Special Edition Using Microsoft Office 2000


All-star author Ed Bott (PC Computing senior editor) understands business users and how they want to be productive without becoming hard core computer geeks. In this book, you'll quickly find all of the information you need to be productive in Word, Excel, PowerPoint, Publisher, and Outlook, without extra information that you won't use. With this you'll easily create professional documents in Word, build powerful Excel spreadsheets, prepare killer PowerPoint presentations, and ...
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All-star author Ed Bott (PC Computing senior editor) understands business users and how they want to be productive without becoming hard core computer geeks. In this book, you'll quickly find all of the information you need to be productive in Word, Excel, PowerPoint, Publisher, and Outlook, without extra information that you won't use. With this you'll easily create professional documents in Word, build powerful Excel spreadsheets, prepare killer PowerPoint presentations, and get your time and email organized with Outlook.
  • Tame pesky Office 2000 features like the Office Assistant and clipboard to make Office 2000 applications work quickly and efficiently for you
  • See how to detect and avoid dangerous and destructive macro viruses that destroy your data and waste your time
  • Step up to the new features of Office 2000 that will be the most useful for you including better web publishing in all Office applications
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Editorial Reviews

This thorough reference by two contributing editors of focuses on the unique needs of business professionals and business users already experienced with Windows and Office. Each of the seven major applications in the latest version of the Office suite gets its own section. The CD-ROM contains Woody's Office POWER Pack 2000 enhancement. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (booknews.com)
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780789718426
  • Publisher: Que
  • Publication date: 5/7/1999
  • Series: Special Edition Using Series
  • Edition description: BK&CD ROM
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 1473
  • Product dimensions: 7.40 (w) x 9.10 (h) x 2.10 (d)

Meet the Author

Ed Bott is an award-winning computer journalist and one of the most widely recognized voices in the computing world, with nearly two decades of experience as a writer and editor at leading magazines like PC World and PC Computing. Currently, he is Senior Contributing Editor for Smart Business (formerly PC Computing), a 1999 National Magazine Award winner with a monthly circulation of more than 1 million. On the Web, Ed is the Guide to Windows on About.com, one of the Internet's leading resources for news, information, and entertainment; he also writes a weekly column for TechRepublic.com. He is the author of a long list of Que books covering Microsoft Windows and Office; in all, Ed has reached more than 650,000 Windows and Office users through his unique combination of expert knowledge and friendly, down-to-earth style. Woody Leonhard describes himself as "a Microsoft Office victim." A contributing editor at PC Computing Magazine, Woody is known for his offbeat writing style and dead-on accurate technical content. He has earned an unprecedented six Computer Press Association awards and, with Ed Bott, two American Business Press awards. Woody is the author of Woody Leonhard Teaches Microsoft Office 2000 and Special Edition Using Microsoft Office 2000 which includes "Woody's Office POWER Pack," the award-winning Office add-on created by Woody1s software company. With 15 (or is it 16?) computer books under his belt, Woody is now the author "Woody's Office Watch" ­ a free (!) weekly electronic newsletter that holds Microsoft's feet to the fire. Woody is also a Tibetan human rights advocate and cofounder of the Tibetan Children's Fund. He lives on top of a mountain in Colorado.

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Table of Contents



1. An Overview of Office 2000.

What's New in Office 2000. An Overview of Office 2000 Applications. Office Applets and Utilities. Online Help for Expert Users. Advanced Support Options. Troubleshooting. Secrets of the Office Masters: Creating Shortcuts to Help Files.

2. Customizing the Office Interface.

Controlling Automatic Interface Changes. Creating a New Toolbar. Customizing Built-In Menus. Bypassing Menus with Keyboard Shortcuts. Configuring Common Office Features. Configuring Spell-Checking Options. Setting IntelliMouse Options. Saving and Restoring Personal Settings. Troubleshooting. Secrets of the Office Masters: Custom Toolbars for Quick Highlighting.

3. Office File Management for Experts.

Choosing a Default Storage Location. Creating New Files. Using and Customizing Common Dialog Boxes. Storing Document Details in the Properties Box. Searching for Office Files. Troubleshooting. Secrets of the Office Masters: Details, Details.

4. Editing and Formatting Text.

Entering Text. Selecting Text. Finding and Replacing Text. Using AutoCorrect to Automate Documents. Using and Managing Fonts. Common Formatting Options. Undoing and Redoing Changes. Troubleshooting. Secrets of the Office Masters: Using AutoCorrect to Add a Digital Signature to Your Documents.

5. Creating and Editing Professional-Quality Graphics.

Using Office Drawing Tools. Creating Graphics from Text. Using the Clip Gallery. Importing and Exporting Graphics. Using Microsoft Photo Editor to Crop and Adjust Graphics. Working with Scanned Images. Inserting Organization Charts. Creating and Editing Simple Charts. Troubleshooting. Secrets of the Office Masters: A Professional Word Flowchart.

6. Sharing Data Between Office Applications.

Using the Office Clipboard. Converting Clipboard Data into Alternative Formats. Dragging and Dropping Data. Converting and Importing Files Between Office Applications. Combining Two or More Data Types in One Document. Managing Multiple Documents with Office Binders. Troubleshooting. Secrets of the Office Masters: Unhiding the Clipboard Toolbar.

7. Sharing Documents Within a Workgroup.

Keeping Shared Documents Secure. Mailing and Routing Documents. Using NetMeeting for Online Collaboration. Troubleshooting.


8. Office on the Web for Experts.

Office and the Web. How Office Handles HTML Documents. Choosing the Right Tool for the Job. Moving Between HTML and Office Formats. Web Page Design Essentials. Working with Hyperlinks. Troubleshooting. Secrets of the Office Masters: Keys to Effective Web Page Design.

9. Advanced Web Page Techniques.

Browser Compatibility Issues. Creating Interactive Web Pages with Office Components. Using COM Components. Adding VBScript or JScript Code. Previewing and Testing Web Pages. Secrets of the Office Masters: The Power of Interactive Web Pages.

10. Using Office Documents on a Web Server.

Saving and Opening Pages on Web Servers. Using a Web Server for Discussions. Configuring Office for Web Discussions. Participating in Web Discussions. Troubleshooting. Secrets of the Office Masters: Tips for Managing an Intranet Server.


11. Word Essentials.

Avoiding Compatibility Problems. Batch Conversions with the Conversion Wizard. Understanding Your Formatting Options. Choosing the Right Document View. Printing Word Documents. Customizing the Word Interface. Troubleshooting. Secrets of the Office Masters: Styles and Manually Applied Formatting.

12. Expert Text-Editing Techniques.

Navigating Through a Word Document. Finding and Replacing Text and Other Parts of a Document. Entering Text and Graphics Automatically with AutoText and AutoCorrect. Using Hyphens and Dashes. Changing Text Formatting. Changing Paragraph Formatting. Using the Ruler to Set Tab Stops and Indents. Formatting Simple Lists with Bullets and Numbers. Formatting All or Part of a Document Automatically. Checking Spelling and Grammar. Sharing Documents. Troubleshooting. Secrets of the Office Masters: Combining Revision Marks and Comments.

13. Advanced Document Formatting.

Adjusting Margins. Changing Paper Size and Orientation. Inserting and Deleting Manual Page Breaks. Formatting Documents by Section. Adding Lines, Borders, Shading, and Backgrounds. Formatting a Document with Columns. Faking Columns with Linked Text Boxes. Creating and Editing Headers and Footers. Creating and Editing Letters. Creating Envelopes and Labels. Wrapping Text Around Graphics. Summarizing a Document Automatically. Troubleshooting. Secrets of the Office Masters: Creative Newsletter Layouts.

14. Using Tables.

Using Tables to Organize Information. Adding a Table to a Document. Working with Tables. Positioning Tables on the Page. Advanced Table Formatting Options. Troubleshooting. Secrets of the Office Masters: Nested Tables for Superior Layout.

