# Statistics: Concepts & Controversies: w/EESEE Access Card / Edition 8

No textbook communicates the basics of statistical analysis to liberal arts students as effectively as the bestselling Statistics: Concepts and Controversies (SCC).  And no text makes it easier for these students to understand and talk about statistical claims they encounter in commercials, campaigns, the media, sports, and elsewhere in their

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## Overview

No textbook communicates the basics of statistical analysis to liberal arts students as effectively as the bestselling Statistics: Concepts and Controversies (SCC).  And no text makes it easier for these students to understand and talk about statistical claims they encounter in commercials, campaigns, the media, sports, and elsewhere in their lives.

The new edition offers SCC’s signature combination of engaging cases, real-life examples and exercises, helpful pedagogy, rich full-color design, and innovative media learning tools, all significantly updated.

## Product Details

ISBN-13:
9781464125669
Publisher:
Freeman, W. H. & Company
Publication date:
11/09/2012
Edition description:
Eighth Edition
Pages:
656
Sales rank:
549,040
Product dimensions:
7.29(w) x 9.06(h) x 0.94(d)

To the Teacher: Statistics as a Liberal Discipline ix

Applications Index xix

Prelude: Making Sense of Statistics xxiii

Statistics and You: What Lies ahead in This Book xxviii

Part I Producing Data 1

1 Where Do Data Come From? 3

Case Study 3

Talking about data: individuals and variables 4

Observational studies 7

Sample surveys 8

Census 11

Experiments 12

Statistics in Summary 14

Case Study Evaluated 15

Chapter 1

Exercises 15

Exploring the Web 20

Notes and Data Sources 20

2 Samples, Good and Bad 23

Case Study 23

Simple random samples 26

Can you trust a sample? 31

Statistics in Summary 32

Case Study Evaluated 33

Chapter 2 Exercises 33

Exploring the Web 38

Notes and Data Sources 38

3 What Do Samples Tell Us? 39

Case Study 39

From sample to population 40

Sampling variability 41

Margin of error and all that 45

Confidence statements 47

Sampling from large populations 49

Statistical Controversies: Should Election Polls Be Banned? 50

Statistics in Summary 51

Case Study Evaluated 52

Chapter 3 Exercises 52

Exploring the Web 60

Notes and Data Sources 60

4 Sample Surveys in the Real World 61

Case Study 61

How sample surveys go wrong 62

Sampling errors 62

Nonsampling errors 64

Wording questions 67

How to live with nonsampling errors 69

Statistical Controversies: The Harris Poll Online 74

The challenge of Internet surveys 74

Probability samples 77

Questions to ask before you believe a poll 77

Statistics in Summary 78

Case Study Evaluated 79

Chapter 4 Exercises 80

Exploring the Web 88

Notes and Data Sources 88

5 Experiments, Good and Bad 91

Case Study 91

Randomized comparative experiments 96

The logic of experimental design 99

Statistical significance 100

How to live with observational studies 102

Statistics in Summary 104

Case Study Evaluated 105

Chapter 5

Exercises 105

Exploring the Web 111

Notes and Data Sources 111

6 Experiments in the Real World 113

Case Study 113

Equal treatment for all 113

Double-blind experiments 114

Can we generalize? 118

Matched pairs and block designs 122

Statistical Controversies: Is It or Isn't It a Placebo? 125

Statistics in Summary 126

Case Study Evaluated 127

Chapter 6 Exercises 127

Exploring the Web 134

Notes and Data Sources 134

7 Data Ethics 137

Case Study 137

First principles 137

Institutional review boards 139

Informed consent 139

Confidentiality 141

Clinical trials 142

Statistical Controversies: Hope for Sale? 144

Behavioral and social science experiments 146

Statistics in Summary 148

Case Study Evaluated 148

Chapter 7 Exercises 149

Exploring the Web 156

Notes and Data Sources 157

8 Measuring 159

Case Study 159

Measurement basics 159

Measurements, valid and invalid 163

Measurements, accurate and inaccurate 166

Statistical Controversies: SAT Exams in College Admissions 167

Improving reliability, reducing bias 170

Pity the poor psychologist 172

Statistics in Summary 174

Case Study Evaluated 175

Chapter 8 Exercises 175

Exploring the Web 181

Notes and Data Sources 181

9 Do the Numbers A/lake Sense? 183

Case Study 183

What didn't they tell us? 183

Are the numbers consistent with each other? 185

Are the numbers plausible? 187

Are the numbers too good to be true? 187

Is the arithmetic right? 188

Is there a hidden agenda? 191

Statistics in Summary 192

Case Study Evaluated 193

Chapter 9 Exercises 193

Exploring the Web 198

Notes and Data Sources 199

Part I Review 201

Part I Summary 202

Part I Review Exercises 203

Part I Projects 208

Notes and Data Sources 210

Part II Organizing Data 211

10 Graphs, Good and Bad 213

Case Study 213

Data tables 213

Pie charts and bar graphs 215

Beware the pictogram 218

Change over time: line graphs 219

Watch those scales! 222

Making good graphs 225

Statistics in Summary 227

Case Study Evaluated 228

Chapter 10 Exercises 228

Exploring the Web 237

Notes and Data Sources 237

11 Displaying Distributions with Graphs 239

Case Study 239

Histograms 239

Interpreting histograms 243

Stemplots 248

