Strategic Computing: DARPA and the Quest for Machine Intelligence, 1983-1993

Strategic Computing: DARPA and the Quest for Machine Intelligence, 1983-1993

5.0 1
by Alex Roland, Philip Shiman
     
 

ISBN-10: 0262182262

ISBN-13: 9780262182263

Pub. Date: 09/13/2002

Publisher: MIT Press

This is the story of an extraordinary effort by the U.S. Department of Defense to hasten the advent of "machines that think." From 1983 to 1993, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) spent an extra $1 billion on computer research aimed at achieving artificial intelligence. The Strategic Computing Initiative (SCI) was conceived as an integrated plan

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Overview

This is the story of an extraordinary effort by the U.S. Department of Defense to hasten the advent of "machines that think." From 1983 to 1993, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) spent an extra $1 billion on computer research aimed at achieving artificial intelligence. The Strategic Computing Initiative (SCI) was conceived as an integrated plan to promote computer chip design and manufacture, computer architecture, and artificial intelligence software. What distinguished SCI from other large-scale technology programs was that it self-consciously set out to advance an entire research front. The SCI succeeded in fostering significant technological successes, even though it never achieved machine intelligence. The goal provided a powerful organizing principle for a suite of related research programs, but it did not solve the problem of coordinating these programs. In retrospect, it is hard to see how it could have.In Strategic Computing,Alex Roland and Philip Shiman uncover the roles played in the SCI by technology,individuals, and social and political forces. They explore DARPA culture, especially the information processing culture within the agency, and they evaluate the SCI's accomplishments and set them in the context of overall computer development during this period. Their book is an important contribution to our understanding of the complex sources of contemporary computing.

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Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780262182263
Publisher:
MIT Press
Publication date:
09/13/2002
Series:
History of Computing
Pages:
453
Product dimensions:
6.00(w) x 9.00(h) x 0.75(d)
Age Range:
18 Years

Table of Contents

List of Illustrations
Preface
Acknowledgments
Chronology: Key DARPA Personnel during the Strategic Computing Program
List of Acronyms
Introduction1
1Robert Kahn: Visionary13
Switching and Connecting14
The Information Processing Techniques Office (IPTO)21
AI Autumn26
An Agent of Restoration32
2Robert Cooper: Salesman39
The Pull of Robert Cooper39
The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA)42
An Agent of Transition46
Testing the Market56
The Pyramid as Conceptual Icon63
Of Time Lines and Applications71
3Lynn Conway: Executor83
Connecting with the Customer83
The Divorce of the Dynamic Duo95
Process and Personality102
The Plight of the Program Manager109
4Invisible Infrastructure: MOSIS117
The Transformation of Microelectronics117
From VLSI to MOSIS119
The Value Added131
Public Good, Political Liability136
Other Infrastructure140
5Over the Wall: The SC Architectures Program149
The Connection Machine149
The Wall154
Stephen Squires, Human Agent158
Defining the First Generation165
Applying the Gray Code174
6Artificial Intelligence: The Search for the Generic Expert System185
Artificial Intelligence (AI)185
Expert Systems190
IntelliCorp and Teknowledge196
Managing Innovation201
The Failure to Connect206
The Rest of AI208
7Putting SC to Work: The Autonomous Land Vehicle215
Crazy Walking War Machines215
Working with Industry222
The Tyranny of the Demonstration229
The New Generation System237
The ALV and Its Shadow243
8ISTO: The Middle Years of Strategic Computing, 1985-1989251
Reconciling Form and Function251
Reconciling Vision and Budget261
Strategic Computing at Age Four264
Waiting for the Wave272
Strategic Computing 2279
9The Disappearance of Strategic Computing285
The FCCSET Initiative286
Connecting the Supercomputers293
The Gap between Conception and Legislation296
Fields and Boehm in the Last Ditch302
The Politics of Change310
Disconnecting the Last Veteran314
10Conclusion319
Why?320
How?321
What?325
Notes333
Note on Sources397
Index405

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Strategic Computing: DARPA and the Quest for Machine Intelligence, 1983-1993 5 out of 5 based on 0 ratings. 1 reviews.
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