15. Using Styles, Templates, and Themes.

Formatting with Styles and Templates. Formatting Documents with Styles. Saving Formats As Named Styles. Customizing the Normal Document Template. Using Word's Built-In Templates. Changing Document Formats Globally. Managing Styles and Templates. Troubleshooting. Secrets of the Office Masters: Using a Macro to Replace Straight Quotes with Curly Quotes.

16. Creating Dynamic Documents with Fields and Forms.

Using Fields Intelligently. Inserting a Field into a Document. Formatting Field Results. Displaying Field Results Correctly. Some Useful Custom Fields. Creating a Data-Entry Form. Troubleshooting. Secrets of the Office Masters: Putting the {ListNum} Field to Work.

17. Merging Data and Documents.

Merging Data to Create Custom Reports and Letters. Using Mail Merge to Personalize Form Letters. Mass Emailing and Faxing with Outlook and Mail Merge. Creating Catalogs. Advanced Mail Merge Techniques. Troubleshooting. Secrets of the Office Masters: Professional Labels, Big Time.

18. Keeping Long Documents Under Control.

One File or Many? Using Bookmarks. Inserting Cross-References. Making Captions and Figure Numbering Work. Creating Indexes. Creating a Table of Contents. Managing Multiple Files. Troubleshooting. Secrets of the Office Masters: Combining Word's Auto Features and Cross-Referencing.


19. Excel Essentials.

Working with Worksheets and Workbooks. File Compatibility Issues. Using Ranges to Work with Multiple Cells. Hiding Rows and Columns. Using the Clipboard to Transform Data. Customizing the Worksheet Window. Using Links to Automatically Update or Consolidate Worksheet Data. Printing Worksheets. Publishing Excel Data in Web Pages. Customizing Excel. Troubleshooting. Secrets of the Office Masters: Managing Add-Ins.

20. Advanced Worksheet Formatting.

How Cell Formatting Works. Changing Formatting for a Cell or Range. Designing and Formatting a Worksheet for Maximum Readability. Using Conditional Formatting to Identify Key Values. Copying Formats with the Format Painter. Saving Formats As Named Styles. Using AutoFormat. Troubleshooting. Secrets of the Office Masters: Redesigning a Worksheet Clarifies the Information.

21. Using Formulas and Functions.

Entering and Editing Formulas. Using Range Names and Labels in Formulas. Manipulating Data with Worksheet Functions. Putting Worksheet Functions to Use. Using Goal Seek to Find Values. Troubleshooting Formulas. Troubleshooting. Secrets of the Office Masters: Nesting Functions Within Functions.

22. Creating and Editing Charts.

Anatomy of an Excel Chart. Using the Chart Wizard for Quick Results. Selecting Data to Plot. Selecting and Customizing a Chart Type. Editing and Formatting Chart Elements. Troubleshooting. Secrets of the Office Masters: Creating a Custom Chart Library.

23. Working with Lists and Databases.

Creating a List on a Worksheet. Speeding Up Repetitive Data Entry with AutoComplete. Automatically Filling In a Series of Data. Sorting Lists. Finding and Filtering Data in a List. Summarizing, Grouping, Outlining, and Subtotaling Lists. Using Forms to Add and Edit List Data.Importing and Exporting Data. Creating Links to External Databases. Creating and Using Web Queries. Troubleshooting. Secrets of the Office Masters: Smart Lists.

24. Using Excel in a Workgroup.

Protecting a Worksheet. Sharing a Workbook. Storing Multiple Scenarios in a Single Workbook. Consolidating Data from Multiple Users into a Single Workbook.Creating Custom Views of Worksheet Data. Troubleshooting. Secrets of the Office Masters: Managing Scenarios.

25. Using PivotTables and PivotCharts.

How PivotTable and PivotChart Reports Work. When Should You Use a PivotTable? Creating a PivotTable. Editing and Updating a PivotTable. Creating and Editing PivotCharts. Formatting and Printing PivotTables. Troubleshooting. Secrets of the Office Masters: Grouping Items in a PivotTable.

26. Error-Proof Data-Entry Techniques.

Restricting and Validating Data Entry for a Cell or Range. Creating and Using Data-Entry Forms. Troubleshooting Data Errors. Troubleshooting. Secrets of the Office Masters: Creating an Online Form.


27. Outlook Essentials.

Choosing an Outlook Configuration. How Outlook Stores Your Data. Using and Customizing the Outlook Interface. Creating, Editing, and Managing Outlook Items. Viewing Personal Information in Outlook. Managing Files and Folders in Outlook. Finding Outlook Items. Troubleshooting. Secrets of the Office Masters: Building a Library of Saved Searches.

28. Expert Email Management.

Setting Up Internet Email Accounts. Choosing a Message Format. Using Word As an Email Editor. Creating, Managing, and Using Email Addresses. Creating and Sending Messages. Checking Your Mail and Reading New Messages. Organizing Your Email. Troubleshooting. Secrets of the Office Masters: Tasteful Stationery.

29. Using Calendar.

Managing Your Personal Calendar. Viewing a Daily, Weekly, or Monthly Calendar. Printing a Calendar. Troubleshooting. Secrets of the Office Masters: Space-Saving Pocket Calendar.

30. Managing a Contacts List.

Managing Your List of Contacts. Creating a New Contact Item. Entering Several New Contact Items at Once. Editing One or More Contact Records. Merging Duplicate Contact Items. Mapping a Contact's Address. Tracking Activities for Each Contact. Addressing Letters and Envelopes Using Your Contacts List. Printing Phone Lists from Your Contacts List. Troubleshooting. Secrets of the Office Masters: Create a Contacts Folder for Web-Based Businesses.

31. Sharing Schedules and Planning Meetings.

Planning a Meeting with Outlook. Responding to Meeting Requests. Publishing Your Schedule Information. Troubleshooting. Secrets of the Office Masters: Publishing a Calendar As a Web Page.

32. Tracking Tasks and Taking Notes.

Maintaining a Personal Task List. Sorting and Filtering the Task List. Using the Journal to Track Activities. Creating and Editing Notes. Troubleshooting.

33. Administering Outlook.

Integrating Outlook with Exchange Server. Using Net Folders to Share Information. Managing Outlook Data Files. Importing and Exporting Outlook Information. Controlling Outlook with Startup Switches. Troubleshooting. Secrets of the Office Masters: Sharing a Task List.


34. PowerPoint Essentials.

Anatomy of a PowerPoint Presentation. File Compatibility Issues. Creating a Presentation. Viewing a Presentation. Managing Slide Shows. Navigating Through a Presentation. Troubleshooting.

35. Expert Presentation-Building Techniques.

Editing the Presentation Outline. Picking the Best Slide Layout. Editing Slides. Creating a Summary Slide. Adding Comments to a Presentation. Checking for Inconsistencies and Style Errors. Troubleshooting. Secrets of the Office Masters: Advanced Tricks for Showing Graphs.

36. Advanced Formatting Options.

PowerPoint File Types. Organizing Formats with Master Slides. Applying and Modifying Designs. Using Color Schemes. Changing Paragraph and Text Formatting. Troubleshooting. Secrets of the Office Masters: Tweaking the Slide Master.

37. Adding Graphics, Multimedia, and Special Effects.

Using Transitions to Control Pacing. Animating Text and Objects on a Slide. Adding Multimedia to Your Presentation. Using Action Links to Combine Effects. Troubleshooting. Secrets of the Office Masters: Animate Charts to Emphasize Data.

38. Planning and Delivering a Presentation.

Planning Your Presentation. Delivering a Perfect Presentation. Using PowerPoint with a Projector. Taking Notes During a Slide Show. Printing Your Presentation. Troubleshooting. Secrets of the Office Masters: Anticipating Questions with Hidden Slides.

