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Spin Dynamics: Basics of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Second Edition / Edition 2

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Overview

Spin Dynamics: Basics of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Second Edition is a comprehensive and modern introduction which focuses on those essential principles and concepts needed for a thorough understanding of the subject, rather than the practical aspects. The quantum theory of nuclear magnets is presented within a strong physical framework, supported by figures. 

The book assumes only a basic knowledge of complex numbers and matrices, and provides the reader with numerous worked examples and exercises to encourage understanding. With the explicit aim of carefully developing the subject from the beginning, the text starts with coverage of quarks and nucleons and progresses through to a detailed explanation of several important NMR experiments, including NMR imaging, COSY, NOESY and TROSY. 

Completely revised and updated, the Second Edition features new material on the properties and distributions of isotopes, chemical shift anisotropy and quadrupolar interactions, Pake patterns, spin echoes, slice selection in NMR imaging, and a complete new chapter on the NMR spectroscopy of quadrupolar nuclei. New appendices have been included on Euler angles, and coherence selection by field gradients. As in the first edition, all material is heavily supported by graphics, much of which is new to this edition. 

Written for undergraduates and postgraduate students taking a first course in NMR spectroscopy and for those needing an up-to-date account of the subject, this multi-disciplinary book will appeal to chemical, physical, material, life, medical, earth and environmental scientists. The detailed physical insights will also make the book of interest for experienced spectroscopists and NMR researchers. 

• An accessible and carefully written introduction, designed to help students to fully understand this complex and dynamic subject

• Takes a multi-disciplinary approach, focusing on basic principles and concepts rather than the more practical aspects

• Presents a strong pedagogical approach throughout, with emphasis placed on individual spins to aid understanding

• Includes numerous worked examples, problems, further reading and additional notes

Praise from the reviews of the First Edition:

"This is an excellent book... that many teachers of NMR spectroscopy will cherish... It deserves to be a ‘classic’ among NMR spectroscopy texts." NMR IN BIOMEDICINE

"I strongly recommend this book to everyone…it is probably the best modern comprehensive description of the subject." ANGEWANDTE CHEMIE, INTERNATIONAL EDITION

