A Speaker's Guidebook : Text and Reference / Edition 4by Dan O'Hair, Rob Stewart, Hannah Rubenstein
Pub. Date: 07/15/2009
Publisher: Bedford/St. Martin's
Now also available with additional coverage of rhetorical theory!
A Speaker’s Guidebook is the most successful public speaking book in over a decade and the best resource for students both in and outside the classroom. Praised for connecting with students and addressing their most pressing needs, it is the easiest-to-use public speaking text/i>… See more details below
Now also available with additional coverage of rhetorical theory!
A Speaker’s Guidebook is the most successful public speaking book in over a decade and the best resource for students both in and outside the classroom. Praised for connecting with students and addressing their most pressing needs, it is the easiest-to-use public speaking text available and the text that students keep. This tabbed, comb-bound text covers all topics taught in the introduction to public speaking course. In addition, A Speaker’s Guidebook offers coverage that’s useful for a lifetime of public speaking with unparalleled treatment of speaking in other courses and on the job. Now for instructors who teach with a focus on rhetoric and persuasion, we are proud to offer an additional version of the text. A Speaker’s Guidebook with The Essential Guide to Rhetoric includes a full tabbed section that provides brief yet comprehensive coverage of rhetorical theory — from the classical to the contemporary — and its practical applications.
- Bedford/St. Martin's
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Table of ContentsCHAPTER 1 - Becoming a Public Speaker Why Study Public Speaking? Advance Your Professional Goals Accomplish Personal Goals Enhance Your Career As A Student Explore And Share Values Hone Critical Thinking And Listening Skills Become An Engaged Citizen The Classical Roots of Public Speaking Classicial Terms and the Canons of Rhetoric A Rich and Relevant Heritage Public Speaking as a Form of Communication Similarities Between Public Speaking And Other Forms Of Communication Differences Between Public Speaking And Other Forms Of Communication Public Speaking and the Communication Process Elements Of Communication Learning to Speak in Public Draw On Familiar Skills Conversation and Public Speaking Recognize Public Speaking’s Unique Requirements
CHAPTER 2 - Giving it a Try: Preparing Your First Speech A Brief Overview of the Speechmaking Process Select a Topic Analyze the Audience Determine the Speech Purpose Compose a Thesis Statement Develop the Main Points Gather Supporting Materials Separate the Speech into Its Major Parts Outline the Speech Consider Presentation Aids Practice Delivering the Speech Take the Plunge Sample Visually Annotated Introductory Speech Ashley White, "The Dance of Life" Sample Annotated Speech Lisa Tran, "Past, Present, and Future" CHAPTER 3 – Managing Speech Anxiety What Makes Speakers Anxious? Lack of Positive Experience Feeling Different Being the Center of Attention Pinpointing the Onset of Public Speaking Anxiety Pre-preparation Anxiety Preparation Anxiety Pre-performance Anxiety Performance Anxiety Strategiesfor Getting Started with Confidence Prepare and Practice Modify Thoughts and Attitudes Visualize Success Use Relaxation Techniques Learn from the Speech Evaluation Enjoy the Occasion CHAPTER 4 – Listeners and Speakers The Selective Nature of Listening Listening and Speaking as Dialogic Communication Barriers to Active Listening Listening Distractions Scriptwriting and Defensive Listening Laziness and Overconfidence Cultural Barriers Becoming a More Active Listener Set Listening Goals Listen for Main Ideas Watch for Nonverbal Clue Active Listening and Critical Thinking Guidelines for Evaluating Speeches and Presentations Be Honest and Fair in Your Evaluation Adjust to the Speaker’s Style Be Compassionate in Your Criticism CHAPTER 5 - Ethical Public Speaking Take Responsibility