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Overview
Drawing upon over 40 years of experience, the authors of Statistics, 10th Edition provide business professionals with a clear and methodical approach to essential statistical procedures. The text clearly explains the basic concepts and procedures of descriptive and inferential statistical analysis. It features an emphasis on expressions involving sums of squares and degrees of freedom as well as a strong stress on the importance of variability. This accessible approach will help business professionals tackle such perennially mystifying topics as the standard deviation, variance interpretation of the correlation coefficient, hypothesis tests, degrees of freedom, pvalues, and estimates of effect size.
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Third edition of a standard textbook. Provides a basic overview of descriptive and inferential statistics for mathematically unsophisticated students in the behavioral, social, and health sciences. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR booknews.comProduct Details
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Table of Contents
Preface V
Acknowledgments VII
1 Introduction 3
1.1 Why Study Statistics? 4
1.2 What Is Statistics? 4
1.3 More About Inferential Statistics 6
1.4 Three Types Of Data 9
1.5 Levels Of Measurement 10
1.6 Types Of Variables 14
1.7 How To Use This Book 19
Summary20
Important Terms 21
Review Questions 21
Part 1 Descriptive Statistics: Organizing And Summarizing Data 25
2 Describing Data With Tables And Graphs 27
Tables (Frequency Distributions) 28
2.1 Frequency Distributions For Quantitative Data 28
2.2 Guidelines 29
2.3 Outliers 34
2.4 Relative Frequency Distributions 35
2.5 Cumulative Frequency Distributions 36
2.6 Frequency Distributions For Qualitative (Nominal) Data 38
2.7 Interpreting Distributions Constructed By Others 39
Graphs 40
2.8 Graphs For Quantitative Data 40
2.9 Typical Shapes 45
2.10 A Graph For Qualitative (Nominal) Data 47
2.11 Misleading Graphs 48
2.12 Doing It Yourself 50
Summary 50
Important Terms 52
Review Questions 53
3 Describing Data With Averages 57
3.1 Mode 58
3.2 Median 59
3.3 Mean 61
3.4 Which Average? 63
3.5 Averages For Qualitative And Ranked Data 66
Summary 68
Important Terms 68
Key Equation 69
Review Questions 69
4 Describing Variability 73
4.1 Intuitive Approach 74
4.2 Range 76
4.3 Variance 76
4.4 Standard Deviation 77
4.5 Details: Standard Deviation 82
4.6 Degrees Of Freedom(Df) 90
4.7 Interquartile Range (Iqr) 92
4.8 Measures Of Variability For Qualitative And Ranked Data 93
Summary 93
Important Terms 94
Key Equations 95
Review Questions 95
5 Normal Distributions And Standard (Z) Scores 99
5.1 The Normal Curve 101
5.2 Z Scores 103
5.3 Standard Normal Curve 104
5.4 Solving Normal Curve Problems 107
5.5 Finding Proportions 108
5.6 Finding Scores 114
5.7 More About Z Scores 119
Summary 122
Important Terms 123
Key Equations 123
Review Questions 123
6 Describing Relationships: Correlation 127
6.1 An Intuitive Approach 128
6.2 Scatterplots 130
6.3 A Correlation Coefficient For Quantitative Data: R 133
6.4 Details: Computation Formula For R 141
6.5 Outliers Again 143
6.6 Other Types Of Correlation Coefficients 144
6.7 Computer Output 144
Summary 148
Important Terms 149
Key Equations 149
Review Questions 149
7 Regression 153
7.1 Two Rough Predictions 154
7.2 A Regression Line 155
7.3 Least Squares Regression Line 157
7.4 Standard Error Of Estimate, S_{y}_{X} 161