39. Creating Self-Running Presentations for Kiosks and the Web.

Creating a Self-Running Presentation. Packaging a Presentation for Use on Another Computer. Creating Presentations for the Web. Troubleshooting. Secrets of the Office Masters: Choosing the Best Screen Resolution for a Web Presentation.


40. Access Essentials.

Planning an Access Database. Working with Database Objects. Using Wizards to Create Databases and Objects. Using Sample Databases. Exporting and Importing Data. Using Expressions in Database Objects. Creating Access Applications. Troubleshooting. Secrets of the Office Masters: A Database Design Checklist.

41. Creating and Customizing Tables.

Table Essentials. Creating a New Table. Changing a Table's Structure. Restricting Data Entry. Working in Datasheet View. Troubleshooting. Secrets of the Office Masters: Input Masks Made Easy.

42. Linking Multiple Tables.

Defining Relationships Between Tables. Splitting a Table to Avoid Data Duplication. Changing Joins. Creating Links to External Databases. Troubleshooting. Secrets of the Office Masters: Sharing the (Data) Wealth.

43. Using Queries to Find and Filter Data.

Understanding Queries. Creating and Modifying Queries. Creating and Applying Filters. Troubleshooting. Secrets of the Office Masters: Using Functions to Group Dates.

44. Designing and Using Forms.

Using Forms to View and Enter Data. Creating a New Form. Displaying or Entering Data with a Form. Changing a Form's Design. Troubleshooting. Secrets of the Office Masters: Switchboard Secrets.

45. Presenting Data with Reports.

Creating Reports from Access Data. Modifying a Report. Exporting a Report to Another Data Format. Troubleshooting. Secrets of the Office Masters: Grouping Data.


46. Publisher for Office Experts.

What Does Publisher Do Best? Key Components of Publisher. Designing Pages. Inserting and Manipulating Objects. Working with Graphic Objects. Editing Fills. Recoloring Pictures. Creating Borders and Shadows. Troubleshooting. Secrets of the Office Masters: Combining Rotated and Layered Objects.

47. Creating and Managing Complex Publications.

Synchronizing and Unsynchronizing Text Frames. Using Smart Objects. Updating Personal Information. Defining Custom Logos. Using Templates. Creating a Template. Using Custom Objects from the Design Gallery. Defining Units of Measurement. Flowing Text Files Between Frames. Using Advanced Printing Features. Printing Folded Publications. Solving Complex Printer Challenges. Working with Commercial Printers. Troubleshooting. Secrets of the Office Masters: Adding Graphics Files to the Design Gallery. Secrets of the Office Masters: Low-Cost Color: Adding a Single Spot Color.


48. FrontPage Essentials.

How FrontPage 2000 Fits into Office. Using the Integrated Environment. Creating and Managing Web Sites. Understanding the Office Server Extensions. Understanding HTTP. Troubleshooting. Secrets of the Office Masters: Using HTTP-EQUIV and Meta Data.

49. Developing Web Sites.

Creating Web Sites. Creating Web Pages. Introduction to HTML. Creating Hyperlinks. Using Tables. Working with Images and Videos. Troubleshooting. Secrets of the Office Masters: Elements of Effective Page Layout Design.

50. Creating Advanced Web Pages.

Going Beyond Simple Pages. Using Cascading Style Sheets. Applying Themes. Laying Out Your Pages. Planning the Navigation Structure of Your Web Site. Using Forms. Using FrontPage Components. Serving Live Pages from a Database. Troubleshooting. Secrets of the Office Masters: Understanding Cookies.

51. Publishing and Managing Web Sites.

Publishing Web Sites. Managing Web Sites. Collaborating with FrontPage. Troubleshooting. Secrets of the Office Masters: Understanding Site Statistics.

52. PhotoDraw Essentials.

Getting Started with PhotoDraw. Using Design Templates. Creating and Editing Images. Importing and Outputting Images. Photo Retouching. Secrets of the Office Masters: 3D Extrusion and Rotation.


53. Using Macros to Automate Office Tasks.

How Macros Work. Recording Simple Macros. Troubleshooting Recorded Macros. Running Macros. Macro Security. Secrets of the Office Masters: Getting Ready to Tackle VBA.

54. Working with Visual Basic for Applications.

VBA Basics. Managing Macros. Using the VBA Editor. Building Interactive VBA Programs. Controlling an Office Application from VBA. Secrets of the Office Masters: Elements of Programming Style for the Nonprogrammer.

55. Building Custom Applications with VBA.

Controlling How VBA Applications Start. Opening, Closing, and Creating New Documents. Using VBA to Add Text. Displaying Messages. Displaying Office-Standard Dialog Boxes. Creating Custom Dialog Boxes. Troubleshooting. Secrets of the Office Masters: Custom Dialog Boxes in VBA.

56. Advanced VBA Tools and Techniques.

Managing VBA Projects. Code Snippets You Can Use. Controlling Other Applications. Using the Object Browser. Secrets of the Office Masters: Stuck on a Line of VBA Code? Que's Special Edition WOPR 2000 Pack Installation.


Appendix A. Advanced Setup Options.

Using the Windows Installer. Performing a Custom Installation. Fixing Setup Problems. Using Setup in Maintenance Mode. Installing Office from a Network. Backing Up User Settings with the Office Profile Wizard. Adding Support for Other Languages. Troubleshooting.

Appendix B. What's on Que's Special Edition WOPR 2000 Pack CD.

WOPR 2000—Woody's Office POWER Pack 2000. Complete Electronic Copy of Special Edition Using Microsoft Office 2000. Extensive Additional Electronic Book Chapters on Office 2000 Programs. Third-Party Software. Que's Special Edition WOPR 2000 Pack Installation.

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First Chapter

Using Microsoft® Office 2000 - Chapter 11 - Formatting Documents in Word

[Figures are not included in this sample chapter]

Using Microsoft® Office 2000
- 11 -
Formatting Documents in Word

  • Learn about formatting options in Word

  • Change your margins and paper size

  • Modify your fonts to add emphasis

  • Adjust line spacing and paragraph alignment

  • Create bulleted and numbered lists

Understanding Your Formatting Options

The goal of page design is to make documents easier to read. By carefully selectingfonts, varying the use of bold text and other attributes, and arranging blocks oftext and graphics on the page, you create natural "entry points" that guidethe reader through your document quickly and effectively.

Word lets you exercise pinpoint control over every part of a document's design,from the whitespace around pages to the placement of objects on the screen to thesize and shapes of text. In general, you can use three formatting options to turnplain text into well-designed documents: character formatting, paragraphformatting, and page or section setup options.

Character Formats

Use font formatting to control the precise look of all the text in your document. YYou can choose separate fonts, adjust the size and style of the text, and use specialeffects such as underlining and strikethrough to accentuate words and paragraphs.Word also lets you choose colors and animated effects for text; these formattingoptions are most useful for Web pages and other documents designed for online viewing.

Typeface? Font? What's the difference?
At one time, the distinction between the terms typeface and font was clear. Today, that line has blurred somewhat, although the basic principles are still the same.
When you choose an entry from Word's drop-down Font list, you're providing only one piece of the information needed to describe the look of the selected text. Old-time typesetters and printers would insist that each item on that list is a typeface--the catchall term that describes the general shape and weight of the letters, numbers, and punctuation marks in that family. The font, they would argue, includes much more detail--not just the typeface, but also its size, weight (bold or demibold, for example), and style (such as italic). In this strict definition, Arial is the name of a typeface, and 12-point Arial Bold Italic describes a specific font.

Word also includes an unusual character formatting option not available in otherOffice programs. Click the arrow to the right of the Highlight buttonon the Formatting toolbar and choose one of 15 colors; the pointer changesshape to resemble a highlighter pen, which you can swipe over text to change itscolor. Double-click the Highlight button to lock the pointer so that you can markmultiple blocks of text, and then click the button again or press Esc to restorethe pointer to its normal shape. To remove highlighting, highlight the selectionagain, using the same color or the None option on the drop-down list to itsright.


