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What is sport facility operations management? 3 Why sport facility operations management is important? 4 The discipline of sport facility operations management 7 Chapter review 8
The purpose of this prologue is to provide the reader with some initial background on the concept of sport facility operations management. First will be an explanation of the concepts of facility management and operations management in general terms followed by how these concepts interact with each other in terms of sport facilities. This will be followed by a presentation of global scenarios where poor management and/or operations of a sport facility led to significant problems. This prologue will conclude with an explanation of how this book will help the reader learn to deal with the scenarios presented, and much more. This will be accomplished through a description of the discipline of sport facility operations management in terms of the various concepts that will be covered in this textbook.
What is sport facility operations management?
In order to effectively understand sport facility operations management, it is important to understand the two root concepts — facility management and operations management. Facility management is an all-encompassing term referring to the maintenance and care of commercial and non-profit buildings, including but not limited to sport facilities, including heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC); electrical; plumbing; sound and lighting systems; cleaning, groundskeeping, and housekeeping; security; and general operations. The goal of facility management is to organize and supervise the safe and secure maintenance and operation of the facility in a financially and environmentally sound manner.
There are numerous associations that oversee the profession of facility management worldwide. These associations have further clarified the definition of facility management and also provide guidance and education for those who are employed in the field. The world's largest and most widely recognized international association for professional facility managers is the International Facility Management Association (IFMA). According to their website (www. ifma.org), they support more than 19,500 members in 60 countries through 125 chapters and 15 councils. They define facility management as 'a profession that encompasses multiple disciplines to ensure functionality of the built environment by integrating people, place, process and technology' and further clarify this definition as 'the practice or coordinating the physical workplace with the people and work of the organization; integrates the principles of business administration, architecture, and the behavioral and engineering sciences.' Other organizations include the British Institute of Facilities Management (BIFM — www.bifm.org.uk), the Facility Management Association of Australia (FMA Australia — www.fma.com.au), and the International Association of Assembly Managers (IAAM — www.iaam.org).
While facility management focuses on the overall maintenance and care of a building, operations management focuses on administrating the processes to produce and distribute the products and services offered through a facility. This would include the processes of production (tangible and intangible), inventory control, supply chain management, purchasing, logistics, scheduling, staffing, and general services — with the goal of maintaining, controlling, and improving organizational activities. The operations management field also has numerous associations that support the profession. The largest is the Association for Operations Management (APICS — www.apics.org), whose mission is to build knowledge and skills in operations management professionals to enhance and validate abilities and accelerate careers. Other organizations that support the profession of operations management globally include the European Operations Management Association (EurOMA — www.euroma-online.org), the Production and Operations Management Society (POMS — www.poms.org), and the Institute of Operations Management (www.iomnet.org.uk).
Why sport facility operations management is important?
Every day, thousands of facilities around the globe host sport, recreation, and leisure activities with minimal or no problems. But when a problem occurs, or there is a lack of planning ahead for activities, the results can be harmful and damaging. This can range from damage to the facility or equipment to injuries to personnel, participants, and visitors — with the injuries ranging in severity from minor (cuts, bruises, sprains) to major (broken bones, torn ligaments, back and eye injuries) to catastrophic (loss of limb, paralysis, death). Sport facility operations management seeks to maintain and care for public, private, and non-profit facilities used for sport, recreation, and leisure to ensure safe and secure production and distribution of products and services to users.
The discipline of sport facilities operations management has many different components that need to be understood. However before an explanation of these various sub-disciplines is provided, let us take a look at a number of real scenarios where poor facility operations and management have led to significant problems ...
In 1972, 11 Israeli athletes (along with one German police officer and five terrorists) were killed by the Palestinian terrorist group Black September due to inadequate security at the Munich Olympic Games. Eight Palestinians, with bags of weapons, were able to scale the fence that surrounded the Olympic village, and then they proceeded to enter the Israeli accommodation and take the athletes hostage.