7.5 Assumptions 164
7.6 Interpretation Of
7.7 Multiple Regression Equations 164
7.8 Regression Toward The Mean 165
Summary 167
Important Terms 168
Key Equations 168
Review Questions 168
Part 2 Inferential Statistics: Generalizing Beyond Data 171
8 Populations, Samples, And Probability 173
Populations And Samples 174
8.1 Populations 174
8.2 Samples 175
8.3 Random Sampling 176
8.4 Tables Of Random Numbers 177
8.5 Random Assignment Of Subjects 179
8.6 Surveys Or Experiments? 180
Probability 181
8.7 Definition 181
8.8 Addition Rule 182
8.9 Multiplication Rule 183
8.10 Probability And Statistics 186
Summary 188
Important Terms 188
Key Equations 189
Review Questions 189
9 Sampling Distribution Of The Mean 193
9.1 What Is A Sampling Distribution? 194
9.2 Creating A Sampling Distribution From Scratch 195
9.3 Some Important Symbols 197
9.4 Mean Of All Sample Means () 199
9.5 Standard Error Of The Mean () 200
9.6 Shape Of The Sampling Distribution 202
9.7 Other Sampling Distributions 204
Summary 205
Important Terms 205
Key Equations 205
Review Questions 206
10 Introduction To Hypothesis Testing: The Z Test 209
10.1 Testing A Hypothesis About Sat Scores 210
10.2 Z Test For A Population Mean 212
10.3 StepByStep Procedure 214
10.4 Statement Of The Research Problem 214
10.5 Null Hypothesis (H_{0}) 215
10.6 Alternative Hypothesis (H_{1}) 216
10.7 Decision Rule 217
10.8 Calculations 218
10.9 Decision 218
10.10 Interpretation 219
Summary 220
Important Terms 221
Key Equations 221
Review Questions 221
11 More About Hypothesis Testing 225
11.1 Why Hypothesis Tests? 226
11.2 Strong Or Weak Decisions 228
11.3 OneTailed And TwoTailed Tests 229
11.4 Choosing A Level Of Significance (a) 233
11.5 Testing A Hypothesis About Vitamin C 235
11.6 Four Possible Outcomes 235
11.7 If H_{0} Really Is True 238
11.8 If H_{0} Really Is False Because Of A Large Effect 239
11.9 If H_{0} Really Is False Because Of A Small Effect 242
11.10 Influence Of Sample Size 243
11.11 Power And Sample Size 246
Summary 249
Important Terms 251
Review Questions 251
12 Estimation (Confidence Intervals) 255
12.1 Point Estimate For m 256
12.2 Confidence Interval (Ci) For m 256
12.3 Interpretation Of A Confidence Interval 260
12.4 Level Of Confidence 261
12.5 Effect Of Sample Size 262
12.6 Hypothesis Tests Or Confidence Intervals? 263
12.7 Confidence Interval For Population Percent 263
Summary 265
Important Terms 266
Key Equation 266
Review Questions 266
13 T Test For One Sample 269
13.1 Gas Mileage Investigation 270
13.2 Sampling Distribution Of T 270
13.3 T Test 274
13.4 Common Theme Of Hypothesis Tests 275
13.5 Reminder About Degrees Of Freedom 275
13.6 Details: Estimating The Standard Error 275
13.7 Details: Calculations For The T Test 276
13.8 Confidence Intervals For M Based On T 278
13.9 Assumptions 279
Summary 280
Important Terms 280
Key Equations 280
Review Questions 280
14 T Test For Two Independent Samples 285
14.1 Epo Experiment 286
14.2 Statistical Hypotheses 287
14.3 Sampling Distribution Of 289
14.4 T Test 91
14.5 Details: Calculations For The T Test 292
14.6 PValues 296
14.7 Statistically Significant Results 299
14.8 Estimating Effect Size: Point Estimates And Confidence Intervals 300
14.9 Estimating Effect Size: Cohen’s D 303
14.10 MetaAnalysis
14.11 Reports In The Literature 306
14.12 Assumptions 308
14.13 Computer Output 308
Summary 309
Important Terms 310
Key Equations 310
Review Questions 311
15 T Test For Two Related Samples (Repeated Measures) 315
15.1 Epo Experiment With Repeated Measures 316
