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Speak Up!: An Illustrated Guide to Public Speaking / Edition 3

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Overview

An introduction to public speaking that’s smart, compelling, fun, and affordable, Speak Up offers great writing and examples, strong coverage of course topics, practical guidelines for creating effective presentations, and hundreds of custom-drawn illustrations that bring speech concepts to life.  

This new edition adapts Speak Up to the emerging world of virtual meetings, vlogs, digital platforms, and e-learning with new coverage throughout that helps students develop and deliver presentations online. Speak Up takes advantage of the media by integrating speech video and assessment right into the book, modeling techniques and helping students apply their knowledge to their own speeches. Access is automatic and includes more than 200 video clips, the largest library available. Even better, students get all of this at less than half the price of competing texts.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781457623943
  • Publisher: Bedford/St. Martin's
  • Publication date: 1/10/2014
  • Edition description: Third Edition
  • Edition number: 3
  • Pages: 768
  • Sales rank: 116,833
  • Product dimensions: 6.00 (w) x 8.30 (h) x 1.00 (d)

Meet the Author

Douglas M. Fraleigh is a professor and chair of the Department of Communication at California State University, Fresno and he serves on the faculty of the university's Smittcamp Family Honors College. He has taught public speaking courses throughout his career and also coached intercollegiate speech and debate at CSU Fresno, UC Berkeley, Cornell, and CSU Sacramento. His research interests include freedom of speech, argumentation, and legal communication.
 
Joseph S. Tuman is a professor and chair of the Department of Communication Studies at San Francisco State University, where he has received the Jacobus tenBroek Society Award for Excellence in Teaching. Dr. Tuman has taught at the University of California at Berkeley, the New School, and University of Paris II, and has published widely in the field of communication studies. He appears regularly on television news programs as a political commentator.

 

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Table of Contents

THE BASICS OF PUBLIC SPEAKING

1  INTRODUCING PUBLIC SPEAKING

[Image] "Julius Caesar.”

What Is Public Speaking? 
Why Study Public Speaking? 
   Using Public Speaking as a Student 
   Using Public Speaking in Your Career
    [Video] Activity 1.1: “Gehrig, Farewell Address”
   Using Public Speaking in Your Community 
Public Speaking: A Great Tradition
     [Video] Activity 1.2: “Kennedy, I am a Berliner”
Public Speaking: A Dynamic Discipline
   From Linear to Transactional: Evolving Views of the Public Speaking Process 
   New Technologies, New Channels
   Awareness of Audiences’ Cultural Diversity
     [Video] Activity 1.3: “Lama, Spirituality in Today’s World” 
   Emphasis on Critical Thinking 
   A Focus on Free and Ethical Communication 
Chapter Review
     [Video] Activity 1.4: “Churchill, St. James Palace Speech”
     [Video] Activity 1.5: “Bush, September 2001 Address to Congress”

2 DEVELOPING YOUR FIRST SPEECH 

[Image] “Get the Butterflies Flying in Formation.”

Why Prepare? 
The Classical Approach to Speech Preparation 
Preparing and Delivering Your First Speech 
   Analyze Your Audience 
   Select Your Topic 
   Determine Your Speech’s Rhetorical Purpose 
   Create a Thesis Statement 
   Determine Your Main Points
     [Video] Activity 2.1: “Previews, Transitions, and Summaries”
   Develop Supporting Materials 
   Organize and Outline the Body of Your Speech 
   Outline Your Introduction and Conclusion 
   Incorporate Transitions 
   Consider Your Word Choice 
   Consider Presentation Aids 
   Practice Your Speech
     [Video] Activity 2.2: “Mandela, Acceptance of Congressional Gold Medal”
   Deliver Your Speech 
     [Video] Activity 2.3: “Gentz, My Hero, Marilyn Hamilton”
Overcoming Speech Anxiety 
   Prepare Early and Follow a Plan 
   Take Care of Yourself 
   Visualize Success 
   Use Relaxation Techniques 
   Volunteer to Speak First
   Never Defeat Yourself 
Chapter Review
     [Video] Activity 2.4: “How to Purchase a Guitar” 

3 SPEECH ETHICS 

[Image] "Ethical Signposts.”