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Editorial Reviews

Doody's Review Service
Reviewer: Frank Holger Foersterling, PhD (University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee)
Description: This comprehensive introduction to the theory of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy starts with basic principles and covers a wide range of phenomena and experimental techniques including some recently developed experiments. The first edition was published in 2001.
Purpose: The author provides the basic theoretical and conceptual equipment needed by the experimental NMR spectroscopist to understand the multitude of existing NMR experiments. It does so in a very rigorous manner, bearing in mind that inconsistencies in notation and terminology are one of the biggest obstacles for students.
Audience: The audience includes upper lever undergraduate and postgraduate students and researchers in chemistry, biochemistry, structural biology, and physics who want to understand and plan to use advanced NMR techniques. Because the author starts at a very basic level, only basic knowledge in mathematics and physics is a prerequisite for understanding. However, many of the concepts introduced in the book require willingness on the part of readers to engage in mathematics and quantum mechanics at a level beyond what many basic NMR users may feel comfortable with.
Features: This is intensive reading. The book builds on basic principles and is divided into seven parts. At the end of each of the 20 chapters are references for further reading, exercises, and footnotes which add interesting details without disrupting the flow. Figures are used extensively to supplement the text and equations. Part one, which introduces some basic principles of spin and the appearance of NMR spectra uses mainly a pictorial approach with a minimum of equations. Many details are covered in later chapters, but much of the groundwork for further understanding is laid here. Part two focuses on the NMR spectrometer, going over its different parts and following the production of an NMR signal from the transmitter to the receiver, to the final Fourier transformed spectrum, including a quick overview of 2D spectra. Part three reviews basic concepts of operator algebra and quantum mechanics of angular momentum. For readers with little training in quantum mechanics, this part is essential for further understanding of the book. This section also can be recommended for readers with some experience in operator algebra and quantum mechanics, as advanced concepts like angular momentum of spin > ½ are covered. Part four introduces the interaction of the spins with each other and external fields. Using a unique approach, the book discusses the different interactions side by side, using flow charts to categorize and compare the different interactions. The discussion remains very general, with the details of the discussion of isolated and coupled spins left for later in the book. In some ways this section feels a little awkward, as many different concepts are introduced in a very condensed manner. Part five discusses a thorough quantum mechanical treatment of isolated spins (no spin-spin interaction). Great emphasis is put on the probabilistic nature of quantum mechanical states, and the importance of superposition of eigenstates. The author then moves from isolated spins to ensembles of spins, and finally discusses basic one pulse spectra and basic experiments on single-spin systems like inversion recovery, spin echoes, and gradient echoes. The section is rounded out with a spin density treatment of quadrupolar nuclei. Spin-spin coupling is introduced in part six. Starting from energy levels of two equivalent coupled spins, a thorough treatment of weakly coupled AX spin systems is provided, and the treatment of pulses and coupling on the density matrix is developed. The results are applied to several basic experiments (COSY, INADEQUATE, INEPT and residual dipolar couplings), which are covered in great detail. Finally, multispin systems are introduced. Magnetic equivalence and spin system notations are covered, and experiments on multispin systems are discussed in detail. The last part covers the effect of motion on NMR spectra. Both motional averaging and the effect of motion on relaxation are covered. After a detailed discussion of spectral density and dipolar relaxation, experimental applications in NOESY and ROESY experiments are discussed. The section ends with an excellent description of cross-correlated relaxation.
Assessment: This is a detailed presentation of the theory of NMR. While very broad in its scope, the author takes great care to describe in detail some of the subtleties often glossed over in textbooks, like the sign of Larmor precession. Also notable is the inclusion of several very recent techniques like cross-correlated relaxation and residual dipolar couplings. What makes this book stand out compared to similar books like Maurice Goldman's Quantum Description of High-Resolution NMR in Liquids (Oxford University Press, 1991), and Charles Slichter's Principles of Magnetic Resonance, 3rd edition (Springer, 1990), is the extensive use of pictures and diagrams, which will make this book more appealing to non-physicists, like chemists and biologists. That this was achieved without loss of rigor is indeed an accomplishment.
From the Publisher
'What makes this book stand out compared to similar books is the extensive use of pictures and diagrams, which will make this book more appealing to nonphysicists, like chemists and biologists. That this was achieved without loss of rigor is indeed an accomplishment.? ( Doody's Reviews , November 2009)
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780470511176
  • Publisher: Wiley
  • Publication date: 5/2/2008
  • Edition description: REV
  • Edition number: 2
  • Pages: 740
  • Product dimensions: 7.52 (w) x 9.84 (h) x 1.64 (d)

Table of Contents

Preface.

Preface to the First Edition.

Introduction.

Part 1 Nuclear Magnetism.

1 Matter.

1.1 Atoms and Nuclei.

1.2 Spin.

1.3 Nuclei.

1.4 Nuclear Spin.

1.5 Atomic and Molecular Structure.

1.6 States of Matter.

Notes.

Further Reading.

Exercises.

2 Magnetism.

2.1 The Electromagnetic Field.

2.2 Macroscopic Magnetism.

2.3 Microscopic Magnetism.

2.4 Spin Precession.

2.5 Larmor Frequency.

2.6 Spin-Lattice Relaxation: Nuclear Paramagnetism.

2.7 Transverse Magnetization and Transverse Relaxation.

2.8 NMR Signal.

2.9 Electronic Magnetism.

Notes.

Further Reading.

Exercises.

3 NMR Spectroscopy.

3.1 A Simple Pulse Sequence.

3.2 A Simple Spectrum.

3.4 Relative Spectral Frequencies: Case of Positive

Gyromagnetic Ratio.