In 1985 at Valley Parade football stadium, the home of Bradford City, a flash fire broke out during a match with Lincoln City. The fire consumed one side of the stadium, killing 56 people and injuring over 250. The fire was believed to have been caused by either a match or cigarette that fell through a hole in the stands and into rubbish below. Even though the fire brigade was called, there was no way to keep the fire at bay as fire extinguishers were removed from passageway's to prevent vandalism.
Also in 1985, Liverpool and Juventus were facing each other in the European Cup final at Heysel Stadium in Belgium. Before the match started, Liverpool supporters reacted to taunts from the Italian fans by charging through the lines of Belgian police. The Juventus fans could do nothing, but retreat as far as a wall, which collapsed under the pressure and onto their own fans below. In the ensuing panic 39 supporters died and over 600 were injured. Another contributor to the problems based on the inquiries and also concerned voiced before the event — 58,000 people coming to watch the game at a stadium that only holds only 50,000 and was crumbling from disrepair (including people being able to kick out parts of walls from the outside to gain admittance without a ticket) made it a potential death trap.
In 1988 in Katmandu, Nepal, 80 soccer fans seeking cover during a violent hail storm at the national stadium were trampled to death in a stampede. The reason — the stadium doors were locked.
In 1989 at Hillsborough Stadium (the home of the Sheffield Wednesday Football Club), there was a human crush that occurred during an FA semifinal match with Liverpool that resulted in the deaths of 96 people. This deadliest stadium-related disaster in British history (and one of the worst in international football history) could have been prevented, as the inquiry into the disaster (the Taylor Report) named the cause as failure of police and security control.
In 1993, during a quarterfinal tennis match in Hamburg, Germany, a fan ran from the middle of the crowd to the edge of the court between games and stabbed Monica Seles between the shoulder blades. The individual (who was deemed to be 'psychologically abnormal' by the courts) was a fan of Seles' rival, Steffi Graf (whom was not Seles' opponent in this match). While her injuries were not life-threatening, she did not return to professional tennis for over 2 years.
In 1996 at the Mateo Flores National Stadium in Guatemala City (seating capacity 45,800), Costa Rica and Guatemala were playing a World Cup qualifier. According to FIFA, the world soccer association, forgers apparently had sold fake tickets to the match, bringing far more people to the stadium than could fit (estimated at over 60,000). This, combined with gate-crashers (people without tickets), pushed into the bleachers through a concrete causeway, overwhelmed other fans below, and caused a mass of people to tumble down on top of one another. Ticket takers were seen to also continue admitting fans even after bleachers were clearly filled to capacity.
In 2007 at the Australian Open tennis tournament a brawl between Serbian and Croat spectators erupted outside a merchandise tent when the two groups began trading insults. Punches, bottles, and beer cups were thrown as about 150 members of the two rival groups clashed. No injuries were reported, but 150 people were ejected from the event, and Tennis Australia announced the need to revise plans for handling these types of situations in the future.
Multiple reports published between 2006 and 2009 have examined significant risks to players and spectators due to air poisoning from exhaust systems from zambonis because of lack of ventilation in ice arenas. Medical studies have shown that the results can cause a significant increase in asthma and chronic coughs in hockey players who play in poorly ventilated arenas due to carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide poisoning.
Ventilation problems have also been related to 'sick pool syndrome' in aquatic centers/natatoriums due to the high humidity and the contaminants caused by chemicals and biologics.
In 2009 at the Dallas Cowboys practice facility, a thunderstorm ripped the roof off the inflatable bubble and collapsed the infrastructure, injuring 12 people including the paralysis of one coach. The question of negligence on behalf of the Cowboys has arisen due to a number of factors, including (1) was this an adequate and safe facility to be holding practice during the tornadic weather conditions, (2) was there substandard maintenance on the facility to withstand the winds from the storm, and (3) show the Cowboys have used Summit Structures LLC to build the facility when they had prior knowledge that similar type of facility built for the Philadelphia Regional Port Authority collapsed under similar weather conditions (which are more regular in Texas).