For more details on using Word's Highlight tool, see page 211

Paragraph Formats

As the name implies, paragraph formats control the alignment, spacing,and arrangement of entire paragraphs. You can use indents to adjust margins on aparagraph-by-paragraph basis, and tab stops enable you to align text or numbers intocolumns.

Serif versus sans serif

Typefaces come in all levels of complexity, but they can generally be dividedinto two broad categories: serif and sans serif. Serifs are the smalldecorative flourishes at the ends of some characters in some typefaces. Sans means"without," so a sans serif face has none of these decorations. Look atthe tips of the capital T in the following type samples to see the difference clearly:

  • This is a SERIF typeface.

  • This is a SANS SERIF typeface.

Most designers agree that serif typefaces are the best choice for big blocks oftext because they're easier to read, whereas sans serif typefaces are better forheadlines and short paragraphs.


For a detailed explanation of how to manage Word paragraph styles, see page 250

Page/Section Setup Options

Open the File menu and choose Page Setup to adjustformats that affect the entire docum ent. These settings define the margins at thetop, bottom, left, and right of the page. They also allow you to specify what typeof paper you plan to use for each document, how you want text oriented on the page,and whether you want headers or footers on each page.


To learn how page setup options can make your printed documents look better, see page 284

Normally, page settings apply to your entire document. If you divide a documentinto sections, however, you can set different margins, paper sizes, orientations,headers, footers, and other page settings for each section. For example, you mightcreate a letter that prints on standard letterhead paper, and include an envelopeas part of the document file, so you can print both pieces at once. By adding a sectionbreak between the letter and envelope, you can specify a new paper source (#10 Envelope),with margins to match.

Direct Formatting Versus Styles

When you create a document from scratch, Word starts with the basic formattingoptions defined in the Normal document template, including all settings forthe Normal character and paragraph styles. If you select text or click in a paragraphand apply other styles, Word changes the look of your document using the settingsstored in those styles.

If you've used document styles to apply formatting, you can override thesechoices by choosing options from Word's Format menu. Font choices andother direct formatting options that you make in this fashion override characterand paragraph styles. To see all the formatting options for a given block of text,including direct setting s and named styles, choose the Help menu andselect What's This? Aim the question-mark-and-arrow pointer at a characterand click to see a window like the one in Figure 11.1.

FIGURE 11.1 Use What's This? help to inspect all the formatting for a given part of your document. Direct formatting always overrides formatting applied by a named style.

Restoring Default Formatting

If you've mixed styles and direct formatting, trying to sort out which formattingis which can get hopelessly confusing. If you can no longer make heads or tails ofthe formatting in your document, you might want to reset formats to their defaults.

  • To reset all paragraph format settings to those defined in the current style, position the insertion point within the paragraph and press Ctrl+Q.

  • To reset any character formatting to the settings defined in the paragraph style, select the text and press Ctrl+Spacebar. (This method also removes any character styles applied within the selected text.)

  • To remove all formatting and reset the paragraph to the Normal style, press Ctrl+Shift+N.


For more details about Word's Normal document template, see page 154
For instructions on how to change Word's automatic formatting options, see page 202
To find general information on saving and reusing formats, see page 250

Applying Multiple Formats with Themes

In previous versions of Word, the only way to save collections o f formatting optionswas in named styles and templates. Word 2000 offers a new option called themes.These are collections of formats--including fonts, colors, bullets, graphics, andbackgrounds--intended primarily for Web pages, email messages, and other online documents.


For a full explanation of the difference between templates and themes, see page 261
To learn how to use themes with Web pages, see page 324

Changing the Look of a Page

If you use the default settings in the Normal document template, Word assumesyou want all your documents on 8´- by 11-inch letter paper with roughly aninch of whitespace on all four sides. You can adjust any of these settings, however,applying your changes to the entire document or to individual pages or sections.For example, you might format a letter for printing on your company's letterhead,and then create a section break and add the page settings for an envelope--whichis a completely different size and prints at a different orientation. In this example,each section gets its own page setup settings.

Adding section breaks

Open the Insert menu and choose the Break commandto create a dividing line between sections. Select Continuous if youwant text to continue on the same page, with different margins and other page settings.Choose the Next page option when you want to insert a section breakand start a new page, as you would when changing paper types. The Evenpage and Odd page options are most useful if you're creating abound bookle t.

Adjusting the Margins

You can leave extra room on the margins at either side, the top, or thebottom of your page; this option is especially useful if you want to leave room towrite comments. You can also trim the margins to pack more words on the page, althoughthat option may sacrifice readability.

Zero is not an option
With most printers, you cannot set the margins to zero because standard laser and inkjet printers have an unprintable area that Windows doesn't let you use. If you try to set a margin to a value that is within the unprintable area, Word offers to change it to the minimum setting.

Type directly or spin
As with many Office dialog boxes, you can set the page margins by typing them directly into the boxes, or you can click the spinner buttons to nudge the value up or down in small increments--in this case, 0.1 inch at a time.

To adjust the margins, pull down the File menu and choose PageSetup; then click the Margins tab (see Figure 11.2). Youcan set margins for all four edges, as well as the gutter, which is the insideof each page (the right side of a left-hand page and the left side of a right-handpage) when you're printing a book or other bound document. Click the box labeledMirror margins to change the Left and Rig_ht boxesto Inside and Outside when printing documents you planto bind book-style.

FIGURE 11.2 Click the Margins tab in the Page Setup dialog box to adjust t he amount of whitespace around your pages.

Changing Paper Size and Orientation

You'll print most business documents on plain letter paper. But what do you dowhen you want to use legal-size paper or the A4 paper common in European offices?Or when you want to print a table in landscape mode, with the wide edge of the paperat the top and bottom of the page?

Mix and match margins
You can easily change margins and even paper size in the middle of a document. Just pick This Point Forward from the drop-down list labeled Apply to. Word inserts a section break (next page) at that point.

Changing Paper Size

1. Pull down the File menu and choose Page Setup to open Word's Page Setup dialog box.

2. Click the Paper Size tab (see Figure 11.3).

FIGURE 11.3 Use these options to change paper sizes and switch from Portrait (tall) to Landscape (wide) orientation.

3. The exact choices available in the Paper size list depend on the printer you've selected. Click the arrow to the right of the list to choose a predefined paper size.

Is your paper compatible?

Before you specify a custom paper size, make sure that your printer can handle it. Some printers require that you use a manual feed for nonstandard sizes, and thick papers such as the stock used for postcards or place cards can jam your printer. Read the printer's documentation if you're not certain.

Pick the right paper for each page

Does your office laser printer stock letterhead in one tray and plain paper in another? Use the Page Setup dialog box to tell Word which tray to use. You can find the specific options for your printer under the Paper Source tab. The exact choices vary by printer; on Hewlett-Packard LaserJets, for example, you can specify an upper or lower tray, a manual tray, or an envelope feeder. Alternatively, you can let the printer automatically select the correct paper source.

4. If the paper size you want to use is not listed, choose Custom size from the bottom of the list and enter the dimensions of the paper in the boxes labeled Width and Height.

5. To use the selected paper size for all documents, click the button labeled Default.

6. Click OK to close the dialog box.


To learn how to send your document to the printer, see page 295

Starting a New Page

Sometimes you want to end the current page and force Word to start a new one--forexample, to put a table on its own, separate page. Press Ctrl+Enter to add a manualpage break; or pull down the Insert menu, choose Break,and then select Page Break from the Break dialog box.

Adding Emphasis to Text

By changing the appearance of words, numbers, symbols, and other text, you candramatically enhance the readability of a document. (Of course, if you make lous ydesign decisions, you'll only make things harder on your readers. Check out a copyof Wired magazine if you don't believe me.) Fonts and font effects such asunderlining can help the reader distinguish between headings and body text, or helpdraw the reader's eye to individual words or phrases within a paragraph.

