Sports and Inequality

Sports and Inequality

by Michael J. Cozzillio, Robert L. Hayman Jr.

This anthology of annotated writings from professional journals and other books explores the inequalities that characterize American professional and amateur sports; trace the struggles for equality and report their many achievements; and identify too many lingering examples of apparent insensitivity, unconcern, or intentional disregard for the absence of diversity… See more details below


This anthology of annotated writings from professional journals and other books explores the inequalities that characterize American professional and amateur sports; trace the struggles for equality and report their many achievements; and identify too many lingering examples of apparent insensitivity, unconcern, or intentional disregard for the absence of diversity and for the failure of inclusion. The writins also examine the debate over the causes and survey the proposed remedies, which range from modest reforms to major structural overhauls. Among the topics are race, gender, sexual orientation, sexual violence, and disability. US anti-discrimination laws are appended. Annotation ©2004 Book News, Inc., Portland, OR

Product Details

Carolina Academic Press
Publication date:
Product dimensions:
7.20(w) x 9.90(h) x 2.20(d)

Table of Contents

Introduction : law, culture, and the study of sports3
Popular legal culture : an introduction10
On the margin : humanities and law12
Beyond legal realism : cultural analysis, cultural studies, and the situation of legal scholarship14
Law as culture17
Symposium : reflections from a fan : searching for more common ground in sociology and law21
When ignorance is not bliss : in search of racial and gender equity in intercollegiate athletics23
Introduction : what makes a "field" a field?27
Soccer, football, and trial systems30
The first object of government : creation myths36
Comparative law as a subversive discipline40
Metaphors matter : how images of battle, sports, and sex shape the adversary system42
Ethnic team names and logos - is there a legal solution?49
Suzan Shown Harjo et al. v. Pro-Football, Inc.55
The cancellation of Redskins as a disparaging trademark : is federal trademark law an appropriate solution for words that offend?63
A brief history of race in America69
The three myths of race72
"A general understanding" - organized baseball and black professional baseball, 1900-1930113
The past as moral guide to the present : the parallel between Martin Luther King, Jr.'s elements of a nonviolent civil rights campaign and Jackie Robinson's entry onto the Brooklyn Dodgers130
The racial re-integration of major league baseball : a business rather than moral decision; why motive matters137
Major league baseball's monopoly power and the Negro leagues143
The Harlem Globetrotters and the perpetuation of the black stereotype152
American civil rights laws and the legacy of Jackie Robinson156
Baseball and the rule of law revisited158
Where have you gone, Jackie Robinson? : integration in America in the 21st century161
The end of the "golden age" of black sports participation?165
Title VII and the Reserve Clause : a statistical analysis of salary discrimination in major league baseball171
The hard road to tennis glory183
The golfing of America188
I remember Arthur Ashe197
The great black jockeys207
The color bar gets raised in baseball218
Sports agents, role models and race consciousness224
Diversity, racism, and professional sports franchise ownership : change must come from within235
Racism in athletics : subtle yet persistent245
Merit, ol' boy networks, and the black-bottomed pyramid255
Scholz v. RDV Sports265
When ignorance is not bliss : in search of racial and gender equity in intercollegiate athletics273
The myth of the superspade : the persistence of racism in college atletics276
New directions for the civil rights movement : college athletics as a civil rights issue287
African-American student-athletes : marginalizing the NCAA regulatory structure?293
Is it in the genes? : studies have found physical differences that might help explain why blacks outperform whites in certain sports - but scientists are wary of jumping to conclusions309
Darwin's athletes : how sport has damaged black America and preserved the myth of race315
The smart culture : society, intelligence, and law318
Cureton v. National Collegiate Athletic Association335
The equality crisis : some reflections on culture, courts and feminism348
Bradwell v. State of Illinois356
Muller v. Oregon358
Adkins v. Children's Hospital361
Michael M. v. Superior Court of Sonoma County365
Mississippi University for Women v. Hogan369
United States v. Virginia372
Cohen v. Brown University (Cohen I)387
The struggle for sex equality in sport and the theory behind Title IX394
Pederson v. Louisiana State University408
One for you and one for me : is Title IX's sex-based proportionality requirement for college varsity athletic positions defensible?417
The case for requiring a proportionality test to assess compliance with Title IX in high school athletics433
