Sperm Whales: Social Evolution in the Ocean

Sperm Whales: Social Evolution in the Ocean

by Hal Whitehead
     
 

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ISBN-10: 0226895173

ISBN-13: 9780226895178

Pub. Date: 08/28/2003

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

Whitehead (biology, Dalhousie U., Canada) uses statistical methodologies to explore the social behavior and cultural traits of sperm whales within the context of their evolutionary and ecological niche. He devotes separate chapters to the habitat, migratory patterns, population dynamics, behavior and vocalizations, social structures, and culture (differentiable

Overview

Whitehead (biology, Dalhousie U., Canada) uses statistical methodologies to explore the social behavior and cultural traits of sperm whales within the context of their evolutionary and ecological niche. He devotes separate chapters to the habitat, migratory patterns, population dynamics, behavior and vocalizations, social structures, and culture (differentiable behavior among groups). This material is then used to tease out some hypotheses about social and cultural evolution in the open ocean. Annotation ©2003 Book News, Inc., Portland, OR

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780226895178
Publisher:
University of Chicago Press
Publication date:
08/28/2003
Edition description:
1
Pages:
456
Product dimensions:
6.00(w) x 9.00(h) x 1.30(d)

Related Subjects

Table of Contents

Contents
Acknowledgments....................xi
Conventions....................xv
Symbols and Abbreviations....................xvii
Prologue: Observations of Sperm Whale Societies....................xix
1 The Sperm Whale: An Animal of Extremes....................1
1.1 Social Complexity in the Ocean....................1
1.2 Evolutionary History of the Sperm Whale....................2
1.3 Morphology: What Does the Sperm Whale Look Like?....................3
1.4 The Peculiar Anatomy of the Sperm Whale: The Spermaceti Organ....................8
1.5 The Lives and Populations of Sperm Whales....................11
1.6 Sperm Whales and Humans....................13
Box 1.1 The Sperm Whale in Print....................15
1.7 What Is Social Structure, and How Is It Studied in Sperm Whales?....................25
1.8 What Is Culture, and How Is It Studied in Sperm Whales?....................26
1.9 What Do We Know and What Don't We Know about Sperm Whale Societies?....................27
1.10 Summary....................28
2 The Oceanic Habitat of the Sperm Whale....................30
2.1 Spatio-Temporal Structure of the Ocean....................30
2.2 Oceanographic Habitat of the Sperm Whale....................33
2.3 The Diet of the Sperm Whale: The Walnut, the Pea, and the Half-Pound Steak....................43
Box 2.1 An Alternative View of the Sperm Whale Diet: The Picky Eater....................51
2.4 The Sperm Whale and Its Competitors....................55
2.5 The Ecological Role of the Sperm Whale....................60
2.6 Feeding Success of the SpermWhale....................61
2.7 Intraspecific Competition....................68
2.8 Natural Enemies....................70
2.9 Attack, Defense, and Escape in the Ocean....................73
2.10 Summary....................76
3 The Sperm Whale: On the Move through an Ocean....................78
3.1 Why Movement Is Crucial....................78
3.2 Vertical Movements: The Sperm Whale's Dive....................79
3.3 Costs and Benefits of Vertical Movement....................83
3.4 Horizontal Movements of Females and Immatures....................84
3.5 Movements of Males....................100
3.6 Movements of Other Oceanic and Terrestrial Animals....................104
3.7 Costs and Benefits of Horizontal Movement....................106
Box 3.1 How Fast Should a Sperm Whale Swim?....................108
3.8 Summary....................109
4 Sperm Whale Populations....................111
4.1 Geographic Structure....................111
4.2 The Sizes of Sperm Whale Populations....................115
Box 4.1 Methods of Assessing Sperm Whale Populations....................115
4.3 Population Parameters....................122
4.4 Population Dynamics....................125
Box 4.2 Changes in Sperm Whale Populations off the Galápagos Islands, 1985-2002....................126
4.5 Summary....................131
5 Sperm Whale Behavior and Vocalizations....................133
5.1 Measuring Behavior....................133
5.2 Vocalizations....................134
Box 5.1 Are Sperm Whale Clicks Echolocation?....................137
Box 5.2 Measures of Sperm Whale Behavior....................146
5.3 Modes of Behavior....................146
5.4 Foraging....................156
5.5 Socializing....................168
5.6 Aerial Behavior (and Other Peculiar Activities)....................176
5.7 Birthing....................184
5.8 Behavior of the Calf....................186
5.9 Defense against Predators....................188
Box 5.3 Interactions between Sperm Whales and Killer Whales....................189
5.10 Stranding....................200
5.11 Summary....................204
6 Sperm Whale Societies....................206
6.1 Social Scales....................206
6.2 Concentrations....................208
6.3 Aggregations....................211
6.4 Groups....................213
Box 6.1 The Problems of Estimating Group Size....................216
6.5 Social Units....................232
Box 6.2 Delineating Social Units....................233
6.6 Genetic Structure of Groups and Units....................239
6.7 The Functions of Groups and Units....................245
Box 6.3 A Week in the Life of a Sperm Whale Group....................247
6.8 The Cluster....................252
6.9 Care of the Calf....................261
6.10 The Social Male?....................264
6.11 Mating Systems....................271
Box 6.4 An Observation of Two Male Sperm Whales Fighting....................280
6.12 Summary....................283
7 Sperm Whale Cultures....................286
7.1 The Quest for Sperm Whale Culture....................286
7.2 Coda Dialects of Units and Clans....................288
Box 7.1 Describing and Comparing Coda Repertoires....................290
Box 7.2 Sperm Whale Clans of the South Pacific....................297
7.3 Nonvocal Cultural Traits of Sperm Whales....................301
7.4 Low Mitochondrial DNA Diversity and Culture: Cultural Hitchhiking....................310
7.5 Summary....................315
8 Social and Cultural Evolution in the Ocean....................316
8.1 Evolution to Extremes....................316
8.2 The Function and Evolution of a Big Nose....................317
Box 8.1 The Spermaceti Organ: A Buoyancy Control Device or a Battering Ram?....................318
8.3 The Function and Evolution of a Large Brain....................321
8.4 Sperm Whales and Other Deep Divers....................325
8.5 The Colossal Convergence: Sperm Whales and Elephants....................332
8.6 K-Selection, Sociality, and Ecological Success....................335
8.7 Social Evolution of Female Sperm Whales: Facing the Predators....................339
8.8 The Lives of Males....................342
8.9 Sexual Segregation....................346
8.10 Social Evolution in the Open Ocean....................348
8.11 Cultural Evolution in the Ocean....................354
8.12 Summary....................357
9 Sperm Whales and the Future....................360
9.1 Ghosts of Past Whaling....................360
9.2 The New Threats to Sperm Whales....................362
9.3 Studying Sperm Whales in the Future....................368
9.4 The Nature and Future of the Sperm Whale....................370
9.5 Summary....................372
Appendix: How We Study the Sperm Whale....................375
A.1 Examining Carcasses....................375
A.2 Studying Living Animals....................376
A.3 Photoidentification and Photographic Measurement: The Key to Individuals....................380
A.4 Quantifying Sounds....................384
A.5 Unraveling Genes....................385
References....................387
Index....................417

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