For Your Words Earn Your Listeners' Trust Respect Your Listeners' Values Bring Your Own Values into Focus Use Your Rights of Free Speech Responsibly Contribute to Positive Public Discourse Observe the Ground Rules for Ethical Speaking Be Trustworthy Demonstrate Respect Make Responsible Choices Demonstrate Fairness Avoid Plagiarism Rules for Avoiding Plagiarism Avoid Plagiarism on the Intenert Respect the Laws of Copyright and Fair Use CHAPTER 6 – Analyzing the Audience Adapt to Audience Psychology Identify Audience Members’ Attitudes, Beliefs, And Values Identify Listeners’ Disposition To The Topic, Speaker, And Occasion Adapt to Audience Demographics Age Socioeconomic Status Religion Political Affiliation Gender Disability Ethnic or Cultural Background Adapt to Cultural Differences Hofstede’s Value-Dimensions Model Lewis’ Cultural Types Model Consult Cross-Cultural Polls Focus on Shared Values Techniques for Learning about Your Audience Interviews Surveys Published Sources Analyze the Speech Setting Size Of Audience And Physical Setting Time And Length Of Speech The Speech Context (Rhetorical Situation) CHAPTER 7 – Selecting a Topic and Purpose Assigned versus Self-Selected Topics Identifying the General Speech Purpose When the General Speech Purpose Is to Inform When the General Speech Purpose Is to Persuade When the General Speech Purpose Is to Mark a Special Occasion Choosing a Topic for the Classroom Speech Personal Interests: Looking Within Current Events and Controversial Issues Grassroots Issues — Opportunities for Civic Engagement Avoid Topics That Are Overdone: You Be the Expert Using Brainstorming to Generate Ideas Word Association Topic Mapping From Source to Speech: Brainstorming on the Web Refining the Topic and Purpose Narrowing the Topic Forming a Specific Speech Purpose From Topic and Purpose to Thesis Statement Use the Thesis Statement to Convey the Central Idea Use the Thesis Statement to Guide your Speech Preparation From Source to Speech: Narrowing Your Topic Using a Library Portal Making the Thesis Statement Relevant and Motivating CHAPTER 8 – Developing Supporting Material Use a Variety of Supporting Materials Refer Orally to Your Sources Offer Examples Brief Examples Extended Examples Hypothetical Examples Share Stories Draw on Testimony Provide Facts and Statistics Use Statistics Accurately Present Your Statistics Ethically Use Visual Aids Whenever Possible Win Acceptance of Your Supporting Materials From Source to Speech: Demonstrating Your Sources’ Reliability and Credibility CHAPTER 9 – Locating Supporting Material Before You Begin: Plan a Research Strategy Secondary Resources: Print and Electronically Stored Sources Library Resources to Facilitate Your Search Books Newspapers and Periodicals Government Publications Reference Works Primary Resources: Interviews and Surveys Interviews Surveys Documenting Your Resources Record References as You Go Choose Helpful Tools Identify Quoted, Paraphrased, an Summarized Material Critically Evaluate Your Sources From Source to Speech: Recording and Citing Books From Source to Speech: Recording and Citing Articles and Periodicals CHAPTER 10 – Using the Internet to Support Your Speech Begin Your Search at a Library Portal Virtual Libraries Be a Critical Consumer of Information Be Alert To Commercial Factors Affecting Search Results Make the Most of Internet Search Tools Distinguish Among Types of Search Engines Individual versus Meta-Search Engines Specialized Search Engines Understand How Subject (Web) Directories Work Know When to Use Search Engines and Subject Directories Conduct Smart Searches Use Basic Search Commands Use Field Searching To Further Narrow Results Record and Cite Internet Sources Organizing and Outlining CHAPTER 11 – Organizing the Speech Beyond the Speech: Organization as a Life Skill Main Points, Supporting Points, and Transitions Main Points: Making the Claim Using the Purpose and Thesis Statements as Guides • CHECKLIST: Do the