Cohen v. Brown University (Cohen I)442
Cohen v. Brown University (Cohen II)448
Equally bad is not good : allowing Title IX "compliance" by the elimination of men's collegiate sports453
Neal v. Board of Trustees of the California State Universities459
Miami University Wrestling Club v. Miami University466
Title IX and the contact sports exemption : gender stereotypes in a civil rights statute471
Mercer v. Duke University484
Solving the Title IX conundrum with women's football490
In the Title IX race toward gender equity, the black female athlete is left to finish last : the lack of access for the "invisible woman"496
Implementing antiessentialism : how gender wars turn into race and class conflict500
Essay : black women, gender equity and the function at the junction504
Title IX and college sport : the long painful path to compliance and reform518
Completing the revolution : Title IX as catalyst for an alternative model of college sports531
Professional sports opportunities for American female athletes555
Leagues of their own559
Better? : yes : equal? : not by a long shot568
The gender hierarchy in tennis570
Toward gender equality in professional sports573
Garret v. New York State Athletic Commission592
Women at play596
Comment : "girls of summer" : a comprehensive analysis of the past, present, and future of women in baseball and a roadmap to litigating a successful gender discrimination case598
Stanley v. University of Southern California (Stanley I)602
Coaching contracts take on the Equal Pay Act : can (and should) female coaches tie the score?608
Stanley v. University of Southern California (Stanley II)624
Pay equity for coaches and athletic administrators : an element of Title IX?631
Women in baseball : the forgotten history641
Postema v. National League of Professional Baseball Clubs648
The umpire strikes out : Postema v. National League : major league gender discrimination654
Ortiz-Del Valle v. National Basketball Association662
Ludtke v. Kuhn667
Equal Employment Opportunity Comm'n v. National Broadcasting Co674
Willing to go it alone : women are often forced to pay a painful price for demanding equality at their country clubs681
The unplayable lie685
The key to unlocking the clubhouse door : the application of antidiscrimination laws to quasi-private clubs705
Gender discrimination at private golf clubs729
Barry v. Maple Bluff Country Club, Inc739
Wanders v. Bear Hill Golf Club, Inc743
Borne v. Haverhill Golf and Country Club, Inc.744
Identity and equality : these are the people in your neighborhood (reviewing Bernard Lefkowitz, Our guys : the Glen Ridge rape and the secret life of a perfect suburb (U. Calif. Press. 1997))751
Male student-athletes reported for sexual assault : a survey of campus police departments and judicial affairs officers757
Sport and images of masculinity : the meaning of relationships in the life course of "elite" male athletes761
Student-athlete sexual violence against women : defining the limits of institutional responsibility771
Note, out of bounds : professional sports leagues and domestic violence776
United States v. Morrison782
Sports heroes, sexual assault and the unnamed victim800
Little girls in pretty boxes809
"There's no crying in baseball" : sports and the legal construction of gender817
Boutilier v. Immigration and Naturalization Service833
Romer v. Evans837
Weaver v. Nebo School District845
Lawrence v. Texas851
Coming on strong : gender and sexuality in twentieth century women's sport862
Strong women, deep closets : lesbians and homophobia in sport870
The competitive closet882
Paid to play a game891
Playing it straight : an analysis of current legal protections to combat homophobia and sexual orientation discrimination in intercollegiate athletics896
Montgomery v. Independent School District No. 709910
Time-out : the author's story916
Introduction : disability and American sports929
The disability rights movement : from charity to confrontation934
Buck v. Bell940
Skinner v. Oklahoma945
City of Cleburne v. Cleburne Living Center948
The disability rights movement : from charity to confrontation955
No pity : forging a new civil rights movement958
Beyond ramps : disability at the end of the social contract963
Board of Trustees of the University of Alabama v. Garrett975
Disability sport and recreation resources983
No pity : forging a new civil rights movement993
Don't roll in my parade : the impact of sports and entertainment cases on public awareness and understanding of the Americans with Disabilities Act996
PGA Tour, Inc., v. Casey Martin1002
Cruz v. Pennsylvania Interscholastic Athletic Association, Inc., Defendant1021
Anderson v. Little League Baseball, Inc.1031
Shultz v. Hemet Youth Pony League, Inc.1034
App. IUnited States Constitution1039
App. IIEqual Pay Act of 19631039
App. IIICivil Rights Act of 19641040
App. IVTitle IX of the Education Amendments of 19721044
App. VRehabilitation Act of 19731046
App. VIAmericans with Disabilities Act1047
App. VIIEmployment Non-Discrimination Act (proposed)1056

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