Also in 2009, Stan Kroenke and Kroenke Sport Enterprises, owners of the Pepsi Center in Denver, signed a contract with World Wrestling Entertainment (WWE) to hold their Monday Night Raw wrestling show that is televised worldwide on Memorial Day. A the same time, the Denver Nuggets of the NBA (also owner by Kroenke) made it to semifinals of the NBA playoffs, which resulted in Game 4 of the playoffs being scheduled the same day at the WWE event. The WWE, who had a legal and binding contract, were bumped from the facility for the Denver Nuggets — less than 1 week before the event.
So, how would you deal with each of these scenarios? Could they have been prevented? What would you have done differently? You probably cannot answer those questions right now, but the goal of this book is to provide you with a body of knowledge in sport facility operations management that can be transferred to any type of facility around the globe. As with any textbook, the theoretical foundations presented offer the reader the opportunity to conceptualize the practices within a subject, then take that knowledge and apply it in practical settings. While this book will not and cannot cover every individual unique aspect of sport facility operations management from the viewpoint of every type of facility — this would be impossible — it does provide a framework that will allow an individual to enter a sport facility operations management situation, have a base understanding of what is happening, and conceptually understand how to start the process of managing the situation.
The discipline of sport facility operations management
The first section of the book seeks to provide the reader with an understanding of behind-the-scene concepts that must be understood before even entering into management and operations of sport facilities. First is an explanation of the various business, ownership, and governance structures for sport facilities across the globe. It is equally important to understand the legal authority under which the sport facility can operate as a business, as well as the business, governance, and organizational effectiveness structures. Second is an analysis of the intricacies of financing sport facilities, including the costs of conducting business, life-cycle costing, cost-effectiveness/efficiency, and the importance of economic impact analyses. By understanding these financing concepts, sport facility operations managers can connect the financing options to the ownership and governance structures, and understand how the facility came into being. Furthermore, this information serves as a foundation for looking at the current and future trends that will affect the management and operation of sport facilities. The third and last concept for this section is the planning, design, and construction processes for sport facilities. While not all individuals will be involved in these processes from the initial concept of a facility, it is inevitable that facility management professional will be involved with modification, refurbishment, and/or expansion of a facility sometime in their career. The goal is to provide background about preliminary planning, developing designs, construction processes, and preparation planning for training and management of the facility.
The second section of the book will focus on the implementation of management and operations in sport facilities, including organizational management, human resource management, financial management, operations management, and legal responsibilities. Organizational management involves the planning, organizing, leading and coordinating functions within a business to create an environment that supports continuous improvement of personnel, the organization, and the customers. Human resource management is the logical and strategic supervision and managing of the most important asset within an organization — the employees. Without a quality group of individuals working for the facility, goals and objectives could not be met, tasks would not be completed, and customers would not be served. Understanding the various types of human resources and the generally accepted practices of human resource management is crucial to the success of sport facility operations management. Equally important is financial management, as concepts such as financial reporting, budgeting, and break-even analysis are vital to the fiscal health of the sport facility, and hence the ability to continue business operations. All of these concepts above lead into actual operations management, which is the maintenance, control, and improvement of organizational activities that are required to produce products and services for consumers of the sport facility. In order to effectively manage operations, a sport facility manager must understand how the operational structure integrates with the operation of the sport facility in terms of total quality management and generating operating procedures to be utilized in various facility operations and services. In addition, general legal concerns for sport facility owners and managers will be covered, including the effects of the legal environment on sport facilities, general legal principles and standards inherent to sport facility operations management, and an explanation of the level of legal expertise an owner or manager needs.
Excerpted from Sport Facility Operations Management by Eric C. Schwarz Stacey A. Hall Simon Shibli Copyright © 2010 by Elsevier Ltd.. Excerpted by permission of Butterworth-Heinemann. All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.
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