Speech Points Illustrate or Prove the Thesis? Number of Main Points Strategies for Limiting Main Points Form of Main Points Supporting Points: Substantiating the Claim Position of Supporting Points Principles of Organizing Main and Supporting Points Unity Coherence Balance • CHECKLIST: Do the Speech Points Reflect Unity, Coherence, and Balance? Transitions: Giving Direction to the Speech Transitions among Main Points Transitions among Supporting Points Sample Techniques for Posing Transitions Using Internal Previews and Summaries as Transitions • CHECKLIST: Using Transitions From Point to Point: Using Transitions to Guide Your Listeners CHAPTER 12 – Types of Organizational Arrangements Arranging Speech Points Topically Arranging Speech Points Chronologically Arranging Speech Points Using a Spatial Pattern Arranging Speech Points Using a Causal (Cause-Effect) Pattern Arranging Speech Points Using a Problem-Solution Pattern Arranging Speech Points Using a Narrative Pattern Arranging Speech Points Using a Circle Pattern • CHECKLIST: Matching the Organizational Pattern to the Audience • PUBLIC SPEAKING IN CULTURAL PERSPECTIVE: Arrangement Formats and Audience Diversity CHAPTER 13 – Outlining the Speech Plan on Creating Two Outlines Types of Outline Formats Effects of Outline Format on Speech Delivery Begin with a Working Outline Separate Introduction and Conclusion from the Body List Your Sources Create a Title • CHECKLIST: Steps in Creating a Working Outline Sample Working Outline Preparing the Speaking Outline Clearly Indicate Delivery Cues • CHECKLIST: Tips on Using Notecards or Sheets of Paper Practice the Speech • CHECKLIST: Steps in Creating a Speaking Outline Sample Speaking Outline Full-Text Speech: Staying Ahead of Spyware Introductions, Conclusions, and Language CHAPTER 14 – Developing the Introduction Functions of the Introduction Gain Attention: The First Step • SELF-ASSESSMENT CHECKLIST: Using Humor Appropriately Introduce the Purpose and Topic • PUBLIC SPEAKING IN CULTURAL PERSPECTIVE: Humor and Culture: When the Jokes Fall Flat Preview the Main Points Motivate the Audience to Accept Your Goals •SELF-ASSESSMENT CHECKLIST: How Effective Is Your Introduction? Make the Topic Relevant Establish Credibility As a Speaker Guidelines for Preparing the Introduction • CHECKLIST: Guidelines for Preparing the Introduction CHAPTER 15 – Developing the Conclusion Functions of Conclusions Signal the Close of a Speech and Provide Closure Summarize the Main Points and Goals Reiterate the Topic and Speech Purpose Challenge the Audience to Respond Make the Conclusion Memorable • CHECKLIST: Making the Conclusion Memorable 225 Use Quotations • CHECKLIST: How Effective Is Your Conclusion? Tell a Story Pose a Rhetorical Question Guidelines for Preparing the Conclusion • CHECKLIST: Guidelines for Preparing the Conclusion CHAPTER 16 – Using Language to Style the Speech Prepare Your Speeches for the Ear Strive for Simplicity Aim for Conciseness • ESL SPEAKER’S NOTES: Using Contractions Consider Phrases and Sentence Fragments Use Repetition and Transitions • SELF-ASSESSMENT CHECKLIST: Does Your Speech Incorporate Effective Oral Style? Use Personal Pronouns • CHECKLIST: Personalizing Your Speech with Personal Pronouns Choose Language That Encourages Shared Meaning Use Culturally Sensitive and Unbiased Language • PUBLIC SPEAKING IN CULTURAL PERSPECTIVE: Adapting your Language to Diverse Audiences Choose Concrete Words • CHECKLIST: Considering Your Cultural Intelligence Quotient • SELF-ASSESSMENT CHECKLIST: Is Your Speech Language Concrete? Offer Vivid Imagery Choose Language That Builds Credibility Use Appropriate Language Use Language Accurately Choose Words That Convey Confidence and Conviction • CHECKLIST: Does Your Language Build Trust and Credibility? Choose Language That Creates a Lasting Impression Use Repetition for Rhythm and Reinforcement Use Alliteration for a Poetic Quality Use Parallelism to Drive Your Points Home Vocal