Each view handles page breaks its own way
Page breaks look a little different, depending on the view you've selected. In Normal and Outline views, you see a dotted line, complete with the words Page Break, where you added the break. In Print Layout view, you see the end of the page just as it will look on paper. Word ignores page breaks in Web Layout view.

Changing the current font
If you select no text at all, the font selection applies to anything you type at the insertion point. When you create a new document and immediately change fonts, for example, the change applies to all text until you change it again.

Choosing the Right Font

When you know exactly which font you want to use for a given chunk of text, theeasy way is to select the text and then choose a font from the Font list onthe Formatting toolbar. The fonts you've used most recently appear at thetop of the list so they're easy to find; the rest of the fonts appear in alphabeticalorder. Use the Font Size list (just to the right of the font list) to makethe font bigger or smaller.

Other buttons on the Formatting toolbar let you add specific character formatting--bold,underline, or italic, for example.

Windows uses several kinds of fonts, but the most popular ar iety is called TrueType.TrueType fonts are scalable, which means that Windows can stretch (scale)them into the exact size you specify, in virtually any size. They also look identicalon the printer and onscreen. Printer fonts and screen fonts, on theother hand, usually come in a limited number of sizes and may cause problems whendisplaying or printing documents. If you choose a printer font that doesn't havea matching screen font, for example, Windows has to substitute an installed screenfont when displaying the document, meaning what you see onscreen will not look thesame as what you get from the printer.

When you want to add new fonts for ordinary documents, be sure to choose the TrueTypevariety. They're guaranteed to work with Word and other Office programs. TrueTypefonts are preceded by a double T icon in the Fonts text box on the Formattingtoolbar; a printer icon appears in front of fonts available with the current printer.

Finding fonts
Windows gives you only five TrueType fonts for starters, and Internet Explorer adds a handful. Office 2000 adds several dozen fonts, and you can find dozens of extra fonts on the Office 2000 CD. Other programs come with fonts as well, and you can get more fonts for free or for a few dollars apiece. Or search the Web for a nearly infinite assortment of free and inexpensive fonts. If you want to increase your document design options, adding fonts is one of the best investments you can make.

Before you choose a font, you probably want to have some idea what it will looklike. The Font list itself can give you a pretty good preview of wha t eachfont looks like; pull down the Font list to see a list like the one in Figure11.4.

FIGURE 11.4 Unlike previous versions, Word 2000 shows you a sample of each font in this pull-down list.

If the sample in the Font list doesn't show enough to let you decide whether youwant to use that font, look at a larger sample. When you make a text selection, theFont dialog box uses the selected text to preview what it will look like onscreen.

Displaying a plain font list

If you have a slow PC and hundreds of fonts, the display of font samples might slow down your productivity. To tell Word that you prefer to see a simple list of fonts, pull down the Tools menu, choose Customize, click the Options tab, and clear the check mark from the List font names in their font box.

Go to the head of the list

You'll find fonts you've used most recently at the top of the Fonts list. Thatcomes in handy when you have several hundred fonts installed on your system. Of course,you'll also find those fonts exactly where you would expect them in the alphabeticallist.

Changing Fonts

1. Select the text you want to change; then right-click the selection and choose Font from the shortcut menu. You see the Font dialog box shown in Figure 11.5.

When you're not sure which font you want, use this Preview panel to see what your text will look like before you actually change it.

2. Choose a typeface from the Font list. For a preview of what your text will look like, see the panel at the bottom of the dialog box.

3. Pick a font style: Bold? Italic? Both? Neither? The exact choices available depend on the font you selected.

4. Specify the font size (measured in points). You must enter a number between 1 and 1638 here. For most business documents, use 10 or 12 points for text.

5. Choose a text color from the drop-down list of 16 available colors and specify any additional font effects, if you want.

6. Click OK to change the look of the selected text.

Troubleshooting Font Problems

When you open a document created by a friend or coworker, it might not look theway that person intended. If the author used fonts that aren't installed on yourcomputer, Word substitutes an available font for the one specified in the document.If the substitution is close enough, you may not notice the difference, but in othercases (especially with highly decorative fonts), the change can be downright ugly.To see details about substituted fonts, pull down the Tools menu, chooseOptions, click the Compatibility tab, and click the button labeledFont Substitution. The surest way to see the document with its properformatting is to install the font on your computer. Otherwise, change the text formattingto a font that your PC can recognize. See the online Help topic "Specify fontsto use when converting files" for more advice.

72 points = 1 inch
For more than 50 0 years, printers have used the point as a standard unit to measure the size of letters on a typeset page. There are approximately 72 points to an inch, so a 6-line paragraph set in 12-point type fills an inch, and a 72-point character is one inch tall.

Changing the Look of a Word or Character

Besides choosing the font, which dictates the shape and general appearance ofcharacters, you can specify effects to be applied to that font. These options areindependent of font selections; when you choose to underline the selected text, forexample, underlining remains even if you change fonts. Click the Bold,Italic, or Underline buttons to apply these common effects.

The following table lists additional font effects you can choose and what eachone does:

Choose This Option To Add This Effect
Strikethrough Draws a line through text; often used in legal documents to indicate deleted text.
Double strikethrough Draws a line through text; often used in legal documents to indicate deleted text.
Sup_erscript Displays a small character raised above normal text; for example, in the mathe- matical formula a2+b2=c2.
Subscript Displays a small character below normal text; for example, in the chemical formula H2O.
Shadow Adds some depth to the selected letters.
Outline Shows only the edges of the selected text; the inside of each letter is white.
Emboss Applies a 3D effect that's particularly effective for Web pages and other online documents.
Eng_rave Applies another 3D effect, also primarily intended for Web pages.


For more information about applying effects to Web pages, including animation effects, see page 319

Hiding Text

One of the effects available in the Font dialog box is Hidden.Select this font effect when you want the option to see text on the screen withoutseeing it on the printed page. Text formatted as hidden never prints out, and undermost circumstances it's not visible on the screen either. To reveal hidden text,pull down the Tools menu, choose Options, click the Viewtab, and check the box labeled Hidden text.

Changing the Case of Selected Text

Two options in the Font dialog box let you specify Small caps orAll caps for the current selection. You probably won't want to usethe All caps setting with directly formatted text because you can retypethe text more easily. Instead, this option is most appropriate with named styles.For example, you might create a Title style and store it in a document template;when you apply that template to a document, text formatted with that style automaticallydisplays correctly. Several of Word's built-in Letter templates include styles thatuse this attribute, allowing you to type your company name or address and have itappear in all caps.

Some fonts are all caps already
Certain fonts include only capital letters in their character set. If you format text using the Algerian font, for example, lowercase and uppercase letters are identical. Whatever you type appears in caps regardless of other formatting options.

Change case instantly
One of my favorite keyboard shortcuts lets me quickly change a word from uppercase to lowercase and back, without deleting and retyping. If you select text first, this shortcut affects the selected text; otherwise, it applies to the word in which the insertion point appears. Press Shift+F3 to toggle from lowercase to mixed case (initial caps only) to all caps.

The Small caps option displays all the selected text as uppercasecharacters but uses a smaller point s ize for lowercase letters. This effect is astriking way to set off titles and headings so that they get noticed.

Arranging Text on the Page

By choosing the right fonts and applying other text formatting options, you canmake words and sentences stand out on the page. When you design a document, arrangingthe words so that they fall in the right place on the page is equally important.Large headlines, for example, look better when centered between the left and rightsides of the page, with ample white-space above and below. Summary information standsout on the page when it's indented slightly. If you want to leave room for changesin a draft of a document, you can add extra space between lines.

Word's paragraph formatting options let you set off text with extra spacing, stackyour words neatly on top of each other, center words on the page, and control preciselywhen Word ends one page and begins a new one.

