Statistics / Edition 2

Statistics / Edition 2

by William J. Adams

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Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company
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8.00(w) x 10.00(h) x (d)

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Table of Contents

Preface to the Second Editionix
Preface to the First Editionxi
Letter to the Studentxv
What Is Statistics?xvi
Statistics: The Computation Dimensionxvii
Part 1The Nature, Collection, Organization, and Properties of Data1
1On Guard!2
1.1Lies, Damn Lies and Statistics2
1.2Are the Data Reliable?2
1.3Are the Data, Their Characteristics, and the Framework Generating Them Well-Chosen?11
1.4There's More to It Than the Statistics Say14
1.5What Do the Statistics Say?16
1.6The Thrust to Quantify21
1.7Where Do We Go from Here?22
1.8Suggestions for Further Reading23
2The Basic Raw Materials: Data25
2.1The Data Hunt25
2.2Survey of Sampling Methods30
2.3Random Sampling35
2.4Problems of Sampling42
2.5Polls, Surveys, and Questionnaires43
3Making Mountains of Data Managable56
3.1Frequency Distributions56
3.2Seeing Is Believing69
3.3Seeing Is Misleading73
4Descriptive Measures for Ungrouped Data77
4.3Measures of Location79
4.4Measures of Variation87
5Descriptive Measures for Grouped Data93
5.2Measures of Location94
5.3Measures of Variation104
Part 2Probability Background for Statistical Inference111
6Uncertainty and Probability112
6.1Set Notation and Language112
6.2Preface to Probability115
6.3The Finite Probability Model: Structure and Consequences119
6.4A Tale of Three Probability Models123
6.5Probability Models for Random Processes124
6.6Return to Equally Likely Outcome Models126
6.7Independent Events135
6.8Bernoulli Trial Probability Models138
6.9Interpretations of Probability143
6.10Probabilities and Odds145
6.11Conditional Probability and Bayes's Theorem145
7Random Variables156
7.1Random Variables, Expected Values, and Probability Distributions156
7.2Variance and Standard Deviation162
7.3Bernoulli Trial Random Variables164
8The Remarkable Normal Curves166
8.1The Family of Normal Curves166
8.2Normal Curve Estimates for Bernoulli Trial Probabilities175
8.3Normally Distributed Random Variables180
8.4Normally Distributed Populations187
9Sampling Distributions193
9.1Sampling Distributions of Sample Statistics193
9.2The Sampling Distribution of the Sample Mean193
9.3A Central Limit Theorem198
Part 3Introduction to Statistical Inference203
10.1Estimation Problems204
10.2Estimation of Means: Large Sample Case204
10.3The Small Sample Case and the t Distributions215
10.4What Should Be Considered in Constructing Confidence Intervals?223
10.5Estimation of Proportions227
10.6The Central Limit Theorems236
10.7The Chi-Square Distributions238
10.8Estimation of Variance and Standard Deviation240
10.9Estimators and Their Properties243
11Hypothesis Testing245
11.1Trial by Statistics245
11.2A Case Study: Tests Concerning Means248
11.3Balancing Type I and Type II Errors260
11.4Power and Operating Characteristic Curves265
11.5Tests Concerning Proportions268
11.6Variance and Standard Deviation271
11.7Difference Between Means275
11.8Matched Pairs' Mean Difference288
11.9The Family of F Distributions297
11.10Equality of Variances and Standard Deviations300
11.12Hypothesis Testing and Confidence Intervals310
11.14Hypothesis Testing: A Decision Making Procedure?314
Part 4Linear Regression and Correlation317
12Linear Regression318
12.1Problems of Prediction318
12.2Scatter Diagrams319
12.3Fitting the "Best" Regression Line: The Method of Least Squares325
12.5The Population Regression Line334
13Linear Correlation340
13.1The Coefficient of Determination340
13.2The Sample Correlation Coefficient346
13.3The Population Correlation Coefficient354
13.4A Hypothesis Test for [rho]354
Part 5Selected Topics361
14Index Numbers362
14.1The Nature of Index Numbers362
14.2Unweighted Index Numbers364
14.3Weighted Index Numbers372
14.4Some Important Indexes381
14.5Determining "Real" Dollar Amounts382
14.6Problems With Constructing Index Numbers387
14.7Limitations of Index Numbers388
14.8How Well Does the Consumer Price Index (CPI) Measure Inflation?389
15Time Series Analysis and Forecasting391
15.2Components and Models of a Time Series391
15.3Moving Averages396
15.4Exponential Smoothing402
15.5Trend Determination by the Method of Least Squares408
15.6Measuring Seasonal Variation413
15.7Deseasonalizing Data421
15.8Determination of Cyclical Indexes424
15.9Forecasting from Time Series Data427
16Nonparametric Statistics431
16.1Parametric Versus Nonparametric Methods431
16.2A One-Sample Sign Test432
16.3A Paired-Sample Sign Test438
16.4Tests for Normality444
16.5Rank Correlation450
16.6Runs: A Test for Randomness462
16.7The Mann-Whitney U Test467
16.8Advantages and Disadvantages of Nonparametric Methods476
17Additional Tests of Hypotheses477
17.1Differences Between Proportions477
17.2Contingency Tables485
17.3Goodness of Fit492
17.4Introduction to Analysis of Variance502
17.5Blocking in ANOVA519
Answers to Selected Exercises539
Self-Tests for Part One563
Self-Tests for Part Two567
Self-Tests for Part Three571
Self-Tests for Part Four576
Self-Tests for Parts One Through Four580
Self-Tests for Chapter 14589
Self-Tests for Chapter 15593
Self-Tests for Chapter 16596
Self-Tests for Chapter 17600
Answers to Selected Self-Test Questions605

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