Standard Handbook of Environmental Science, Health, and Technology

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The most comprehensive single volume ever assembled for the environmental professional—a one-stop, all-under-one-roof overview of environmental engineering subject areas, and a task-simplifying toolkit designed to simplify day-to-day decisions. Covers the varied topics of interest for today's environmental scientist: mathematical modeling, statistics, plant pathology, as well as engineering problem-solving, management decision-making, and public communication. The perfect resource for biologists, hydrologists, ...
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Overview

The most comprehensive single volume ever assembled for the environmental professional—a one-stop, all-under-one-roof overview of environmental engineering subject areas, and a task-simplifying toolkit designed to simplify day-to-day decisions. Covers the varied topics of interest for today's environmental scientist: mathematical modeling, statistics, plant pathology, as well as engineering problem-solving, management decision-making, and public communication. The perfect resource for biologists, hydrologists, geologists, engineers, chemists, and toxicologists. Packed with numerous tables, charts, illustrations, sampling methods, monitoring methods, testing methods, control techniques, equipment maintenance procedures, and calculation methods. Includes lesson-filled editorial commentary by many of the nearly 100 environmental scientists who have contributed to this book.
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Editorial Reviews

Booknews
A broad reference to the whole field of environmental science and related aspects. The first part presents basic knowledge needed to operate within environmental science. The second considers solutions to problems in the field at the local level. The third deals with particular environmental issues. Specific topics include chemistry, geology, analysis and modeling, concepts and policies of preventing pollution, toxicology and risk, remediation technologies, managing place-scale problems, sensitive environmental systems, and misconceptions about environmental pollution. The references range from none to ample. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (booknews.com)
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780070383098
  • Publisher: McGraw-Hill Companies, The
  • Publication date: 7/27/2000
  • Series: Standard Handbks.
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 1600
  • Product dimensions: 7.54 (w) x 9.54 (h) x 2.53 (d)