and Nonverbal Delivery CHAPTER 17 – Methods of Delivery Qualities of Effective Delivery Strive for Naturalness Show Enthusiasm Project a Sense of Confidence Be Direct Select a Method of Delivery Speaking from Manuscript • ESL SPEAKER’S NOTES: Avoiding the Pitfalls of Manuscript Delivery Speaking from Memory Speaking Impromptu • CHECKLIST: Speaking Off-the-Cuff: Preparing for the Impromptu Speech 256 Speaking Extemporaneously • ETHICALLY SPEAKING: A Tool for Good and Evil • CHECKLIST: Ready for the Call: Preparing for the Extemporaneous Speech CHAPTER 18 – The Voice in Delivery Volume • CHECKLIST: Tips on Using a Microphone Pitch Rate Pauses Vocal Variety • SELF-ASSESSMENT CHECKLIST: Practice Check for Vocal Effectiveness • ESL SPEAKER’S NOTES: Vocal Variety and the Non-Native Speaker Pronunciation and Articulation • PUBLIC SPEAKING IN CULTURAL PERSPECTIVE: Vocal Delivery and Culture • CHECKLIST: Overcoming Articulation Problems CHAPTER 19 – The Body in Delivery Functions of Nonverbal Communication in Delivery Clarify Verbal Messages Facilitate Feedback Establish Relationships Between Speaker and Audience Establish Speaker Credibility 268 Pay Attention to Body Movement Animate Your Facial • SELF-ASSESSMENT CHECKLIST: Tips for Using Effective Facial Expressions Maintain Eye Contact Use Gestures That Feel • CHECKLIST: Tips for Effective Gesturing Be Aware of General Body Movement Dress Appropriately • CHECKLIST: Broad Dress Code Guidelines • PUBLIC SPEAKING IN CULTURAL PERSPECTIVE: Nonverbal Communication Patterns in Different Cultures Practice the Delivery Focus on the Message Record the Speech Be Prepared to Revise Your Speaking Notes Practice Under Realistic Conditions Time Your Speech Plan Ahead and Practice Often • CHECKLIST: Practicing Your Speech Presentation Aids CHAPTER 20 – Using Presentation Aids in the Speech Functions of Presentation Aids Help Listeners Process and Retain Information Promote Interest and Motivation Convey Information Concisely Lend a Professional Image Types of Presentation Aids Props and Models • CHECKLIST: Tips for Using Props Effectively Pictures (Photographs, Drawings, Diagrams, Maps, and Posters) Graphs and Charts • CHECKLIST: Tips for Creating Effective Pictograms • CHECKLIST: Tips for Creating Effective Line, Bar, and Pie Graphs Audio and Video • CHECKLIST: Tips on Incorporating Audio and Video Into Your Presentation Multimedia Options for Displaying the Presentation Aid Overhead Transparencies • CHECKLIST: Tips for Successfully Incorporating Presentation Aids into Your Speech Computer-Generated Graphics and Display • CHECKLIST: Tips on Using Overhead Transparencies 293 Flip Charts Chalkboards Handouts From Idea to Image: Creating Visual Aids CHAPTER 21 – Designing Presentation Aids Simplicity Continuity • CHECKLIST: Applying the Principles of Simplicity and Continuity Typeface Style and Font Size • CHECKLIST: Tips for Using Typefaces, Fonts, and Sizes Effectively Color • CHECKLIST: Optimizing Your Use of Color CHAPTER 22 – Using Presentation Software It's a Speech, Not a Slide Show • CHECKLIST: Preventive Maintenance: Avoiding PowerPoint Technical Glitches A Brief Guide to Using PowerPoint Become Familiar with the Presentation Options • CHECKLIST: Using PowerPoint's AutoContent Wizard or Slide Layouts Editing Text Using Slide Inserts • CHECKLIST: Inserting Tables and Worksheets into PowerPoint Using Transitions and Animation Effects Developing PowerPoint Slides for a Speech • CHECKLIST: Tips for Successfully Using PowerPoint Presentations in Your Speech From PowerPoint to Presentation: Developing Effective Slides