Statistics in Summary 251

Case Study Evaluated 252

Chapter 11 Exercises 252

Exploring the Web 260

Notes and Data Sources 260

12 Describing Distributions with Numbers 261

Case Study 261

Median and quartiles 262

The five-number summary and boxplots 266

Statistical Controversies: Income Inequality 269

Mean and standard deviation 271

Choosing numerical descriptions 275

Statistics in Summary 277

Case Study Evaluated 278

Chapter 12 Exercises 279

Exploring the Web 286

Notes and Data Sources 286

13 Normal Distributions 287

Case Study 287

Density curves 289

The center and spread of a density curve 291

Normal distributions 292

The 68-95-99.7 rule 295

Standard scores 297

Percentiles of Normal distributions* 299

Statistics in Summary 300

Case Study Evaluated 301

Chapter 13 Exercises 302

Exploring the Web 308

Notes and Data Sources 308

14 Describing Relationships: Scatterplots and Correlation 309

Case Study 309

Scatterplots 311

Interpreting scatterplots 314

Correlation 317

Understanding correlation 319

Statistics in Summary 322

Case Study Evaluated 323

Chapter 14 Exercises 324

Exploring the Web 333

Notes and Data Sources 333

15 Describing Relationships: Regression, Prediction, and Causation 335

Case Study 335

Regression lines 336

Regression equations 338

Understanding prediction 340

Correlation and regression 341

The question of causation 344

Statistical Controversies: Gun Control and Crime 348

Evidence for causation 348

Statistics in Summary 349

Case Study Evaluated 350

Chapter 15 Exercises 351

Exploring the Web 361

Notes and Data Sources 361

16 The Consumer Price Index and Government Statistics 363

Case Study 363

Index numbers 364

Fixed market basket price indexes 365

Using the CPI 366

Understanding the CPI 370

Statistical Controversies: Does the CPI Overstate Inflation? 372

The place of government statistics 373

The question of social statistics 374

Statistics in Summary 376

Case Study Evaluated 376

Chapter 16 Exercises 377

Exploring the Web 382

Notes and Data Sources 383

Part II Review 385

Part II Summary 386

Part II Review Exercises 389

Part II Projects 396

Notes and Data Sources 398

Part III Chance 399

Case Study 401

The idea of probability 401

The ancient history of chance 404

Personal probabilities 411

Probability and risk 412

Statistics in Summary 414

Case Study Evaluated 415

Chapter 17 Exercises 415

Exploring the Web 420

Notes and Data Sources 420

18 Probability Models 423

Case Study 423

Probability models 423

Probability rules 425

Probability models for sampling 427

Statistics in Summary 431

Case Study Evaluated 432

Chapter 18

Exercises 432

Exploring the Web 438

Notes and Data Sources 438

19 Simulation 439

Case Study 439

Where do probabilities come from? 440

Simulation basics 441

More elaborate simulations 446

Statistics in Summary 449

Case Study Evaluated 450

Chapter 19 Exercises 450

Exploring the Web 456

Notes and Data Sources 457

20 The House Edge: Expected Values 459

Case Study 459

Expected values 459

The law of large numbers 463

Statistical Controversies: The State of Legalized Gambling 465

Finding expected values by simulation 466

Statistics in Summary 467

Case Study Evaluated 467

Chapter 20 Exercises 468

Exploring the Web 473

Notes and Data Sources 474

Part III Review 475

Part III Summary 475

Part III Review Exercises 477

Part III Projects 481

Notes and Data Sources 483

Part IV Inference 485

21 What Is a Confidence Interval? 487

Case Study 487

Estimating 488

Estimating with confidence 489

Understanding confidence intervals 493

More on confidence intervals for a population proportion* 496

The sampling distribution of a sample mean* 499

Confidence intervals for a population mean* 501

Statistics in Summary 503

Case Study Evaluated 504

Chanter 21 Exercises 505

Exploring the Web 512

Notes and Data Sources 512

22 What Is a Test of Significance? 515

Case Study 515

The reasoning of statistical tests of significance 516

Hypotheses and P-values 518

Statistical significance 522

Calculating P-values* 523

Tests for a population mean* 524

Statistics in Summary 528

Case Study Evaluated 529

Chapter 22 Exercises 530

Exploring the Web 537

Notes and Data Sources 537

23 Use and Abuse of Statistical Inference 539

Case Study 539

Using inference wisely 539

The woes of significance tests 542

The advantages of confidence intervals 546

Significance at the 5% level isn't magical 547

Statistical Controversies: Should Significance Tests Be Banned? 547

Beware of searching for significance 548

Statistics in Summary 549

Case Study Evaluated 550

Chapter 23

Exercises 550

Exploring the Web 555

Notes and Data Sources 555

24 Two-Way Tables and the Chi-Square Test* 557

Case Study 557

Two-way tables 558

Inference for a two-way table 559

The chi-square test 562

Using the chi-square test 567

Statistics in Summary 572

Case Study Evaluated 573

Chapter 24 Exercises 573

Exploring the Web 579

Notes and Data Sources 579

Part IV Review 581

Part IV Summary 582

Part IV Review Exercises 584

Part IV Projects 591

Notes and Data Sources 592

Resolving the Controversy 593

Solutions to "Now It's Your Turn" Exercises 597

Index 631

Table A Random digits 641

Table B Percentiles of the Normal distributions 642