Speech Quality of VoIP: Assessment and Prediction / Edition 1

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Overview

Speech Quality of VoIP is an essential guide to assessing the speech quality of VoIP networks, which addresses the implications for the design of VoIP networks and systems. This book bridges the gap between the technical network-world and the psychoacoustic world of quality perception. Alexander Raake's unique perspective combines awareness of the technical characteristics of VoIP networks and original research concerning the perception of speech transmitted across them.

Starting from the network designer's point of view, the different characteristics of the network are explained, and then linked to features perceived by users. This book provides an overview of the available knowledge on the principles of speech and speech quality perception, how to assess speech quality, and the transmission properties of telephone and VoIP networks. Discussing new research into the specific time-varying degradations unique to VoIP, and the considerable potential of quality improvement to be achieved with wideband speech transmission, Alexander Raake demonstrates how network and service characteristics impact on the user's perception of quality.

Speech Quality of VoIP: Offers an insight into speech quality of VoIP from a user's perspective, Presents an overview of different modelling approaches and a parametric network-planning model for quality prediction in VoIP networks, Draws on innovative new research on the quality degradation characteristic of VoIP, Explains in detail how telephone speech quality can be enhanced with VoIP wideband speech transmission capability, Assesses the vast collection of references into the technical and scientific literature related to VoIP quality, Illustratesconcepts throughout with mathematical models, algorithms and simulations. Speech Quality of VoIP is the definitive guide for researchers, engineers and network planners working in the field of VoIP, Quality of Service, and speech communication processing in telecommunications. Advanced undergraduate and graduate students on telecommunication and networking courses will also find this text an invaluable resource.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780470030608
  • Publisher: Wiley, John & Sons, Incorporated
  • Publication date: 11/3/2006
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 336
  • Product dimensions: 6.85 (w) x 9.88 (h) x 0.97 (d)

Meet the Author

Engineers working in the area of EHW who are look for a manual or handbook to the field.  It will also be useful as a textbook by graduate students in computer engineering, electrical engineering, or adaptive systems.  It can also be used as a supplementary textbook in classes on fault tolerant systems or evolutionary computation.
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Table of Contents


Preface     xi
List of Abbreviations     xiii
Introduction     xxi
Speech Quality in Telephony     1
Speech     1
Speech Acoustics     3
Speech Perception     4
Speech Quality     13
Definition of Quality     15
Speech Quality Assessment     16
Quality Elements     18
Speech Quality and Quality of Service     19
Speech Quality Measurement Methods     23
Auditory Methods     24
Utilitarian Methods     25
Analytical Methods     34
Instrumental Methods     39
Signal-based Models     40
Parameter-based Models     42
Monitoring Models     46
Speech Quality Measurement Methods: Summary     49
Quality Elements and Quality Features of VoIP     51
Speech Transmission Using Internet Protocol     51
VoIP Applications     54
VoIP Quality of Service     55
Overview of Quality Elements     56
Quality Elements and Related Features     58
Voice Activity Detection (VAD)     58
Codecs     58
Jitter     61
Delay     61
Packet Loss     63
Bit Errors     78
Talker Echo     79
Listener Echo     80
Echo Cancellers     80
Loudness     82
Noise     83
Noise Suppression     85
Linear Distortion and Wideband Transmission     85
User Interfaces     90
Quality Dimensions     91
Combined Elements and Combined Features     98
Listening and Conversational Features     98
Desired Nature     99
Context     101
Cost     101
Service Options     102
Open Questions     102
From Elements to Features: Modeling VoIP Speech Quality     103
Signal-based Measures and VoIP     104
Parametric Models and VoIP     105
Quality Elements and Quality Features of VoIP: Summary     108
Time-Varying Distortion: Quality Features and Modeling     111
Microscopic Loss Behavior     113
Random Packet Loss     113
Dependent Packet Loss     123
Macroscopic Loss Behavior     129
Macroscopic Loss with Segments of Random Loss      130
Macroscopic Loss with Segments of Dependent Loss     135
Interactivity     147
Packet Loss and Combined Impairments     151
Additivity and Multidimensional Feature Space     152
Microscopic Loss Behavior: Random Packet Loss     154
Macroscopic Loss Behavior: 3-State Markov Loss     162
Model: Packet Loss and Combined Impairments     168
Time-Varying Distortion: Summary     172
Wideband Speech, Linear and Non Linear Distortion: Quality Features and Modeling     175
Wideband Speech: Improvement Over Narrowband     176
Summary     181
Bandpass-Filtered Speech     181
Listening Test     182
Parametric Impairment Model     184
Wideband Codecs     189
Desired Nature     190
User Interfaces     192
Content     197
Summary     203
From Elements to Features: Extensions of the E-model     205
E-model: Packet Loss     205
E-model: Additivity     206
E-model: Wideband, Linear and Non-Linear Distortion     208
Summary and Conclusions     211
Outlook     215
Aspects of a Parametric Description of Time-Varying Distortion     217
4-state Markov Chain: Sojourn in Bad and Good State     217
Impact of Other Quality Elements on Packet Loss     219
Forward Error Correction     219
Jitter and Jitter Buffer     220
Impairment under GSM Bit Errors     223
Simulation of Quality Elements     225
PSTN/ISDN     226
Instrumental Verification     228
Mobile Networks     228
VoIP     229
Analog to ISDN Conversion     229
VoIP Gateways     230
IP Network Simulation     231
Instrumental Verification     233
Wideband Transmission     234
User Interfaces     234
Handset Telephones     235
Headsets     235
Wideband Handset and Hi-fi Phone     235
Bandpass Filters     237
Hands-free Terminals (HFTs)     238
Test Rooms     241
Simulation of Quality Elements: Summary     241
Frequency Responses     245
Transmission Bandpass     245
Narrowband     245
Wideband     246
User Interfaces     247
Headsets      247
Wideband Handsets     248
Test Data Normalization and Transformation     251
Equivalent-Q Method     251
Method According to ITU-T Rec. P.833     252
Linear Transformation     252
Note on MOS-terminology     253
E-model Algorithm     255
Interactive Short Conversation Test Scenarios (iSCTs)     261
Example     262
Auditory Test Settings and Results     265
Global System for Mobile (GSM): Short Conversation and Listening Only Test     265
2-state Markov Loss: Listening Only Test     267
Random Loss: Conversation Test     268
Test Setup     268
Test Procedure     269
Subjects     270
Details on Selected Results     270
3-state Markov Loss: Conversation Test     271
Test Setup     271
Test Procedure and Test Subjects     272
Details on Selected Results     273
Speech Sound Quality and Content     274
Modeling Details     277
Time-Varying Distortions     277
Macroscopic Loss Behavior     277
Glossary     281
Bibliography     285
Index      303
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