3.5 Relative Spectral Frequencies: Case of Negative Gyromagnetic Ratio.

3.6 Inhomogeneous Broadening.

3.7 Chemical Shifts.

3.8 J-Coupling Multiplets.

3.9 Heteronuclear Decoupling.

Notes.

Further Reading.

Exercises.

Part 2 The NMR Experiment.

4 The NMR Spectrometer.

4.1 The Magnet.

4.2 The Transmitter Section.

4.3 The Duplexer.

4.4 The Probe.

4.5 The Receiver Section.

4.6 Overview of the Radio-Frequency Section.

4.7 Pulsed Field Gradients.

Notes.

Further Reading.

5 Fourier Transform NMR.

5.1 A Single-Pulse Experiment.

5.2 Signal Averaging.

5.3 Multiple-Pulse Experiments: Phase Cycling.

5.4 Heteronuclear Experiments.

5.5 Pulsed Field Gradient Sequences.

5.6 Arrayed Experiments.

5.7 NMR Signal.

5.8 NMR Spectrum.

5.9 Two-Dimensional Spectroscopy.

5.10 Three-Dimensional Spectroscopy.

Part 3 Quantum Mechanics.

6 Mathematical Techniques.

6.1 Functions.

6.2 Operators.

6.3 Eigenfunctions, Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors.

6.4 Diagonalization.

6.5 Exponential Operators.

6.6 Cyclic Commutation.

Notes.

Further Reading.

Exercises.

7 Review of Quantum Mechanics.

7.1 Spinless Quantum Mechanics.

7.2 Energy Levels.

7.3 Natural Units.

7.4 Superposition States and Stationary States.

7.5 Conservation Laws.

7.6 Angular Momentum.

7.7 Spin.

7.8 Spin-1/2.

7.9 Higher Spin.

Notes.

Further Reading.

Exercises.

Part 4 Nuclear Spin Interactions.

8 Nuclear Spin Hamiltonian.

8.1 Spin Hamiltonian Hypothesis.

8.2 Electromagnetic Interactions.

8.3 External and Internal Spin Interactions.

8.4 External Magnetic Fields.

8.5 Internal Spin Hamiltonian.

8.6 Motional Averaging.

Notes.

Further Reading.

Exercises.

9 Internal Spin Interactions.

9.1 Chemical Shift.

9.2 Electric Quadrupole Coupling.

9.3 Direct Dipole-Dipole Coupling.

9.4 J-Coupling.

9.5 Spin-Rotation Interaction.

9.6 Summary of the Spin Hamiltonian Terms.

Notes.

Further Reading.

Exercises.

Part 5 Uncoupled Spins.

10 Single Spin-1/2.

10.1 Zeeman Eigenstates.

10.2 Measurement of Angular Momentum: Quantum Indeterminacy.

10.3 Energy Levels.

10.4 Superposition States.

10.5 Spin Precession.

10.6 Rotating Frame.

10.7 Precession in the Rotating Frame.

10.8 Radio-Frequency Pulse.

Notes.

Further Reading.

Exercises.

11 Ensemble of Spins-1/2.

11.1 Spin Density Operator.

11.2 Populations and Coherences.

11.3 Thermal Equilibrium.

11.4 Rotating-Frame Density Operator.

11.5 Magnetization Vector.

11.6 Strong Radio-Frequency Pulse.

11.7 Free Precession Without Relaxation.

11.8 Operator Transformations.

11.9 Free Evolution with Relaxation.

11.10 Magnetization Vector Trajectories.

11.11 NMR Signal and NMR Spectrum.

11.12 Single-Pulse Spectra.

Notes.

Further Reading.

Exercises.

12 Experiments on Non-Interacting Spins-1/2.

12.1 Inversion Recovery: Measurement of T1.

12.2 Spin Echoes: Measurement of T2.

12.3 Spin Locking: Measurement of T1ˆ.

12.4 Gradient Echoes.

12.5 Slice Selection.

12.6 NMR Imaging.

Notes.

Further Reading.

Exercises.

