Stereotype Threat: Theory, Process, and Application

Overview

The 21st century has brought with it unparalleled levels of diversity in the classroom and the workforce. It is now common to see in elementary school, high school, and university classrooms, not to mention boardrooms and factory floors, a mixture of ethnicities, races, genders, and religious affiliations. But these changes in academic and economic opportunities have not directly translated into an elimination of group disparities in academic performance, career opportunities, and levels of advancement. Standard ...

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Overview

The 21st century has brought with it unparalleled levels of diversity in the classroom and the workforce. It is now common to see in elementary school, high school, and university classrooms, not to mention boardrooms and factory floors, a mixture of ethnicities, races, genders, and religious affiliations. But these changes in academic and economic opportunities have not directly translated into an elimination of group disparities in academic performance, career opportunities, and levels of advancement. Standard explanations for these disparities, which are vehemently debated in the scientific community and popular press, range from the view that women and minorities are genetically endowed with inferior abilities to the view that members of these demographic groups are products of environments that frustrate the development of the skills needed for success. Although these explanations differ along a continuum of nature vs. nurture, they share in common a presumption that a large chunk of our population lacks the potential to achieve academic and career success.

In contrast to intractable factors like biology or upbringing, the research summarized in this book suggests that factors in one's immediate situation play a critical yet underappreciated role in temporarily suppressing the intellectual performance of women and minorities, creating an illusion of group differences in ability. Research conducted over the course of the last fifteen years suggests the mere existence of cultural stereotypes that assert the intellectual inferiority of these groups creates a threatening intellectual environment for stigmatized individuals - a climate where anything they say or do is interpreted through the lens of low expectations. This stereotype threat can ultimately interfere with intellectual functioning and academic engagement, setting the stage for later differences in educational attainment, career choice, and job advancement.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780199732449
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press
  • Publication date: 12/2/2011
  • Pages: 336
  • Product dimensions: 6.00 (w) x 9.30 (h) x 0.90 (d)

Meet the Author

Michael Inzlicht was born and raised in Montréal, Canada. He is proud to be the first in his extended family to obtain a college degree, a bachelor of science in Anatomical Sciences from McGill University. Michael credits McGill with shaping his current identity, values, and orientation. He received his MS and PhD from Brown University, and was a postdoctoral fellow at New York University. In 2004, he moved back to Canada and spent a short time at Wilfrid Laurier University, before taking his current position at the University of Toronto, where he studies prejudice, self-control, and religion, often using the modern tools of neuroscience.

Toni Schmader grew up in a small town in Western Pennsylvania. She first became interested in group differences in academic performance when she read Jonathon Kozol's books on social inequality in high school. She received her BA in Psychology from Washington and Jefferson College and her PhD in Social Psychology from the University of California, Santa Barbara. She served on the faculty at the University of Arizona for ten years and is currently the Canada Research Chair in Social Psychology at the University of British Columbia, where she continues to publish research aimed at understanding and mitigating social inequality.

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Table of Contents

Chapter 1 - Introduction
Michael Inzlicht and Toni Schmader

Chapter 2 - The Role of Situational Cues in Signaling and Maintaining Stereotype Threat
Mary C. Murphy and Valerie Jones Taylor

Chapter 3 - An Integration of Processes that Underlie Stereotype Threat
Toni Schmader and Sian Beilock

Chapter 4 - Embodied Stereotype Threat: Exploring brain and body mechanisms underlying performance impairments
Wendy Berry Mendes and Jeremy Jamieson

Chapter 5 - Types of threats: From stereotype threat to stereotype threats
Jenessa R. Shapiro

Chapter 6 - Do I Belong? How Negative Intellectual Stereotypes Undermine People's Sense of Social Belonging in School and How to Fix It
Gregory M. Walton and Priyanka B. Carr

Chapter 7 - Stereotype Threat Spillover: The short-term and long-term effects of coping with threats to social identity
Michael Inzlicht, Alexa M. Tullett, and Jennifer N. Gutsell

Chapter 8 - Differentiating Theories: A comparison of stereotype threat and stereotype priming effects
David M. Marx and Diederik A. Stapel

Chapter 9 - Stereotype Boost: Positive Outcomes from the Activation of Positive Stereotypes
Margaret J. Shih, Todd L. Pittinsky, and Geoffrey C. Ho

Chapter 10 - Threatening Gender and Race: Different manifestations of stereotype threat
Christine Logel, Jennifer Peach, and Steven J. Spencer

Chapter 11 - Stereotype Threat in Organizations: An examination of its scope, triggers, and possible interventions
Laura J. Kray and Aiwa Shirako

Chapter 12 - Social Class and Test Performance: From stereotype threat to symbolic violence
Jean-Claude Croizet and Mathias Millet

Chapter 13 - Aging and Stereotype Threat: Development, process, and interventions
Alison L. Chasteen, Sonia K. Kang, and Jessica D. Remedios

Chapter 14 - The Impact of Stereotype Threat on Performance in Sports
Jeff Stone, Aina Chalabaev, and C. Keith Harrison

Chapter 15 - Stereotype Threat in Interracial Interactions
Jennifer A. Richeson and J. Nicole Shelton

Chapter 16 - Concerns About Generalizing Stereotype Threat Research Findings to Operational High Stakes Testing
Paul R. Sackett and Ann Marie Ryan

Chapter 17 - Stereotype Threat in the Real World
Joshua Aronson and Thomas Dee

Chapter 18 - An Identity Threat Perspective on Intervention
Geoffrey L. Cohen, Valerie Purdie-Vaughns, and Julio Garcia

Chapter 19 - Extending and Applying Stereotype Threat Research: A brief essay
Claude M. Steele

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