Codes of Ethics: Absolute, Situational, and Culturally Relative 
Legal Speech, Ethical Speech 
Communicating Truthfully 
   Lying 
   Half-Truths 
   False Inference 
Acknowledging the Work of Others
    [Video] Activity 3.1: “Citing Sources (Statistics and Testimony)”
   Quoting from a Source
     [Video] Activity 3.2: “Citing Someone Else’s Idea”
   Paraphrasing the Work of Others 
   Common Knowledge 
Using Sound Reasoning 
Being an Ethical Listener 
   Show Courtesy 
   Demonstrate an Open Mind 
   Hold the Speaker Accountable 
Chapter Review 

4 LISTENING SKILLS

[Image] “Oh I Get It Now. All I Need To Do Is Listen.”

The Listening Process 
   Listening vs. Hearing
   Processing What You’ve Heard 
   Retaining What You’ve Processed 
   Listening Styles
The Culprits Behind Poor Listening 
   Unprocessed Note Taking 
   Nonlistening 
   Interruptive Listening 
   Agenda-Driven Listening 
   Argumentative Listening 
   Nervous Listening 
Becoming a Better Listener 
   Filter Out Distractions 
   Focus on the Speaker 
   Show That You Are Listening 
Maximizing Your Audience’s Listening 
   Anticipate Ineffective Listening Before Your Speech 
   Encourage Active Listening during Your Speech 
Listening When You Are in the Audience 
Chapter Review 

PREPARATION FUNDAMENTALS

5 AUDIENCE ANALYSIS 

[Image] “Group of Diverse Audience Members.”

Understanding Situational Characteristics 
   Size 
   Time 
   Location 
   Mobility 
Incorporating Demographics 
   Age
     [Video] Activity 5.1: “Poplin, The Importance of Community Service and Civic Engagement” 
   Gender Composition
    [Video] Activity 5.2: “Singh, The Importance of Playing Sports Has Grown Over Time” 
   Sexual Orientation 
   Race and Ethnicity 
   Religious Orientation 
   Socioeconomic Background 
   Political Affiliation 
   Putting the Demographic Pieces Together 
Seeking Common Ground 
     [Video] Activity 5.3: “Churchill, St. James Palace Speech”
Identifying Prior Exposure 
Identifying Audience Disposition 
Gathering Information about Your Audience 
   Surveying Your Audience 
   Interviewing Your Audience 
   Considering and Observing Your Audience
   Situational Audience Analysis 
Chapter Review 

6 SELECTING YOUR TOPIC

[Image] “Word Association Sample Ending In Identity Theft.”

Developing a Set of Potential Topics 
   Research 
   Brainstorming 
   Word Association 
   Mind Mapping 
Selecting the Best Topic 
   Consider the Assignment 
   Consider Your Audience 
   Consider Your Own Knowledge and Interests
     [Video] Activity 6.1: “Moise, Humanity 4 Haitian Development”
   Consider the Speech Context 
   Choose a Topic and Stick to It 
Refining Your Topic 
   Decide Your Rhetorical Purpose 
   Narrow Your Topic
     [Video] Activity 6.2: “Overused Topic”
Drafting Your Specific Purpose Statement 
Drafting Your Thesis Statement
    [Video] Activity 6.3
Chapter Review
    [Video] Activity 6.4: “Wiesel, 2006 Dartmouth College Commencement”

7 RESEARCHING YOUR SPEECH 

[Image] “Man Researching on Laptop.”

Why Research?
     [Video] Activity 7.1: “Roth, Emergency in the Emergency Room”
Creating a Research Plan 
   Inventory Your Research Needs 
   Find the Sources You Need 
   Keep Track of Your Sources 
Evaluating a Source’s Credibility 
   Expertise 
   Objectivity 
   Observational Capacity 
    Recency
     [Video] Activity 7.2: “Citing Sources (Statistics and Testimony)” 
Conducting Library Research 
   Books 
   Periodicals 
   Newspapers 
   Reference Works 
   Government Documents 
Using the Internet 
   Benefits of Internet Research 
   Disadvantages of Internet Research 
   Evaluating the Credibility of Online Sources
   Credibility of Social Media 
   Searching the World Wide Web 
Interviewing Sources 
   Prepare for Your Interview 
   Set Up Your Interview 
   Plan Your Interview Questions 
   Conduct the Interview 
   Evaluate Your Notes 
Presenting Evidence in Your Speeches
    [Video] Activity 7.3: “Citing Sources (Statistics)” 
Chapter Review
    [Video] Activity 7.4: “John Kanzius and the Quest to Cure Cancer”

8 USING SUPPORTING MATERIALS FOR YOUR SPEECH 

[Image] “Strengthening Audience Memory."