13 Quadrupolar Nuclei.

13.1 Spin I = 1.

13.2 Spin I = 3/2.

13.3 Spin I = 5/2.

13.4 Spins I = 7/2.

13.5 Spins I = 9/2.

Notes.

Further Reading.

Exercises.

Part 6 Coupled Spins.

14 Spin-1/2 Pairs.

14.1 Coupling Regimes.

14.2 Zeeman Product States and Superposition States.

14.3 Spin-Pair Hamiltonian.

14.4 Pairs of Magnetically Equivalent Spins.

14.5 Weakly Coupled Spin Pairs.

Notes.

Further Reading.

Exercises.

15 Homonuclear AX System.

15.1 Eigenstates and Energy Levels.

15.2 Density Operator.

15.3 Rotating Frame.

15.4 Free Evolution.

15.5 Spectrum of the AX System: Spin-Spin Splitting.

15.6 Product Operators.

15.7 Thermal Equilibrium.

15.8 Radio-Frequency Pulses.

15.9 Free Evolution of the Product Operators.

15.10 Spin Echo Sandwich.

Notes.

Further Reading.

Exercises.

16 Experiments on AX Systems.

16.1 COSY.

16.2 INADEQUATE.

16.3 INEPT.

16.4 Residual Dipolar Couplings.

Notes.

Further Reading.

Exercises.

17 Many-Spin Systems.

17.1 Molecular Spin System.

17.2 Spin Ensemble.

17.3 Motionally Suppressed J-Couplings.

17.4 Chemical Equivalence.

17.5 Magnetic Equivalence.

17.6 Weak Coupling.

17.7 Heteronuclear Spin Systems.

17.8 Alphabet Notation.

17.9 Spin Coupling Topologies.

Notes.

Further Reading.

Exercises.

18 Many-Spin Dynamics.

18.1 Spin Hamiltonian.

18.2 Energy Eigenstates.

18.3 Superposition States.

18.4 Spin Density Operator.

18.5 Populations and Coherences.

18.6 NMR Spectra.

18.7 Many-Spin Product Operators.

18.8 Thermal Equilibrium.

18.9 Radio-Frequency Pulses.

18.10 Free Precession.

18.11 Spin Echo Sandwiches.

18.12 INEPT in an I2S System.

18.13 COSY in Multiple-Spin Systems.

18.14 TOCSY.

Notes.

Further Reading

Exercises.

Part 7 Motion and Relaxation.

19 Motion.

19.1 Motional Processes.

19.2 Motional Time-Scales.

19.3 Motional Effects.

19.4 Motional Averaging.

19.5 Motional Lineshapes and Two-Site Exchange.

19.6 Sample Spinning.

19.7 Longitudinal Magnetization Exchange.

19.8 Diffusion.

Notes.

Further Reading.

Exercises.

20 Relaxation.

20.1 Types of Relaxation.

20.2 Relaxation Mechanisms.

20.3 Random Field Relaxation.

20.4 Dipole-Dipole Relaxation.

20.5 Steady-State Nuclear Overhauser Effect.

20.6 NOESY.

20.7 ROESY.

20.8 Cross-Correlated Relaxation.

Notes.

Further Reading.

Exercises.

Appendices.

Appendix A.

A.1 Euler Angles and Frame Transformations.

A.2 Rotations and Cyclic Commutation.

A.3 Rotation Sandwiches.

A.4 Spin-1/2 Rotation Operators.

A.5 Quadrature Detection and Spin Coherences.

A.6 Secular Approximation.

A.7 Quadrupolar Interaction.

A.8 Strong Coupling.

A.9 J-Couplings and Magnetic Equivalence.

A.10 Spin Echo Sandwiches.

A.11 Phase Cycling.

A.12 Coherence Selection by Pulsed Field Gradients.

A.13 Bloch Equations.

A.14 Chemical Exchange.

A.15 Solomon Equations.

A.16 Cross-Relaxation Dynamics.

Notes.

Further Reading.

Appendix B.

B.1 Symbols and Abbreviations.

B.2 Answers to the Exercises.

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