FORMS OF SPEECHES CHAPTER 23 – The Informative Speech Goals and Strategies of Informative Speaking Look for Ways to Increase Understanding • CHECKLIST: Help Listeners Process and Retain Information Differentiate Between Informing and Persuading Gauge the Audience’s Informational Needs Demonstrate the Topic’s Relevance Early On Preview Main Points Present New and Interesting Information Types of Informative Speeches Speeches about Objects or Phenomena Speeches about People Speeches about Events Speeches about Processes Speeches about Issues Speeches about Concepts Approaches to Conveying Information Definition • CHECKLIST: Define Your Terms 332 Description Demonstration Explanation • CHECKLIST: Using the Power of Language to Connect with the Audience Strategies for Reducing Confusion Use Analogies to Build on Prior Knowledge Demonstrate Underlying Causes • CHECKLIST: Strategies for Explaining Complex Information Check for Understanding Appeal to Different Learning Styles Organizing the Informative Speech • CHECKLIST: Guidelines for Clearly Communicating Your Informative Message SAMPLE SPEECH OF DEMONSTRATION: An Ounce of Prevention Keeps the Germs Away, Christie Collins SAMPLE VISUALLY ANNOTATED INFORMATIVE SPEECH: Necessity and the Father of Invention: John Kanzius and the Quest to Cure Cancer, David Kruckenberg CHAPTER 24 – The Persuasive Speech What Is a Persuasive Speech? Persuasive Speeches Attempt to Influence Audience Choices • CHECKLIST: Conditions for Choosing a Persuasive Purpose Persuasive Speeches Limit Alternatives Persuasive Speeches Seek a Response • ETHICALLY SPEAKING: Persuasive Speeches Respect Audience Choices The Process of Persuasion • CHECKLIST: Increasing the Odds of Achieving Your Persuasive Speech Goals Classical Persuasive Appeals: Using Proofs Logos: Proof by Reason Pathos: Proof by Emotion • ETHICALLY SPEAKING: Using Emotions Ethically Ethos: Proof through Speaker Character • CHECKLIST: Displaying Ethos in the Persuasive Speech Contemporary Persuasive Appeals Persuading Listeners by Appealing to Their Needs Persuading Listeners by Appealing to the Reasons for Their Behavior Persuading Listeners by Focusing on What’s Most Relevant to Them Persuading Listeners through Speaker Credibility • CHECKLIST: Tips for Increasing Speaker Credibility CHAPTER 25 – Developing Arguments for the Persuasive Speech What Is an Argument? • ETHICALLY SPEAKING: Engaging in Arguments in the Public Arena Stating a Claim Providing Evidence Warrants: Justifying the Link Between the Claim and Evidence Types of Claims, Evidence, and Warrants Claims Used in Persuasive Speeches: Fact, Value, and Policy Using Evidence to Support Your Claims • PUBLIC SPEAKING IN CULTURAL PERSPECTIVE: Addressing Culture in the Persuasive Speech • CHECKLIST: Testing the Strength of Your Evidence Types of Warrants Used to Link Claims with Evidence • CHECKLIST: Making Effective Use of Reasoning by Cause Addressing the Other Side of the Argument • CHECKLIST: Techniques for Addressing Competing Arguments Fallacies in Reasoning Begging the Questions Bandwagoning Either-Or Fallacy Ad Hominem Argument Red Herring Hasty Generalization Non Sequitur Slippery Slope Appeal to Tradition CHAPTER 26 – Organizing the Persuasive Speech Factors to Consider When Choosing an Organizational Pattern Arguments and Evidence Target Audience Specific Speech Purpose Problem-Solution Pattern of Arrangement • CHECKLIST: Organizing a Claim of Policy Monroe’s Motivated Sequence Step 1: Attention Step 2: Need Step 3: Satisfaction Step 4: Visualization • CHECKLIST: Steps in the Motivated Sequence Step 5: Action Comparative Advantage Pattern of Arrangement Refutation Pattern of Arrangement SAMPLE PERSUASIVE SPEECH: The Need for Disability Awareness, Amy Taber SAMPLE VISUALLY ANNOTATED PERSUASIVE SPEECH: Emergency in the Emergency Room, Lisa Roth SAMPLE VISUALLY ANNOTATED PERSUASIVE SPEECH: Choosing the Right Path, Elipidio Villarreal CHAPTER 27 – Special Occasion Speeches Functions of Special Occasion Speeches Entertainment Celebration Commemoration Inspiration Social Agenda-Setting Types of Special Occasion Speeches Speeches of Introduction Speeches of Acceptance • CHECKLIST: Guidelines for Introducing Other Speakers • CHECKLIST: Guidelines for Delivering Speeches of Acceptance Speeches of Presentation Roasts and Toasts Eulogies and Other