Adjusting Space Between Lines

For most documents, most of the time, you'll use the default single spacing. Somekinds of documents, though, are more readable when extra space appears between eachline. (Double-spacing is especially useful if you expect someone to add commentsand corrections to your work.) You can allow Word to adjust line spacing automatically,based on each line's font size and any graphics or other embedded objects. Or, tomaintain precise control over the look of a page, you can specify an exact amountof space between lines.

Line spacing is for body text

Line spacing is most important in running text, when you have paragraphs thatwrap around to multiple lines. To control space above and below headings, caption s,and other one-liners, use paragraph spacing options instead.

Can't adjust paragraph settings?

Paragraph formatting options are not available in Outline view. To adjust theseoptions, switch to another view, preferably Print Layout.

Changing Spacing Between Lines

1. Position the insertion point in the paragraph. Then pull down the Format menu and choose Paragraph, or right-click anywhere within the paragraph and select Paragraph from the shortcut menu.

2. In the Paragraph dialog box, click the Indents and Spacing tab.

3. To adjust line spacing, choose one of the following options:

    • Select Single, 1.5 lines, or Double from the drop-down list labeled Line Spacing.

    • Select Multiple from the drop-down list labeled Line Spacing; then choose the number of lines in the box labeled At. You can enter a fraction, such as 1.25; to use triple spacing, enter 3 here.

    • Choose Exactly from the Line Spacing list and enter the spacing you want (in points) in the At box. When you choose this option, Word maintains the precise line spacing you selected even if you increase or decrease the font size or insert graphics.

    • If you have large type or graphics mixed with small type, select At Least from the Line Spacing list. Enter the minimum spacing in the At box; make sure that this number is at least as big as the biggest type size you're using.
4. Click OK to close the dialog box.

Adjusting Space Before and After Paragraphs

Some people prefer to add space after each paragraph by pressing the Enter keytwice. Don't! There's a better way to separate one paragraph from the next. To addspace before or after a paragraph, right-click and choose Paragraph fromthe shortcut menu; then click the Indents and Spacing tab. The defaultsetting in the Before and After boxes is 0 points; add spacehere to provide extra separation between paragraphs. For example, if you're usinga 12-point font and you want to add half a line at the end of each paragraph, enter6 points in the box labeled After.

Note that this setting is separate from the line spacing settings I describedpreviously. If you've selected double spacing with 12-point text, and you add 6 pointsafter each paragraph, the effect is to add 2 1/2 lines between paragraphs.

Paragraph spacing is most effective when used in combination with styles. Addingeven a few points of spacing above and below headings, for example, can help themstand out from surrounding text.


For instructions on reusing paragraph and character formats, see page 140

Aligning Text to Make It Easier to Read

For every paragraph, you can also choose how it lines up on the page. You havefour distinct alignment choices. When should you use each one?

  • Left--Because most Western languages read from left to right, this alignment is the most popular choice for text. Every line starts at the same place on the left edge and ends at a different place on the right, depending on how many characters are in each line.

  • Centered--Use centered text for headlines and very short blocks of text. Do not center lengthy passages.

  • Right--As you type, the text begins at the right edge, and each new letter pushes its neighbors to the left so that everything lines up perfectly on the right edge. Use this choice only for short captions alongside pictures or boxes, or when you want a distinctive look for a headline on a flyer or newsletter. Right alignment is also appropriate when numbering pages.

  • Justified--When you choose this option, Word distributes extra space between words so that each line begins and ends at the same place on the right and left. Justified text works best with formatted columns, as in a newsletter. Don't use this setting in memos, because justified text with wide margins is hard to read.

One click handles a whole paragraph

The four alignment buttons on the Formatting toolbar let you change a paragraph'salignment with a single click. Because this setting applies to the entire paragraph,all you have to do is click anywhere in the paragraph and then click whichever buttonyou prefer.

Indenting Paragraphs for Emphasis

When you set the margins for a document, they apply to every paragraph in thatdocument (or in a section, if you've created multiple sections). Sometimes, though,you want to vary the relation between the text in one or m ore paragraphs and thewhite space in the document margins.

You might indent the first line to help make the beginning of a paragraphmore noticeable. Indenting an important paragraph on both sides adds white spaceon the left and right so that it stands out from the rest of the page. Adding negativeindents, which extend into the left margin, is a useful way to set off headingsand lists. Finally, you might use a hanging indent to set off paragraphs ina list. Figure 11.6 shows examples of these three indent styles.

FIGURE 11.6 You can use paragraph indents in a variety of ways to help set blocks of text apart from the rest of your document, as these three distinct examples show.

Using the Ruler to Set Tab Stops and Indents

What's the best way to add tabs and indents to your paragraphs? All theoptions are available in the dialog boxes that appear when you pull down the Formatmenu and choose Tabs. However, adjusting tab stops, indents, and evenpage margins is far easier with the help of Word's ruler, which sitsjust above the document editing window. Each of the small widgets on the ruler handlesa specific alignment task. Because you can see the results instantly, this directapproach takes all the guesswork and most of the dialog boxes out of the process.

Hide the ruler
If your video display is set to a relatively low resolution (800 by 600 or less), Word's ruler takes up a significant chunk of the document editing window. To give yourself more room for editing, keep the ruler hidden until you need it. In Norm al or Print Layout view, pull down the View menu and choose Ruler to show or hide the ruler.

Figure 11.7 identifies each control on Word's horizontal ruler. See the followingtable for instructions on how to use these controls to set tabs and adjust indents.

FIGURE 11.7 You don't need to memorize the names of these controls; let the mouse pointer rest over each one to see a descriptive ScreenTip.

Ruler Control How You Use It
Tab Button, Tab Stops Click the button at the far left of the ruler to cycle through left, center, right, and decimal tab types (use ScreenTips to tell which is which). Select the type of tab you want to add and then click on the ruler to add the new tab stop. Drag a tab stop to move it; drag it off the ruler to remove it.
Left Margin, Right Margin In Print Layout view, the white part of the ruler indicates the left and right edges of the document; the dark region shows the distance between the edge of the paper and both margins. To adjust page margins, aim the mouse pointer at the border between the dark and light areas; when the pointer turns to a two-headed arrow, click and drag.
Hanging Indent To indent the second and subsequent lines in the current paragraph, drag the bottom triangle.
Left Indent To indent the left side of the entire paragraph, drag this box. Both markers above it go along for the ride.
First Line Indent To indent only the first line of the selected paragraph, drag the top triangle.
Right Indent To indent the right side of the entire paragraph, drag this triangle.

Which paragraph is which?

Remember, tab and indent settings apply to the entire paragraph where the insertionpoint is located. To adjust indents for more than one paragraph, you must selectthe appropriate text. When you press the Enter key to start a new paragraph, it usesthe ruler settings from the previous paragraph.

How the Tab and Backspace Keys Work

Most of the time, pressing the Tab key adds a tab character to your document,moving the insertion point to the next tab stop-- a predefined locationalong the horizontal ruler within the current paragraph. In documents based on theNormal document template, default tab stops are located every half inch.

If you move to the beginning of a new paragraph and press the Tab key, the insertionpoint moves a half inch to the right. Keep pressing the Tab key to move the insertionpoint to the right, a half inch at a time. Press the Backspace key to delete theprevious tab character and move the insertion point back to the previous tab stop.If you position the insertion point within a paragraph, the Tab and Backspace keyswork the same way.

In one specific circumstance, the Tab and Backspace keys behave differently. Ifyou position the insertion point at the beginning of a paragraph that contains textand then press the Tab key, Word does not insert a tab character. Instead, that actionadjusts the First Line Indent for the current paragraph, moving the beginning ofthe first line to the location of the first default tab stop. Leave the insertionpoint at the beginning of the paragraph and press the Backspace key, and Word removesthe indent.

Where are the tab characters?
To see whether any tab characters appear in the current paragraph, click the Show/Hide button. Tab characters look like small right-facing arrows, and they're positioned directly between the end of the text and the next tab stop.