Why Use Supporting Materials? 
   Building Audience Interest 
   Enhancing Audience Understanding
   Strengthening Audience Memory 
   Winning Audience Agreement 
   Evoking Audience Emotion 
Types of Supporting Materials 
   Examples 
   Definitions 
   Testimony
    [Video] Activity 8.1: “Royzspal, Litter”
 Statistics
    [Video] Activity 8.2: “Citing Sources (Statistics and Facts)”
   Narratives 
   Analogies 
Guidelines for Using Supporting Materials 
   Choose the Most Credible Proof 
   Use a Variety of Supporting Materials 
   Appeal to Different Learning Styles 
   Avoid Long Lists 
   Consider Your Audience
     [Video] Activity 8.3: “Examples (Humorous)”
   Respect the Available Time 
Chapter Review 
     [Video] Activity 8.4: “Kim, The Nonmonetary Uses of Gold”

ORGANIZING AND OUTLINING

9 ORGANIZING YOUR SPEECH 

[Image] “Speaker At Podium.”

Selecting Your Main Points 
   Consider Your Purpose 
   Take Your Audience into Account 
   Select an Appropriate Number of Main Points 
Organizing Your Supporting Materials 
   Subordination and Coordination
     [Video] Activity 9.1: “Overholser, What is Good Journalism?”
   When a Subpoint Doesn’t Fit 
Arranging Your Main Points 
   Spatial Pattern 
   Chronological Pattern 
   Causal Pattern 
   Comparison Pattern 
   Categorical Pattern
    [Video] Activity 9.2: “Singh, The Importance of Playing Sports Has Grown Over Time”
   Persuasive Speech Pattern
Using Organizing Words and Sentences 
   Transitions
     [Video] Activity 9.3: “Patterns of Arrangement (Causal)” 
   Signposts 
   Internal Previews and Internal Summaries 
Chapter Review 
     [Video] Activity 9.4: “List, Gender-based Responses in Sports Chatrooms”

10 INTRODUCTIONS AND CONCLUSIONS 

[Image] “Introduction Worm on Hook.” 

[Image] “Conclusion Fish.”

Introducing Your Speech 
   Gain Your Audience’s Attention
    [Video] Activity 10.1: “Anecdote (Personal) in an Informative Introduction” 
   Signal Your Thesis 
   Show Your Audience “What’s in It for Them” 
   Establish Your Credibility 
   Preview Your Main Points
    [Video] Activity 10.2: “Attention Getter, Support, Creative Preview” 
Concluding Your Speech 
  Transition to Your Conclusion 
   Summarize Your Main Points 
   Finish with a Memorable Clincher
    [Video] Activity 10.3: “Clincher: Evokes response”   
Chapter Review
    [Video] Activity 10.4 

11 OUTLINING YOUR SPEECH

[Image] “Notes With Delivery Cues.” 

Two Stages of Outlining 
   The Working Outline 
   The Speaking Outline 
Creating Your Working Outline 
   Outlining the Body of Your Speech
    [Video] Activity 11.1: “Roth, Emergency in the Emergency Room”
   Outlining Your Introduction 
   Outlining Your Conclusion
     [Video] Activity 11.2: “Morales, Without Liberty and Justice for All”
   Creating a Works Cited List 
   Inserting the Title, Specific Purpose, and Thesis 
A Sample Working Outline 
Creating Your Speaking Outline 
   Formatting Your Speaking Outline 
   Elements of Your Speaking Outline 
     [Video] Activity 11.3: “Rate: Too Fast” 
A Sample Speaking Outline 
Chapter Review
     [Video] Activity 11.4: “Hutchison, Freedom and Success”

LANGUAGE AND DELIVERY

12 LANGUAGE AND STYLE 

[Image] "ASL Language.”

The Importance of Language and Word Choice 
Differences between Oral and Written Language 
Denotative and Connotative Meaning 
   Denotative Meaning 
   Connotative Meaning 
Presenting Your Message Clearly 
   Understandable Language 
   Concrete Words 
   Proper Use of Words 
   Concise Language 
Expressing Your Ideas Effectively 
   Repetition 
   Hypothetical Examples
   Personal Anecdotes 
   Vivid Language
    [Video] Activity 12.1: “Roth, Emergency in the Emergency Room”
   Figurative Language
    [Video] Activity 12.2: “Figures of Speech: Simile” 
     [Video] Activity 12.3: “Figures of Speech: Metaphor” 
Choosing Respectful and Unbiased Language 
   Avoid Stereotypes 
   Use Gender-Neutral References 
   Make Appropriate References to Ethnic Groups 
   Steer Clear of Unnecessary References to Ethnicity, Religion, Gender, or Sexuality 
   A Note on Appropriate Language and Political Correctness 
Chapter Review 

13 DELIVERING YOUR SPEECH 

[Image] "Awkward Delivery Company.”
[Image] “A+ Delivery Company.” 

