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Start-Up : A Technician's Guide

Overview

When new plants or systems go online, the control systems technician (CST) faces special challenges. In Start-up: A Technician's Guide, author Diane Harris explores and explains the crucial role of a technician in this process.

Start-Up: A Technician's Guide, offers you a clear overview of typical start-up responsibilities. From the first team meeting to the last round of tuning and loop checking, Harris uses her extensive experience with process control plants to walk you ...

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Overview

When new plants or systems go online, the control systems technician (CST) faces special challenges. In Start-up: A Technician's Guide, author Diane Harris explores and explains the crucial role of a technician in this process.

Start-Up: A Technician's Guide, offers you a clear overview of typical start-up responsibilities. From the first team meeting to the last round of tuning and loop checking, Harris uses her extensive experience with process control plants to walk you through the issues and skills typically required. Each chapter includes self-study learning objectives, practice questions and exercises, answers, and listings of relevant standards. Written with the technician in mind, it is a non-mathematical, application-oriented book that provides an overview of the scope of duties a technician must perform in real-world situations. Includes over 30 figures and tables; fully indexed.

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Editorial Reviews

Booknews
Explains the role of the control systems technician as new plants or systems go online, covering the entire process from the first start-up team meeting to the last round of tuning and loop checking. Walks through issues and skills required during a start-up, with chapters on safety practices, documentation, working with others, assisting operations and site personnel, and tuning control loops. Each chapter includes objectives, practice questions and exercises with answers, and lists of standards. Presentation is non-mathematical and application oriented. Includes appendices of sample documents and relevant standards. Author information is not given. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (booknews.com)
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781556176777
  • Publisher: ISA
  • Publication date: 9/1/1999
  • Series: Technician Series
  • Pages: 216
  • Product dimensions: 7.00 (w) x 10.00 (h) x 0.50 (d)