What happens if you press the Tab key again? Word moves the First Line Indentforward another tab stop and also creates a Hanging Indent at the first default tabstop. If you press Backspace at this point, you remove the First Line Indent, butthe entire paragraph retains the Hanging Indent. Press Backspace again to removethe Hanging Indent. To make matters even more confusing, the Tab key reverts to itsoriginal behavior, adding a tab character at the beginning of the paragraph, if you'veadded your own tab stops to the current paragraph.

See tab characters (and more)
To see all the nonprinting parts of a document, including tabs, paragraph marks, and spaces, click the Show/Hide button. This action is useful when you can't figure out why tabs aren't working properly. To choose which nonprinting characters to display, pull down the Tools menu, choose Options, click the View tab, and add or clear check marks as needed.

If you find this inconsistent behavior annoying, change it. Pull down the Toolsmenu, choose Options, click the Edit tab, and clear thecheck mark from the box labeled Tabs and backspace set left indent.

Positioning Text with Tabs

When you create a new tab stop, you define a point on the horizontal ruler. Eachtime you press the Tab key, the insertion point moves to the next tab stop. Of thefive distinct types of tab stops, each is defined by the text alignment at that location.The most common use for tab stops is to allow you to mix and match different textalignments on the same line. For example, in a document footer you might set a centertab in the middle of the page and a right tab at the right margin; then you couldenter a chapter number, press Tab to enter the chapter name and center it on thepage, and then press Tab again to add a page number at the right margin.

Force Word to add a tab character

The Tab key also behaves differently in Outline view, where it promotes or demotesthe current heading. To force Word to add a tab character in Outline view or at thebeginning of a line in other views, where it would normally in dent the paragraph,press Ctrl+Tab.

The following table describes how each type of tab stop works:

Tab Alignment How It Works
Left Moves the insertion point to the tab stop; when you enter text, it extends to the right.
Center Moves the insertion point and centers text you enter at the tab stop.
Right Moves the insertion point to the tab stop; when you enter text, it extends to the left.
Decimal Text or numbers align at the decimal point, with all other text extending to the left; this type is used most often to align columns of numbers in currency format.
Bar Draws a vertical rule at the tab stop; pressing the Tab key does not move the insertion point. Generally, it's easier to use tables for a task like this.


To learn more about using Word tables, see page 268

Normally when you press a Tab key, the insertion point simply moves to the nexttab sto p. You can tell Word to add a leader character, such as a row of periods,between the text and the tab stop; these characters are commonly used with tablesof contents and invoices, where you want the reader's eye to clearly see the relationshipbetween the entry at the left and the matching entry to its right.

Alternatives to tabs

You might be tempted to just press the Tab key and keep pressing, but for mostdocuments you should consider two alternative formatting options. For lining up columnsof text and numbers, tables (with hidden borders) are easier to work with than tabs.Constructing a block-style résumé, for example, is a nightmare usingtabs, but simple with tables. Likewise, simple paragraph alignment is easier, andthe results are more predictable, when you use indents (described later in this chapter)instead of tabs.

As I explained earlier in this chapter, the quick way to set simple tab stopsis to use the horizontal ruler. To set more complicated tabs or to adjust existingtab stops, pull down the Format menu and choose Tabs.You then see the dialog box shown in Figure 11.8.

FIGURE 11.8 Leader dots and decimal alignment make it easy to read the column of numbers at the right of this invoice.

Using Large Initial Caps for Emphasis

Professional designers often enlarge the first letter of a paragraph to make iteasier for readers to find the beginning of a section. Because the larger initialletter drops below the base of the first line, designers call this feature a dropcap. Word enables you to create drop caps easily in documents you create. Clicki n the paragraph where you want to add a larger first letter, pull down the Formatmenu, and choose Drop Cap. You then see a dialog box like the one inFigure 11.9.

FIGURE 11.9 A drop cap should never be larger than the headline above it. In 12-point body text, a 3-line drop cap goes with a 36-point headline.

Choose a font, pick the number of lines you want the first letter to extend downward,and specify how much of a gap you want between the drop cap and the text. Click OKto add the drop cap.

Displaying Text in Multiple Columns

It can literally be exhausting to have to read page after page of text that runsthe full width of a letter-sized page. That's why magazine and newsletter publishersoften break stories into columns. You can do the same with Word documents.In fact, you can mix and match different column widths and arrangements within thesame document, by using separate formatting for different sections.

Before you begin messing with columns, decide whether it's really worth the effort.Working with columns is complicated. You have to be painfully aware of where eachsection break is located and how the formatting behaves in each section. In manycases, it's easier to create a table with hidden borders, then fill it with text.


To get started with Word tables, see page 268

Arranging Text in Multiple Columns

1. Position the insertion point at the spot where you want the columns to begin. To format a specific block of text, select it first.

2. Pull down t he Format menu and choose Columns.

3. In the Columns dialog box (Figure 11.10), choose the number of columns you want to use. Use the spinner to choose a number, or click one of the five choices in the Presets box.

FIGURE 11.10 Use this dialog box to divide a long block of text into columns for readability's sake.

4. To add a rule between columns, check the Line between box. Watch the Preview box to see the effect of your formatting.

No more columns?
If you want to remove the column formatting from a block of text, just click the One column option in this dialog box.
5. Adjust the width of the columns, if you want. Clear the check mark from the Equal column width box if you want to format unequal columns.

6. In the Apply to box, choose the most appropriate option:

    • Whole document, as the name implies, formats the entire document using your column settings, regardless of whether you've selected any text.

    • Selected text adds a section break at the beginning and end of the current selection. The second break restores the column formats from the section before the selection.

    • This point forward adds a section break and applies the columns to any text that appears after this break, including text you've already entered.
7. Cl ick OK to apply the formatting and return to the editing window.

Using Hyphens to Control Line Breaks

When your document includes sections with relatively narrow margins, a long wordthat falls at the end of a line may not fit. The result can be a line that's tooshort, making your document esthetically unpleasing and hard to read. To make morenatural line breaks, tell Word you want it to make a pass through the document andautomatically hyphenate words based on its dictionary. You can also go througha document manually, adding hyphens only where necessary. Choose this option whenyou want absolute control over the look of your document.

Save hyphenation for last

When you use Word's hyphenation options, it passes through your document addingoptional hyphens, which only display when necessary. If you make additional changesto the document, the line breaks will change, and you'll need to run through thehyphenation routine again.

To turn on automatic hyphenation, Check the box labeled Automaticallyhyphenate document and click OK.

To manually insert hyphens, pull down the Tools menu and chooseLanguage, then click the Hyphenation option. Click theManual button. Word will walk you through the entire document, pausingat each instance where it would normally insert a hyphen if you chose the Automaticoption.

Formatting Simple Lists with Bullets and Numbers

When you need to communicate effectively with other people, lists are among yourmost powerful tools. Whether the list items are single words or full paragraphs,bullet characters and numb ers help set them apart from normal body text. Turningplain text into a list is one of the easiest things you can do to a Word document.After you've created a list, Word uses the same bullet character when youadd new items, and if you rearrange items in a numbered list, Word renumbers theentire list automatically.

Creating a Bulleted List

To create a bulleted list on the fly as you type, just click the Bulletsbutton on the Formatting toolbar. Type the first item in your list and then pressEnter to add another bulleted item. The items in a list can be anything--numbers,words, phrases, whole paragraphs, even graphics. To stop adding bullets and returnto normal paragraph style, click the Bullets button again.

Automatic bullets
Unless you've turned off the AutoFormat As You Type option, Word automatically converts items to bulleted list format whenever you begin a paragraph with an asterisk (*) or a hyphen and press Enter.

To add bullets to a list you've already typed, first select the items in the list;then click the Bullets button. The default bullet is a simple black dot in frontof each item.