Selecting the Right Mode of Delivery 
   Reading from a Manuscript 
   Memorizing from a Manuscript 
   Speaking from an Outline 
   Impromptu Speaking 
Using Vocal Delivery Skills 
   Volume 
   Tone 
   Rate of Delivery
      [Video] Activity 13.1: “Rate Too Fast”
   Projection 
   Articulation 
   Pronunciation 
   Pausing 
Using Nonverbal Delivery Skills 
   Eye Contact 
   Gestures
    [Video] Activity 13.2: “Gestures: Overly Scripted” 
   Physical Movement 
   Proxemics 
   Personal Appearance 
Chapter Review 

14 USING PRESENTATION AIDS 

[Image] “And that, Ladies and Gentlemen…”

Why Use Presentation Aids? 
Types of Presentation Aids 
   The Speaker 
   Assistants 
   Objects 
   Visual Images 
   Graphs 
   Lists, Tables, and Other Text-Based Visuals 
   Audio and Video 
Using Technology Wisely 
   Using Presentation Software 
   Using Other Technology 
Guidelines for Developing Presentation Aids 
   Consider the Forum 
   Consider Your Audience 
   Make Sure Your Aids Support Your Points 
   Keep Your Aids Simple and Clear 
   Rehearsing with Your Presentation Aids
     [Video] Activity 14.1: “Presentation Software: Checking Beforehand”
Using Presentation Aids during Your Speech 
   Make Sure Everyone Can See and Hear Your Aids 
   Control Audience Interaction with Your Aids 
   Maintain Eye Contact 
     [Video] Activity 14.2: “Presentation Software”
  Remember the Purpose of Your Aids 
Chapter Review 

TYPES OF PUBLIC SPEAKING

15  MEDIATED PUBLIC SPEAKING

[Image] “Types of Cameras.”

The Rise of Mediated Communication 
   The Expansion of Mediated Public Speaking 
   Real-Time and Pre-recorded Presentations
Advantages to Mediated Presentations 
   General Advantages 
   Advantages of Pre-recorded Speeches
   Advantages of Real-Time Technologies
    [Video] Activity 15.1: “Reagan, Moscow State University Address” 
Challenges of Mediated Presentations 
   Loss of Naturalness 
   Loss of Immediacy 
   Decreased Nonverbal Communication 
   Diminished Feedback 
   Difficulty Managing Distractions
   Technological Difficulties 
Optimizing Delivery and Messages in Mediated Presentations 
   Delivery Considerations 
   Message Adaptations 
   Practice Delivering and Recording
Recording Your Classroom Speech
   Camera
   Setting and Background
     [Video] Activity 15.2: “Attention Getter”
Your Attire
Camera Positioning
    [Video Icon] Activity 15.3: “Fallacy: Red Herring”
Optimizing Delivery and Messages in Mediated Presentations
   Make Sure Your Technology Works
   Select a Robust Internet Connection
   Use Group Chat/Video and Screen Share
   Create Opportunities for Audience Interaction
   Solicit Feedback through an Alternative Medium
Chapter Review
     [Video Icon] Activity 15.4: “Gentz, My Hero Marilyn Hamilton”

16 INFORMATIVE SPEAKING 

[Image] “Explanation of a Hybrid Engine.”

Techniques for Informing 
   Definition 
   Explanation 
   Description 
   Demonstration
     [Video] Activity 16.1: “Garza, How to Buy a Guitar”
   Narrative
     [Video] Activity 16.2: “Conveying information: Narrative” 
Types of Informative Speeches 
   Objects 
   Individuals or Groups 
   Events 
   Processes
    [Video] Activity 16.3: “Conveying information: Description” 
   Ideas 
Developing Your Informative Speech 
   Analyzing Your Audience 
   Selecting a Technique 
   Focusing on Your Goal to Inform 
   Clarifying and Simplifying Your Message 
Sample Informative Speech: Rachel Parish, Spider Silk: A Miracle Derived from…Goats?
Chapter Review
 
17 PERSUASIVE SPEAKING 

[Image] “Go on, Judge for Yourself.”

