# Statistics / Edition 2

## Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780787257231
Publisher:
Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company
Publication date:
01/28/2000
Edition description:
REV
Pages:
608
Product dimensions:
8.00(w) x 10.00(h) x (d)

## Related Subjects

 Preface to the Second Edition ix Preface to the First Edition xi Letter to the Student xv What Is Statistics? xvi Statistics: The Computation Dimension xvii Part 1 The Nature, Collection, Organization, and Properties of Data 1 1 On Guard! 2 1.1 Lies, Damn Lies and Statistics 2 1.2 Are the Data Reliable? 2 1.3 Are the Data, Their Characteristics, and the Framework Generating Them Well-Chosen? 11 1.4 There's More to It Than the Statistics Say 14 1.5 What Do the Statistics Say? 16 1.6 The Thrust to Quantify 21 1.7 Where Do We Go from Here? 22 1.8 Suggestions for Further Reading 23 2 The Basic Raw Materials: Data 25 2.1 The Data Hunt 25 2.2 Survey of Sampling Methods 30 2.3 Random Sampling 35 2.4 Problems of Sampling 42 2.5 Polls, Surveys, and Questionnaires 43 3 Making Mountains of Data Managable 56 3.1 Frequency Distributions 56 3.2 Seeing Is Believing 69 3.3 Seeing Is Misleading 73 4 Descriptive Measures for Ungrouped Data 77 4.1 Notation 77 4.2 Accuracy 78 4.3 Measures of Location 79 4.4 Measures of Variation 87 5 Descriptive Measures for Grouped Data 93 5.1 Preface 93 5.2 Measures of Location 94 5.3 Measures of Variation 104 Part 2 Probability Background for Statistical Inference 111 6 Uncertainty and Probability 112 6.1 Set Notation and Language 112 6.2 Preface to Probability 115 6.3 The Finite Probability Model: Structure and Consequences 119 6.4 A Tale of Three Probability Models 123 6.5 Probability Models for Random Processes 124 6.6 Return to Equally Likely Outcome Models 126 6.7 Independent Events 135 6.8 Bernoulli Trial Probability Models 138 6.9 Interpretations of Probability 143 6.10 Probabilities and Odds 145 6.11 Conditional Probability and Bayes's Theorem 145 7 Random Variables 156 7.1 Random Variables, Expected Values, and Probability Distributions 156 7.2 Variance and Standard Deviation 162 7.3 Bernoulli Trial Random Variables 164 8 The Remarkable Normal Curves 166 8.1 The Family of Normal Curves 166 8.2 Normal Curve Estimates for Bernoulli Trial Probabilities 175 8.3 Normally Distributed Random Variables 180 8.4 Normally Distributed Populations 187 9 Sampling Distributions 193 9.1 Sampling Distributions of Sample Statistics 193 9.2 The Sampling Distribution of the Sample Mean 193 9.3 A Central Limit Theorem 198 Part 3 Introduction to Statistical Inference 203 10 Estimation 204 10.1 Estimation Problems 204 10.2 Estimation of Means: Large Sample Case 204 10.3 The Small Sample Case and the t Distributions 215 10.4 What Should Be Considered in Constructing Confidence Intervals? 223 10.5 Estimation of Proportions 227 10.6 The Central Limit Theorems 236 10.7 The Chi-Square Distributions 238 10.8 Estimation of Variance and Standard Deviation 240 10.9 Estimators and Their Properties 243 11 Hypothesis Testing 245 11.1 Trial by Statistics 245 11.2 A Case Study: Tests Concerning Means 248 11.3 Balancing Type I and Type II Errors 260 11.4 Power and Operating Characteristic Curves 265 11.5 Tests Concerning Proportions 268 11.6 Variance and Standard Deviation 271 11.7 Difference Between Means 275 11.8 Matched Pairs' Mean Difference 288 11.9 The Family of F Distributions 297 11.10 Equality of Variances and Standard Deviations 300 11.11 p-Values 306 11.12 Hypothesis Testing and Confidence Intervals 310 11.13 Robustness 313 11.14 Hypothesis Testing: A Decision Making Procedure? 314 Part 4 Linear Regression and Correlation 317 12 Linear Regression 318 12.1 Problems of Prediction 318 12.2 Scatter Diagrams 319 12.3 Fitting the "Best" Regression Line: The Method of Least Squares 325 12.4 Cautions 332 12.5 The Population Regression Line 334 13 Linear Correlation 340 13.1 The Coefficient of Determination 340 13.2 The Sample Correlation Coefficient 346 13.3 The Population Correlation Coefficient 354 13.4 A Hypothesis Test for [rho] 354 Part 5 Selected Topics 361 14 Index Numbers 362 14.1 The Nature of Index Numbers 362 14.2 Unweighted Index Numbers 364 14.3 Weighted Index Numbers 372 14.4 Some Important Indexes 381 14.5 Determining "Real" Dollar Amounts 382 14.6 Problems With Constructing Index Numbers 387 14.7 Limitations of Index Numbers 388 14.8 How Well Does the Consumer Price Index (CPI) Measure Inflation? 389 15 Time Series Analysis and Forecasting 391 15.1 Introduction 391 15.2 Components and Models of a Time Series 391 15.3 Moving Averages 396 15.4 Exponential Smoothing 402 15.5 Trend Determination by the Method of Least Squares 408 15.6 Measuring Seasonal Variation 413 15.7 Deseasonalizing Data 421 15.8 Determination of Cyclical Indexes 424 15.9 Forecasting from Time Series Data 427 16 Nonparametric Statistics 431 16.1 Parametric Versus Nonparametric Methods 431 16.2 A One-Sample Sign Test 432 16.3 A Paired-Sample Sign Test 438 16.4 Tests for Normality 444 16.5 Rank Correlation 450 16.6 Runs: A Test for Randomness 462 16.7 The Mann-Whitney U Test 467 16.8 Advantages and Disadvantages of Nonparametric Methods 476 17 Additional Tests of Hypotheses 477 17.1 Differences Between Proportions 477 17.2 Contingency Tables 485 17.3 Goodness of Fit 492 17.4 Introduction to Analysis of Variance 502 17.5 Blocking in ANOVA 519 Tables 531 Answers to Selected Exercises 539 Self-Tests 563 Self-Tests for Part One 563 Self-Tests for Part Two 567 Self-Tests for Part Three 571 Self-Tests for Part Four 576 Self-Tests for Parts One Through Four 580 Self-Tests for Chapter 14 589 Self-Tests for Chapter 15 593 Self-Tests for Chapter 16 596 Self-Tests for Chapter 17 600 Answers to Selected Self-Test Questions 605 Index 617