For an explanation of how Word creates bulleted lists automatically, see page 202

Changing the Default Bullet Character

When you first create a bulleted list, Word sets off each item with a big, bold,boring dot. If you would prefer a more visually interesting bullet, you're in luck.Word lets you choose from seven predefined bullet characters, or you can use oneof hundreds of characters in any sym bol font. For Web pages and other documents designedprimarily for online viewing, you can also use a graphic as a bullet character.

Changing the Bullet Character in a List

1. Select the entire list; then right-click and choose Bullets and Numbering from the shortcut menu.

2. To use one of the seven predefined bullet characters, click the bullet style you want from the list (see Figure 11.11).

FIGURE 11.11
When you choose Bullets and Numbering from the shortcut menu, Word offers you these seven choices. Click the Customize button to select a new character.

3. To choose your own bullet character, click the Customize button. In the Customize Bulleted List dialog box (see Figure 11.12), choose the bullet type you want to replace; then click the button labeled Bullet.

FIGURE 11.12
Choose any symbol to use as a bullet, and position it where you want it. Click the Font button to modify the size, color, and other bullet attributes.

4. Pick a character from the Symbol dialog box. (Choose a new font from the drop-down Font list, if necessary; the three Wingdings fonts, for example, are full of good candidates.)

5. Adjust the size, color, and position of the bullet, if necessary. The Preview window shows you how each change will affect the look of your list.

6. When you're satisfied, click OK to change the bullets in your list.

To use a graphic as a bullet character, right-click on any item in the list. ChooseBullets and Numbering from the shortcut menu, then click the Picturebutton. Word opens a dialog box that lets you browse all the files in the Bulletssubfolder. Pick any one to apply it to your list.

Mix and match bullets

You can use different bullet characters within the same list. To change bulletsfor the entire list, make sure you select each line. After you click OK, if you discoverthat you inadvertently changed the bullet in only one line instead of the whole list,use Word's Repeat key right away. Select the rest of the items and press F4; thatrepeats your last action--which, in this case is the bullet character selection.

Graphic bullets are one size only

When you use a graphic as a bullet character, it appears at its actual size. That'sideal for text between 12 and 24 points, but downright ugly at smaller and largersizes.

Most of the files in this folder have utterly inscrutable names, like Bd14565_.To see a small preview of each bullet, click the Views button in this dialogbox and choose Preview.

Creating Numbered Lists

Bullets signify that the items on the list are of equal importance. If the orderof items in a list is important, as when you're writing step-by-step instructions,you should use a numbered list instead.

When you choose to number the items in your list, Word doesn't simply plop a numberin front of each paragraph; instead, it adds a hidden numbering code. If you adda new item or move items around, Word automatically renumbers the list to keep eachitem in the proper order. You can't select the number or edit it, although you cancontrol the sequence of numbers and the starting point.

Pick a number (or a letter, for that matter)
Although they're called numbered lists, the label is a bit misleading because Word also recognizes Roman numerals and letters as appropriate ways to order a list. You can begin a numbered list by typing 1, I), a., or whatever style you want to use. Press the Spacebar or the Tab key; then enter the text you want for that item. When you press Enter, Word automatically converts the paragraph you just typed into numbered format and continues the list in the paragraph you're about to type.

To start a numbered list, click the Numbering button on the Formattingtoolbar and then begin typing. Word adds the numeral 1, followed by a period andan indent. Type whatever you want--a word, a sentence, or a whole paragraph. Whenyou press Enter, Word begins the next paragraph with the next number in the sequence.

Changing Numbering Options

The basic format of a numbered list is a simple 1, 2, 3--but Word lets you chooseanother format if you want. You can switch to Roman numerals or capital letters,or you can add descriptive text to the bare numbers. If you're writing a list ofinstructions, for example, you might add the word Step before each number and a colonafterward, so your readers see Step 1:, Step 2:, and so on, in front of each item.

Changing the Format in a Numbered List

1. Select the entire numbered list, right-click, and choose Bullet s and Numbering from the shortcut menu.

2. On the Numbered tab, pick a numbering format and click the Customize button to display the dialog box shown in Figure 11.13.

FIGURE 11.13
Replace Word's default numbering scheme with your own formats. Word takes care of the naming and numbering automatically.

3. To choose a predefined number format, choose an entry from the drop-down list labeled Number style. Choose a new font, position, or starting number, if you want.

4. To create a custom format that includes text, click in the box labeled Number format and add the text before the number field. Be sure to add a space after the text.

5. Click OK to save your new numbering format.

Restart when you create a new list

If your document contains a mix of numbered lists and text, Word can get confused.For example, if you insert a paragraph of explanation after an item in a numberedlist, Word will start over at 1 when you resume the numbering. To control numbering,right-click the item that begins a group of numbered items and choose Bullets andNumbering from the shortcut menu. Click the Restart Numbering or ContinuePrevious List options on the Numbered tab.

Don't forget the paragraph mark!

To move a bulleted or numbered item properly, you must make sure that you've selectedthe paragraph mark (¶) at the end of the item. (Click the Show/Hide buttonon the Standard toolbar to make it easier to see paragraph marks.) If youdon't select the entire paragraph, the bullet or numbering formatting stays whereit is, and only the text moves.

Rearranging and Editing Lists

Because bullet and number codes are contained in Word fields, you can easily rearrange,reorder, or expand items in a list. Here's how:

  • To move a list item to a new position, first select the entire item, including the paragraph mark (¶). Then use the Cut and Paste shortcut menus, or simply drag the item to its new spot.

  • To add a new item to the end of the list, move the insertion point to the end of the last paragraph in the list and press Enter.

  • To insert a new item, click to position the insertion point at the beginning of the paragraph where you want to add the new item and then press Enter.

  • To skip or stop numbering, right-click on the paragraph where you want to skip an entry, and choose Paragraph from the shortcut menu. (Switch to Print Layout view if necessary.) Click the Line and Page Breaks tab; then check the box labeled Suppress line numbers. This technique is especially useful when you want to add a comment in the middle of a long list.

  • To restore a list to plain text format, select the entire list and click the Numbering button or the Bullets button.

Let Word Do the Formatting

Word's AutoFormat feature is a great idea that doesn't always work as promised.It's supposed to make your documents look great, effortlessly and automatically.Too bad it does n't always work the way it's supposed to. The bigger the document,the more likely AutoFormat is to make some mistakes. The most common one is to applythe wrong style tag, turning body text into lists, for example. AutoFormat worksbest on short documents. It also works well on blocks of text, such as numbered listsand addresses.

Don't confuse AutoFormat with the AutoFormat As You Type feature. Although thetwo features share some of the same settings, they're completely independent of oneanother.


For details on how to use (or disable) Word's AutoFormat As You Type feature, see page 205

When you use AutoFormat, Word works its way through your document from top tobottom, replacing standard quotes wit h smart quotes, taking out extra spacesand unnecessary paragraph marks, and so on. AutoFormat also tries to guess whichstyle is best for each block of text. You can tell Word to skip one or more of thesesteps: Pull down the Tools menu, choose AutoCorrect,click the AutoFormat tab, and add or remove check marks as necessary.

To format the current document automatically, open the Format menuand choose AutoFormat. You then see a dialog box like the one in Figure11.14. If you're feeling lucky, choose the AutoFormat now option. Wordwhizzes through your document, makes all its changes, and displays the newly formatteddocument in the editing window.

FIGURE 11.14 Use AutoFormat the fast way or the thorough way. Try the fast way first; if you don't like the results, click the Undo button and start o ver.

If you choose the second option, AutoFormat and review each change,Word formats the document and then asks if you want to accept, reject, or reviewthe changes. Click the Review Changes button to begin reviewing the changes(as in Figure 11.15).

FIGURE 11.15 When you choose Review Changes, Word lets you say yes or no at every step of the process.


To learn how to use AutoCorrect, AutoFormat, and other common features, see page 41

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