15.2 Statistical Hypotheses 319
15.3 Sampling Distribution Of 320
15.4 T Test 320
15.5 Details: Calculations For The T Test 321
15.6 Estimating Effect Size 324
15.7 Assumptions 326
15.8 Overview: Three T Tests For Population Means 326
15.9 T Test For The Population Correlation Coefficient, r 329
Summary 331
Important Terms 332
Key Equations 332
Review Questions 333
16 Analysis Of Variance (One Factor) 337
16.1 Testing A Hypothesis About Sleep Deprivation And Aggression 338
16.2 Two Sources Of Variability 340
16.3 F Test 342
16.4 Details: Variance Estimates 344
16.5 Details: Mean Squares (Ms) And The F Ratio 350
16.6 Table For The F Distribution 352
16.7 Anova Summary Tables 353
16.8 F Test Is Nondirectional 355
16.9 Estimating Effect Size 355
16.10 Multiple Comparisons 358
16.11 Overview: Flow Chart For Anova 362
16.12 Reports In The Literature 362
16.13 Assumptions 364
16.14 Computer Output 364
Summary 364
Important Terms 366
Key Equations 366
Review Questions 366
17 Analysis Of Variance (Repeated Measures) 371
17.1 Sleep Deprivation Experiment With Repeated Measures 372
17.2 F Test 373
17.3 Two Complications 375
17.4 Details: Variance Estimates 375
17.5 Details: Mean Square (Ms) And The F Ratio 379
17.6 Table For The F Distribution 381
17.7 Anova Summary Tables 381
17.8 Estimating Effect Size 383
17.9 Multiple Comparisons 384
17.10 Reports In The Literature 386
17.11 Assumptions 387
Summary 387
Important Terms 388
Key Equations 388
Review Questions 388
18 Analysis Of Variance (Two Factors) 393
18.1 A TwoFactor Experiment: Responsibility In Crowds 394
18.2 Three F Tests 397
18.3 Interaction 398
18.4 Details: Variance Estimates 402
18.5 Details: Mean Squares (Ms) And F Ratios 406
18.6 Table For The F Distribution 408
18.7 Estimating Effect Size 408
18.8 Multiple Comparisons 409
18.9 Simple Effects 410
18.10 Overview: Flow Chart For TwoFactor Anova 414
18.11 Reports In The Literature 415
18.12 Assumptions 416
18.13 Other Types Of Anova 416
Summary 417
Important Terms 417
Key Equations 417
Review Questions 418
19 ChiSquare (c^{2}) Test For Qualitative (Nominal) Data 423
OneVariable c^{2} Test 424
19.1 Survey Of Blood Types 424
19.2 Statistical Hypotheses 424
19.3 Details: Calculating c^{2} 425
19.4 Table For The c ^{2} Distribution 428
19.5 c^{2} Test 428
TwoVariable c^{2} Test 431
19.6 Lost Letter Study 431
19.7 Statistical Hypotheses 432
19.8 Details: Calculating c^{2} 433
19.9 Table For The c^{2} Distribution 434
19.10 c^{2} Test 436
19.11 Estimating Effect Size 437
19.12 Odds Ratios 438
19.13 Reports In The Literature 440
19.14 Some Precautions 441
19.15 Computer Output 442
Summary 443
Important Terms 443
Key Equations 443
Review Questions 444
20 Tests For Ranked (Ordinal) Data 449
20.1 Use Only When Appropriate 450
20.2 A Note On Terminology 450
20.3 MannWhitney U Test (Two Independent Samples) 451
20.4 Wilcoxon T Test (Two Related Samples) 456
20.5 KruskalWallis H Test (Three Or More Independent Samples) 460
20.6 General Comment: Ties 464
Summary 464
Important Terms 465
Review Questions 465
21 Postscript: Which Test? 469
21.1 Descriptive Or Inferential Statistics? 470
21.2 Hypothesis Tests Or Confidence Intervals? 470
21.3 Quantitative Or Qualitative Data? 472
21.4 Distinguishing Between The Two Types Of Data 472
21.5 One, Two, Or More Groups? 473
21.6 Concluding Comments 474
Review Questions 474
Appendices 479
A Math Review 479
B Answers To Selected Questions 487
C Tables 529
D Glossary 543
Photo Credits 550
Index 551