The National Science Foundation’s Division of Atmospheric Sciences (ATM) supports research to develop new understanding of Earth’s atmosphere and how the Sun impacts it. Strategic Guidance for the National Science Foundation's Support of the Atmospheric Sciences provides guidance to ATM on its strategy for achieving its goals in the atmospheric sciences, including cutting-edge research, education and workforce development, service to society, computational and observational objectives, and data management. The report reviews how the atmospheric sciences have evolved over the past several decades and analyzes the strengths and limitations of the various modes of support employed by ATM. It concludes that ATM is operating in an environment that is ever more cross-disciplinary, interagency, and international, making a more strategic approach necessary to manage activities in a way that actively engages the atmospheric sciences community. At the same time, ATM should preserve opportunities for basic research, especially projects that are high risk, potentially transformative, or unlikely to be supported by other government agencies. Finally, ATM needs to be more proactive in attracting highly talented students to the atmospheric sciences as an investment in the ability to make future breakthroughs.