Table of Contents

Chapter 1 The Role of the CST in a Start-Up 1
1.1 Job Descriptions 2
1.1.1 Training 3
1.1.2 Safety Inspection 4
1.1.3 Liaison 4
1.1.4 Technician Duties 5
1.1.5 Quality Control 5
1.1.6 Design and Engineering 7
1.1.7 Leadership 7
1.2 Baseline, Daily, and Future Tasks 8
1.2.1 Baseline Duties 8
1.2.2 Wet and Dry Runs 9
1.2.3 Planning for the Future: Maintenance 9
1.3 Calibrations and Loop Checks 10
1.4 Initial Equipment Start-up Activities 10
1.4.1 Burner Management Systems 11
1.4.2 Regenerative Systems 11
1.4.3 Control Loops 12
Summary 13
Quiz 13
Chapter 2 Applicable Safety Practices and Standards 15
2.1 The Fourteen Points of Process Safety Management (PSM) 16
2.1.1 Point 1--Employee Involvement 17
2.1.2 Point 2--Process Safety Information 17
2.1.3 Point 3--Process Hazard Analysis (PHA) 19
2.1.4 Point 4--Operating Procedures and Practices 19
2.1.5 Point 5--Employee Training 19
2.1.6 Point 6--Contractors 20
2.1.7 Point 7--Pre-start-up Safety 20
2.1.8 Point 8--Mechanical Integrity 21
2.1.9 Point 9--Nonroutine Work Authorizations 21
2.1.10 Point 10--Managing Change 22
2.1.11 Point 11--Investigation of Incidents 24
2.1.12 Point 12--Emergency Preparedness 24
2.1.13 Point 13--Compliance Audits 24
2.1.14 Point 14--Trade Secrets 25
2.1.15 Summary: The CST and the Fourteen Points 25
2.2 The Common Types of Safety Meetings 25
2.3 The Common Types of Safety Training 29
2.3.1 OSHA Regulatory Training 29
2.3.2 Industry-or Plant-specific Training 32
2.4 Lockout/Tagout at Plant Start-Up 34
2.5 Compliant Documentation 36
2.5.1 Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) 37
2.6 Frequently Encountered Safety Equipment 40
Practical Examples 41
Summary 43
Quiz 44
Chapter 3 Documenting the Start-up Process 47
3.1 Types of Documents 47
3.2 Document Formats 49
3.2.1 Original Drawings 49
3.2.2 Computer-aided Design (CAD) Drawings 49
3.2.3 Layered Drawings 50
3.2.4 Changes and Annotations 51
3.3 Document Location 51
3.4 The Different Diagrams 52
3.4.1 Gantt Charts 52
3.4.2 Process Flow Diagram (PFD) 53
3.4.3 Mass (or Material) Balance 54
3.4.4 Piping and Instrumentation Drawing (P&ID) 56
3.4.5 General Arrangement (GA) Drawing 60
3.4.6 Loop Diagrams (Loop Sheets) 60
3.4.7 Loop-check Log Sheet 60
3.4.8 Calibration Data Sheet 63
3.4.9 Installation Detail 64
3.4.10 Other Documents and Drawings 65
3.5 Documentation Needed during Start-Up 71
3.6 Maintenance, Upkeep, and Control of Start-up Documents 72
Summary 75
Quiz 76
Chapter 4 Working with Others 79
4.1 Basic Start-up Duties of Other Disciplines 81
4.1.1 Operations Department 82
4.1.2 Project Engineering Department 83
4.1.3 Process Engineering (Technical Department) 83
4.1.4 Management 84
4.1.5 Maintenance Department 84
4.1.6 Environmental Department 85
4.1.7 Purchasing Department 85
4.1.8 Personnel Department 86
4.1.9 Contractors 86
4.1.10 Vendors 87
4.2 CST Interaction with Other Disciplines 88
4.2.1 Contractor Liaison 88
4.2.2 Personnel from Other Plants 88
4.2.3 Working with Manufacturing Representatives 89
4.3 "Chain of Command" 89
Summary 91
Quiz 91
Chapter 5 Verifying and Managing Changes 93
5.1 Documentation: Development, Location, and Use 94
5.1.1 Access to Paperwork 95
5.1.2 Verifying Calibration 95
5.1.3 Off-Site Calibration 96
5.1.4 Factory Acceptance Test 96
5.1.5 In-Shop Calibrations 96
5.1.6 Site Acceptance Test and Validation 97
5.2 Completion Order of Loops 98
5.3 Calibration and Loop Checking: Verification of Completion 99
5.3.1 Calibration Data Sheets 99
5.3.2 Verifying Calibration 101
5.3.3 Performance Check 105
5.4 Management of Change (MOC) 109
Summary 110
Quiz 111
Chapter 6 Start-up Plan for the CST 113
6.1 Required Number of Personnel 113
6.1.1 Division of Responsibility 113
6.1.2 Early Start-up 114
6.1.3 Environmental Problems 115
6.1.4 Processing Problems 115
6.1.5 Equipment Problems 115
6.2 Staffing and Overtime 116
6.3 "Cross-training" 117
6.3.1 Installation Training 118
6.3.2 Maintenance Training 118
6.3.3 Other Training 119
6.4 Task Assignments and Responsibilities 119
6.5 Proper Sequencing of the Start-up Plan 120
6.6 MOC and Redlining 122
6.7 Emergency Contacts 122
Summary 122
Quiz 124
Chapter 7 Assisting Operations and Site Personnel 125
7.1 Identify and Correct Problems 126
7.2 Change Calibrations 130
7.2.1 Recalibration 130
7.3 Faulty Loops--A Typical Scenario 132
7.4 Troubleshooting 135
7.5 Required Tools and Test Equipment 136
7.6 Working with Specialists and Manufacturing Reps 138
Summary 139
Quiz 139
Chapter 8 Tuning Control Loops 141
8.1 Types of Loops 142
8.2 Types of Signals 145
8.3 Types of Control 147
8.3.1 Closed-Loop or Feedback Control 147
8.3.2 Open-Loop Control 150
8.3.3 Discrete Control 150
8.3.4 Continuous Control 150
8.4 Parameters Used during Loop Checking 150
8.4.1 PID Algorithm 152
8.5 Control Action 153
8.5.1 On-Off Action 153
8.5.2 Proportional-Only Control 154
8.5.3 Proportional-Integral Control 156
8.5.4 Proportional-Derivative Control 156
8.6 Ziegler-Nichols Methods 156
8.6.1 Open-Loop Technique 157
8.6.2 Closed-Loop Technique 157
8.7 How to Tune 159
8.7.1 Trial and Error 159
8.7.2 Software Solutions 159
8.7.3 Calculating Control Parameters 160
8.8 Who Is Responsible for Changes 161
8.9 How Changes Affect Process and Other Loops 161
8.10 Whom to Notify of Changes 163
8.11 Documenting Changes 163
8.12 Backing Up or Saving Changes 163
Summary 164
Quiz 164
References/Bibliography 166
Appendix A Sample Job Description 167
Appendix B Sample Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) 171
Appendix C Vendor Document: Factory Acceptance Test (FAT) 179
Appendix D Answers to Exercises and Quizzes 191
Appendix E Relevant Standards 211
Index 213
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