Presentation Software  
      Using Other Technology 
Guidelines for Developing Presentation Aids 
      Consider the Forum 
      Consider Your Audience  
      Make Sure Your Aids Support Your Points 
      Keep Your Aids Simple and Clear 
      Rehearsing with Your Presentation Aids
            [Video] Activity 14.1: “Presentation Software: Checking Beforehand”
Using Presentation Aids during Your Speech 
      Make Sure Everyone Can See and Hear Your Aids 
      Control Audience Interaction with Your Aids 
      Maintain Eye Contact 
            [Video] Activity 14.2: “Presentation Software”
      Remember the Purpose of Your Aids 
Chapter Review 

TYPES OF PUBLIC SPEAKING

15   MEDIATED PUBLIC SPEAKING

[Image] “Types of Cameras.”

The Rise of Mediated Communication 
      The Expansion of Mediated Public Speaking 
      Real-Time and Pre-recorded Presentations
Advantages to Mediated Presentations 
      General Advantages 
      Advantages of Pre-recorded Speeches
      Advantages of Real-Time Technologies
            [Video] Activity 15.1: “Reagan, Moscow State University Address” 
Challenges of Mediated Presentations 
      Loss of Naturalness 
      Loss of Immediacy 
      Decreased Nonverbal Communication 
      Diminished Feedback 
      Difficulty Managing Distractions
      Technological Difficulties 
Optimizing Delivery and Messages in Mediated Presentations 
      Delivery Considerations 
      Message Adaptations 
      Practice Delivering and Recording
Recording Your Classroom Speech
      Camera
      Setting and Background
            [Video] Activity 15.2: “Attention Getter”
Your Attire
Camera Positioning
            [Video Icon] Activity 15.3: “Fallacy: Red Herring”
Optimizing Delivery and Messages in Mediated Presentations
      Make Sure Your Technology Works
      Select a Robust Internet Connection
      Use Group Chat/Video and Screen Share
      Create Opportunities for Audience Interaction
      Solicit Feedback through an Alternative Medium
Chapter Review
            [Video Icon] Activity 15.4: “Gentz, My Hero Marilyn Hamilton”

16 INFORMATIVE SPEAKING 

[Image] “Explanation of a Hybrid Engine.”

Techniques for Informing 
      Definition 
      Explanation 
      Description 
      Demonstration
            [Video] Activity 16.1: “Garza, How to Buy a Guitar”
      Narrative
            [Video] Activity 16.2: “Conveying information: Narrative” 
Types of Informative Speeches 
      Objects 
      Individuals or Groups 
      Events 
      Processes
            [Video] Activity 16.3: “Conveying information: Description” 
      Ideas 
Developing Your Informative Speech 
      Analyzing Your Audience 
      Selecting a Technique 
      Focusing on Your Goal to Inform 
      Clarifying and Simplifying Your Message  
Sample Informative Speech: Rachel Parish, Spider Silk: A Miracle Derived from…Goats?
Chapter Review
 
17 PERSUASIVE SPEAKING 

[Image] “Go on, Judge for Yourself.”

The Nature of a Persuasive Speech 
      Persuasive Speeches Attempt to Influence Audience Members 
      Persuasive Speeches Advocate Fact, Value, or Policy Claims
            [Video] Activity 17.1
The Nature of Persuasion
      Two Paths to Persuasion
      The Importance of Central Route Processing
      Which Route Will Audience Members Follow? 
Tailoring Your Persuasive Message to Your Audience 
      Adapting to Audience Disposition 
      Appealing to Your Audience’s Needs 
      Connecting to Your Listeners’ Values 
      Demonstrating How Your Audience Benefits 
      Acknowledging Listeners’ Reservations 
      Focusing on Peripheral Beliefs 
Ethical Persuasion 
      Help Your Audience Make an Informed Decision 
      Research Your Facts 
      Note Any Biases 
      Attribute Your Research Properly 
Organizing Your Persuasive Speech 
      Organizing Fact Claims 
      Organizing Value Claims  
      Organizing Policy Claims
            [Video] Activity 17.2: “Patterns of Arrangement: Monroe’s Motivated Sequence.” 
Chapter Review
            [Video] Activity 17.3: “Martinez, Extra Credit You Can Live Without” 

18 METHODS OF PERSUASION

[Image] “Einstein.”  

Ethos: Your Credibility as a Speaker 
      Understanding the Elements of Credibility 
      Building Your Credibility 
      Avoiding Loss of Your Credibility 
Logos: The Evidence and Reasoning behind Your Message 
      Using Evidence 
      Using Reasoning
            [Video] Activity 18.1: “Reasoning: Inductive”
Avoiding Logical Fallacies
            [Video] Activity 18.2: “Fallacy Either-Or (False Dilemma): Diplomacy or World War III”
Pathos: Evoking Your Listeners’ Emotions 
      Using Emotional Appeals
            [Video] Activity 18.3: “Claims: Fact, Appeal to Emotion + Credibility” 
      Ensuring Ethical Use of Pathos 
Sample Persuasive Speech: Anna Martinez, Extra Credit You Can Live Without
Chapter Review
            [Video] Activity 18.4: “Morales, Without Liberty and Justice for All” 

19 SPECIAL-OCCASION SPEAKING 

[Image] “Wedding Toast.”

Types of Special-Occasion Speeches 
General Guidelines for Special Occasions 
      Appealing to Your Audience’s Emotions
            [Video] Activity 19.1: “Carter, Eulogy of Gerald Ford”
      Matching Your Delivery to the Mood of the Occasion 
      Adapting to Your Audience’s Expectations 
      Evoking Shared Values
            [Video] Activity 19.2: “Wiesel, 2006 Dartmouth College Commencement” 
      Respecting Time Constraints 
Strategies for Each Type of Special-Occasion Speech 
      Strategies for Speeches of Introduction 
      Strategies for Speeches of Presentation 
      Strategies for Speeches of Acceptance 
      Strategies for Speeches to Memorialize or Eulogize  
      Strategies for Speeches to Celebrate 
      Strategies for After-Dinner Speeches 
Sample Special-Occasion Speech
      Viola Davis, 2012 Providence College Commencement Address
Chapter Review 

20 GROUP COMMUNICATION 

[Image] “Panel Discussion.”  

Effective Group Leadership 
      Selecting a Leader 
      Leading Meetings 
      Managing Conflict 
Effective Group Membership 
      Three Types of Member Roles 
      Tips for Participating in a Small Group 
Group Decision Making and the Reflective-Thinking Process 
      Define the Problem 
      Analyze the Problem 
      Establish Criteria for Solutions 
      Generate Possible Solutions 
      Select the Best Solution 
Delivering Group Presentations 
      Symposium 
      Panel Discussion 
      Single Group Representative 
Chapter Review 

APPENDIX: Additional Sample Speeches 

Sample Informative Speech
Elvira Anguiano, Precision-Guided Tumor Killers 

Sample Persuasive Speech
David Kruckenberg, Child Slavery and the Production of Chocolate 

Sample Persuasive Speech
Michelle Bachelet, Reclaiming Public Spaces for the Empowerment of Women and Girls

Sample Special-Occasion Speeches
Governor Jennifer Granholm, Remarks at the Funeral of Civil Rights Leader Rosa Parks
William Faulkner, Speech to Accept the 1949 Nobel Prize in Literature

Notes 

Glossary 

Index

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