The Nature of a Persuasive Speech 
   Persuasive Speeches Attempt to Influence Audience Members 
   Persuasive Speeches Advocate Fact, Value, or Policy Claims
    [Video] Activity 17.1
The Nature of Persuasion
   Two Paths to Persuasion
   The Importance of Central Route Processing
   Which Route Will Audience Members Follow? 
Tailoring Your Persuasive Message to Your Audience 
   Adapting to Audience Disposition 
   Appealing to Your Audience’s Needs 
   Connecting to Your Listeners’ Values 
   Demonstrating How Your Audience Benefits 
   Acknowledging Listeners’ Reservations 
   Focusing on Peripheral Beliefs 
Ethical Persuasion 
   Help Your Audience Make an Informed Decision 
   Research Your Facts 
   Note Any Biases 
   Attribute Your Research Properly 
Organizing Your Persuasive Speech 
   Organizing Fact Claims 
   Organizing Value Claims 
   Organizing Policy Claims
    [Video] Activity 17.2: “Patterns of Arrangement: Monroe’s Motivated Sequence.” 
Chapter Review
    [Video] Activity 17.3: “Martinez, Extra Credit You Can Live Without” 

18 METHODS OF PERSUASION

[Image] “Einstein.” 

Ethos: Your Credibility as a Speaker 
   Understanding the Elements of Credibility 
   Building Your Credibility 
   Avoiding Loss of Your Credibility 
Logos: The Evidence and Reasoning behind Your Message 
   Using Evidence 
   Using Reasoning
     [Video] Activity 18.1: “Reasoning: Inductive”
Avoiding Logical Fallacies
    [Video] Activity 18.2: “Fallacy Either-Or (False Dilemma): Diplomacy or World War III”
Pathos: Evoking Your Listeners’ Emotions 
   Using Emotional Appeals
     [Video] Activity 18.3: “Claims: Fact, Appeal to Emotion + Credibility” 
   Ensuring Ethical Use of Pathos 
Sample Persuasive Speech: Anna Martinez, Extra Credit You Can Live Without
Chapter Review
     [Video] Activity 18.4: “Morales, Without Liberty and Justice for All” 

19 SPECIAL-OCCASION SPEAKING 

[Image] “Wedding Toast.”

Types of Special-Occasion Speeches 
General Guidelines for Special Occasions 
   Appealing to Your Audience’s Emotions
     [Video] Activity 19.1: “Carter, Eulogy of Gerald Ford”
   Matching Your Delivery to the Mood of the Occasion 
   Adapting to Your Audience’s Expectations 
   Evoking Shared Values
    [Video] Activity 19.2: “Wiesel, 2006 Dartmouth College Commencement” 
   Respecting Time Constraints 
Strategies for Each Type of Special-Occasion Speech 
   Strategies for Speeches of Introduction 
   Strategies for Speeches of Presentation 
   Strategies for Speeches of Acceptance 
   Strategies for Speeches to Memorialize or Eulogize 
   Strategies for Speeches to Celebrate 
   Strategies for After-Dinner Speeches 
Sample Special-Occasion Speech
   Viola Davis, 2012 Providence College Commencement Address
Chapter Review 

20 GROUP COMMUNICATION 

[Image] “Panel Discussion.” 

Effective Group Leadership 
   Selecting a Leader 
   Leading Meetings 
   Managing Conflict 
Effective Group Membership 
   Three Types of Member Roles 
   Tips for Participating in a Small Group 
Group Decision Making and the Reflective-Thinking Process 
   Define the Problem 
   Analyze the Problem 
   Establish Criteria for Solutions 
   Generate Possible Solutions 
   Select the Best Solution 
Delivering Group Presentations 
   Symposium 
   Panel Discussion 
   Single Group Representative 
Chapter Review 

APPENDIX: Additional Sample Speeches 

Sample Informative Speech
Elvira Anguiano, Precision-Guided Tumor Killers 

Sample Persuasive Speech
David Kruckenberg, Child Slavery and the Production of Chocolate 

Sample Persuasive Speech
Michelle Bachelet, Reclaiming Public Spaces for the Empowerment of Women and Girls

Sample Special-Occasion Speeches
Governor Jennifer Granholm, Remarks at the Funeral of Civil Rights Leader Rosa Parks
William Faulkner, Speech to Accept the 1949 Nobel Prize in Literature

Notes 

Glossary 

Index

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