Table of Contents

Contributors xiii
Foreword xxxv
Preface xxxvii
About the Editors xxxix
Part 1 The Interaction of Basic Scientific Disciplines on Contaminant Fate and Transport in the Environment
Chapter 1. Chemistry 3
1.1. Aquatic Chemistry 3
1.2. Environmental Chemistry of the Atmosphere 9
1.3. Soil Environmental Chemistry 13
1.4. Environmental Biochemistry 15
1.5. Toxicological Chemistry 18
1.6. Geochemistry 23
Chapter 2. Classes of Chemicals 1
2.1. Hydrocarbons 1
2.2. Pesticides and Polychlorinated Biphenyls 18
2.3. Chlorinated Solvents 30
2.4. Radionuclides 33
Chapter 3. Geology 1
3.1. Geologic Principles 1
Chapter 4. Hydrology 1
4.1. The Hydrologic Cycle 1
4.2. Precipitation and Runoff 9
4.3. Streamflow and Flood Control 17
4.4. Groundwater Flow 25
4.5. Well Hydraulics 34
4.6. Real-Time Soil Water Dynamics 45
4.7. Fate and Transport Modeling--Effectively Using Isotopes of Water to Solve Practical Hydrogeological Problems 58
4.8. Fate and Transport in Fractured Rock 74
Chapter 5. Physical Transport 1
5.1. Air Pollutants and Fugitive Dust 1
5.2. Mixing and Transport of Pollutants in Surface Water 6
Chapter 6. Biology 1
6.1. Biology 1
Chapter 7. Contaminant Effects 1
7.1. Toxicity Testing 1
7.2. Ecological Risk Assessment 7
7.3. Ecological Effects of Toxicants 14
7.4. Air Pollutant Sources and Effects 20
Chapter 8. Analysis and Modeling 1
8.1. Geochemical Modeling 1
8.2. Groundwater Flow Modeling 11
8.3. Solute Transport Modeling 27
8.4. Fate and Transport in Rivers, Lakes, and Estuaries 47
8.5. Geostatistics 56
8.6. Pharmacokinetic/Dynamic Modeling 75
Appendix A. Selected Computer Codes, Software Description and Availability 88
Appendix B. Software for Compartmental Models 90
Appendix C. Computer Codes 91
8.7. Geographic Information Systems 99
8.8. Computing Optimal Pumping Strategies for Groundwater Contaminant Plume Remediation 106
Appendix A. Formation of Constraint Equations for Response Matrix Models (Derived from Peralta and Aly, 1997) 118
Appendix B. Unique Features of REMAX (from Peralta and Aly, 1997) 120
8.9. Economics 122
Part 2 Site Based Environmental Science, Health and Technology
Chapter 9. Pollution Prevention Concepts and Policies 3
9.1. Pollution Prevention Science and Technology 3
9.2. Plant Operations 28
9.3. Urban Stormwater Management and Nonpoint Source Pollution Control 42
Chapter 10 Environmental Regulations 1
10.1. Basics of Environmental Law 1
Chapter 11. Assessment Sampling and Monitoring 1
11.1. Site Evaluation, Auditing, and Assessment 1
11.2. Applications of Global Positioning Systems in the Environmental Sciences 7
11.3. Indoor Air: Sick and Healthy Buildings 16
11.4. Stream Sampling 23
11.5. Sediment Collection 32
11.6. Monitoring Well Construction and Sampling Techniques 46
11.7. Aquifer Testing 69
11.8. Soil Vapor Principles 87
11.9. Applications and Interpretation of Soil Vapor Data to Volatile Organic Compound Contamination 96
11.10. Neutron Probes 113
11.11. Direct Sensing of Soils and Groundwater 124
11.12. Direct Push Technology Sampling Methods 151
11.13. Borehole Geophysics 164
11.14. Surface Geophysical Methods for Site Characterization 177
Chapter 12. Toxicology and Risk 1
12.1. Decisions in the Face of Uncertainty 1
12.2. Variability and Uncertainty 7
12.3. Selecting Indicator and Surrogate Compounds 18
12.4. Selecting Indicator Pathways 30
12.5. The Dose Makes the Poison: Some Common Misconceptions 33
12.6. Low Dose Response-Hormesis 40
12.7. Microorganisms, Molecules, and Environmental Risk Assessment: Assumptions and Outcomes 50
Chapter 13. Control Technologies 1
13.1. Hazardous Waste Handling and Disposal 1
13.2. Hazardous Waste Dumping as it Relates to a Japanese Risk Management System 9
13.3. Medical Waste Incineration 27
13.4. Control Technologies: Particulate Controls 43
13.5. Control Technologies: Gas Controls 55
13.6. Fundamentals of Odor Management 69
13.7. Water Supply Treatment 88
A. Design Flow and Loads 88
B. Screens 95
C. Chemical Reactors 103
13.8. Water Supply Treatment 110
A. Coagulation, Flocculation, Mixing, and Mixers 110
B. Sedimentation and Filtration 116
Chapter 14. Remediation Technologies 1
14.1. Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) 1
14.2. Passive In Situ Remediation Technologies 12
14.3. Phytoremediation: A Promising Path to the Elimination of Heavy Metals and Radionuclides in Groundwater & Soil 26
14.4. Bioremediation of Hazardous Wastes: History and Applications 30
14.5. Bioremediation 50
14.6. Pump-and-Treat Technologies 60
14.7. Electrokinetic Treatment of Hazardous Wastes 69
14.8. Surfactant-Enhanced Aquifer Remediation 85
14.9. Remediation of Metals-Contaminated Soils and Groundwater 100
14.10. DNAPL Investigation and Remediation 135
14.11. Vertical Passive Groundwater Barrier Systems 146
14.12. Aquifer Restoration via In Situ Air Sparging 156
Chapter 15. Ubiquitous Environmental Contaminants 1
15.1. Endocrine Disruptors 1
15.2. Radon in Air 7
15.3. Radon and Radon Daughters 20
15.4. Chlorofluorocarbons 30
15.5. Methyl Bromide 42
15.6. Subsurface Petroleum Spills 47
15.7. Ionizing Radiation 58
15.8. Mortality in Male and Female Capacitor Workers Exposed to Polychlorinated Biphenyls 73
Part 3 Place Based Environmental Science, Health and Technology
Chapter 16. Managing Place Scale Problems 3
16.1. Decision Making 3
16.2. Ecosystem Management 11
16.3. Brownfields 21
16.4. Guidelines for Emergency Response 33
16.5. Environmental Communication 42
16.6. Ecological Engineering 53
Chapter 17. System Level Risk Assessment 1
17.1. Probabilistic Safety in Government and Industry 1
17.2. Risk Assessment in the Broader Context 19
17.3. Risk Management in View of Economic Aspects 28
17.4. Weighing the Risks of Remediation 41
Chapter 18. Environmental Science in the Legal System 1
18.1. Environmental Science, Toxic Torts, and the Legal System 1
Chapter 19. Sensitive Environmental Systems 1
19.1. Karst Systems 1
19.2. Alpine Lakes 11
19.3. Wetlands 20
19.4. Plants and Population: We Have the Time. Do We Have the Will? 48
Chapter 20. Sensitive Environmental Problems 1
20.1. Agricultural Runoff 1
20.2. Test of the Validity of the Linear-No Threshold Theory of Radiation Carcinogenesis with a Survey of Radon Levels in U.S. Homes 12
20.3. Acid Rain--The Whole Story To Date 21
20.4. The Ozone Layer 28
20.5. Greenhouse Warming (GHW) 40
20.6. Controversies Surrounding the Endangered Species 57
Chapter 21. Misconceptions About Environmental Pollution 1
21.1. Misconceptions about Pollution, Pesticides, and the Prevention of Cancer 1
21.2. Science, Pesticides, and Politics 17
21.3. Simple Truths of Environmental Facts and Fallacies 33
Chapter 22. Global Perspectives and Trends 1
22.1. The Road from Rio to Kyoto: How Climate Science Was Distorted to Support Ideological Objectives 1
22.2. Natural Forces versus Anthropogenic Change 7
22.3. Controlling Hazardous Pollutants in a Developing Context: The Case of Arsenic in Chile 13
22.4. Emerging Environmental Issues from the Perspective of Industry 29
Index 1
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