Tributes • CHECKLIST: Tips for Delivering Effective Eulogies After-Dinner Speeches Speeches of Inspiration • CHECKLIST: Delivering a Successful Speech of Inspiration • ETHICALLY SPEAKING: Beware of Violating Audience Expectations SAMPLE VISUALLY ANNOTATED SPECIAL OCCASION SPEECH: Remarks at the Virginia Tech Convocation, Governor Tim Kaine Speaking Beyond the Speech Classroom CHAPTER 28 – Communicating in Groups Becoming an Effective Group Participant Assuming Roles within the Group Using Productive Conflict to Focus on the Issues Pursuing a Collective Mind While Avoiding Groupthink Leading a Group Setting Goals • CHECKLIST: Guidelines for Setting Group Goals Encouraging Active Participation • CHECKLIST: Techniques to Encourage Group Participation Making Decisions in Groups Making Presentations in Groups CHAPTER 29 – Business and Professional Presentations Public Versus Presentational Speaking Topic Selection Audience Composition Audience Participation Speaker Expertise Common Types of Business and Professional Presentations Sales Presentations • CHECKLIST: Using Monroe’s Motivated Sequence to Organize a Sales Presentation Proposals • CHECKLIST: Preparing a Proposal Staff Reports • CHECKLIST: Preparing a Staff Report Progress Reports • CHECKLIST: Preparing a Progress Report Crisis-Response Presentations • ESL SPEAKER’S NOTES: Steps to Counteract Problems in Being Understood • ETHICALLY SPEAKING: Code of Ethics for Professional Communicators CHAPTER 30 – Speaking in Other College Courses Review of an Academic Article Team Presentations Designate a Team Leader Assign Roles and Tasks Establish a Consistent Format Rehearse the Presentation • CHECKLIST: Assigning Roles for the Group Presentation • CHECKLIST: Team Presentation Tips Debates Take a Side Advance Strong Arguments "Flow" the Debate • CHECKLIST: Tips for Winning a Debate Poster Sessions Addressing Typical Audiences Speaking in Science and Mathematics Courses • CHECKLIST: Tips on Presenting to a Mixed Audience The Research (Oral Scientific) Presentation • CHECKLIST: Evaluating Your Original Research Presentation The Methods/Procedure Presentation The Research Overview Field Study Presentation • CHECKLIST: Tips for Producing Effective Poster Sessions Preparing Effective Presentations in Science and Mathematics • CHECKLIST: Tips for Preparing Successful Scientific Presentations Speaking in Technical Courses The Design Review The Request for Funding Preparing Effective Technical Presentations The Architecture Design Review Speaking in Social Science Courses Debate Controversial Topics Provide a Review of the Literature Explain Social Phenomena Evaluate Policies and Programs Recommend Policies Preparing Effective Presentations in the Social Sciences Speaking in Arts and Humanities Courses Informative Speeches of Description and Analysis Presentations That Compare and Contrast Debates Classroom Discussions Preparing Effective Presentations in the Arts and Humanities Speaking in Education Courses Delivering a Lecture Facilitating a Group Activity Facilitating a Classroom Discussion Preparing Effective Presentations in Education Speaking in Nursing and Allied Health Courses Community Service Learning Project Treatment Plan Reports (Case Conferences/Shift Reports) Policy Recommendation Report Preparing Effective Presentations in Nursing and Allied Health Courses SAMPLE SPEECHES Sample Informative Speech Nonmonetary Uses of Gold, Christa Kim Sample Persuasive Speech Tales of Our Grandmothers, Anita Taylor Sample Special Occasion Speech 2004 University of Pennsylvania Commencement Address, Bono REFERENCE AND RESEARCH APPENDICES A – Handling Question-and-Answer Sessions B – Preparing for Mediated Communication C – Public Discussions: Panels, Symposiums, and Forums D – Mispronounced Words E – Chicago Documentation F – APA Documentation G – MLA Documentation H – CBE/CSE Documentation I – IEEE Documentation J – Glossary
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