Spontaneous Fluctuations In Human Neuronal Activity Observed With Fmri.

Overview

The vast majority of functional neuroscience studies to date have focused on the brain&apos;s response to a task or stimulus. However, the brain is extremely active even in the absence of explicit input or output, in the form of spontaneous neuronal activity. Slow (<0.1 Hz) spontaneous fluctuations have been observed in the human brain with the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). These spontaneous fluctuations are not randomly distributed, but are ...
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Overview

The vast majority of functional neuroscience studies to date have focused on the brain&apos;s response to a task or stimulus. However, the brain is extremely active even in the absence of explicit input or output, in the form of spontaneous neuronal activity. Slow (<0.1 Hz) spontaneous fluctuations have been observed in the human brain with the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). These spontaneous fluctuations are not randomly distributed, but are correlated between functionally related brain regions. In this thesis we investigate three properties of this spontaneous activity. First, we further characterize the correlation structure and spatial topography of this activity. We show that spontaneous BOLD fluctuations are not only correlated within functional systems, but also anti-correlated between systems routinely modulated in opposite direction by attention-demanding tasks. In addition, we show that the dorsal and ventral attention systems previously defined on the basis of task-evoked patterns can be distinguished at rest, in the absence of attentional manipulations. In the second part of this thesis we determine the interaction between underlying spontaneous activity and the task-evoked BOLD responses. We show that a large percentage of the trial-to-trial variability in measured BOLD responses can be attributed to ongoing spontaneous activity coherent within distinct functional systems. Further, we show that spontaneous activity and task-evoked activity are approximately linearly superimposed in the human brain. In the third and final part of this thesis, we examine the influence of this ongoing spontaneous activity on human behavior. We show that ongoing spontaneous activity within the human somatomotor system has a significant influence on trial-to-trial variability in force output. Taken together, these results highlight the functional importance and influence of spontaneous neuronal activity. They suggest shifting one&apos;s perspective on brain function from a system primarily responding to external events to one operating on its own, intrinsically, with external interactions modulating rather than determining the operation of the system.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781243648686
  • Publisher: BiblioLabsII
  • Publication date: 9/6/2011
  • Pages: 210
  • Product dimensions: 7.44 (w) x 9.69 (h) x 0.44 (d)

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