Strategies for Real-Time System Specification [NOOK Book]

Overview

This is the digital version of the printed book (Copyright © 1987).


Here is a casebook, a practical reference, and an indispensable guide for creating a systematic, formal methodology for large, real-time, software-based systems.

The book introduces the widely implemented Hatley/Pirbhai methods, a major extension of the DeMarco analysis method describing how external events control the system's operating ...

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Strategies for Real-Time System Specification

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Overview

This is the digital version of the printed book (Copyright © 1987).


Here is a casebook, a practical reference, and an indispensable guide for creating a systematic, formal methodology for large, real-time, software-based systems.

The book introduces the widely implemented Hatley/Pirbhai methods, a major extension of the DeMarco analysis method describing how external events control the system's operating behavior. The techniques are used in major avionics and electronics companies worldwide, and are automated by most major CASE tools, including TurboCASE/Sys by StructSoft, Inc.

Large software-based systems, especially those for real-time applications, require multi-mode operation, direct interaction with a rapidly changing physical environment, and fast response times. In the past, the development of such systems was prone to massive cost and schedule overruns, and to inadequate performance and reliability. Strategies for Real-Time System Specification addresses these problems by integrating a finite-state machine structure into classical analysis methods.

The book contains nearly 200 diagrams, many of which illustrate the requirements specification of a flight management system for a major avionics developer.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780133492354
  • Publisher: Pearson Education
  • Publication date: 8/2/2013
  • Series: Dorset House eBooks
  • Sold by: Barnes & Noble
  • Format: eBook
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 440
  • File size: 25 MB
  • Note: This product may take a few minutes to download.

Meet the Author

Derek J. Hatley previously was president of System Strategies, an international consulting and training firm based in Jenison, Michigan. Prior to founding System Strategies, he was a Staff Engineer at Smiths Industries, Avionic Systems Division, where he was responsible for systems and software development techniques. He developed the requirements model, managed its first major application, developed an instructional workshop to be given internally and to customers and suppliers, and has presented technical papers at numerous international professional conferences. An avid music lover for most of his life, he now spends part of his time writing and arranging music.

Imtiaz A. Pirbhai was a principal of Systems Methods in Seattle, Washington, specializing in real-time and general systems development training. He previously was responsible for the development of structured methods standards and procedures at the Boeing Commercial Airplane Co. He taught and consulted internationally, introducing the methods described in Strategies for Real-Time System Specification throughout the world. At the time of his death in August of 1992, he had begun work on Process for System Architecture and Requirements Engineering (Dorset House, 2000), coauthored with Derek Hatley and Peter Hruschka.

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Table of Contents

List of Figures xv

Foreword xxiii

Preface xxv

Part I: The Overall Strategy 1

Chapter 1: Overview 3

1.1 The Birth of the Requirements Model 4

1.2 The Birth of the Architecture Model 7

1.3 Compatibility of the Models 7

1.4 Applicability of the Models 8

1.5 The System Life Cycle 8


Chapter 2: The Role of the Methods 11

2.1 Structured Methods: What They Are 11

2.2 System Requirements Model 13

2.3 System Architecture Model 19

2.4 System Specification Model 25

2.5 The Development Life Cycle 27

2.6 Structured Methods: What They Are Not 31

2.7 Summary 32

PART II: The Requirements Model 33

Chapter 3: Overview 35

3.1 The Structure of the Model 37

Chapter 4: The Process Model 41

4.1 Data Context Diagrams 41

4.2 Data Flow Diagrams 44

4.3 Leveling and Balancing 47

4.4 The Numbering System 49

4.5 Data Flows 49

4.6 Data Stores 52

4.7 Process Specifications 53

4.8 Interpreting the Process Model 56

4.9 Summary 59

Chapter 5: The Control Model 61

5.1 Control Context Diagrams 61

5.2 Control Flow Diagrams 64

5.3 Control Flows 67

5.4 Data Conditions 69

5.5 Control Stores 70

5.6 Control Specifications 70

5.7 Process Controls 73

5.8 Summary 76

Chapter 6: Finite State Machines 77

6.1 Combinational Machines 79

6.2 Sequential Machines 83

6.3 Incorporating Finite State Machines into CSPECs 89

6.4 Summary 97

Chapter 7: Timing Requirements 98

7.1 Repetition Rate 99

7.2 Input-to-Output Response Time 99

7.3 Summary 102

Chapter 8: Requirements Dictionary 103

8.1 Primitive Attributes 104

8.2 Group Structure 105

8.3 Dictionary Data Bases 107

8.4 Summary 110

Chapter 9: Requirements Model Interpretation and Summary 111

9.1 The Requirements Model Interpreted 111

9.2 Requirements Model Summary 113

PART III: Building the Requirements Model 117

Chapter 10: Overview 119

10.1 Model Users and Builders 119

10.2 The Sources of Requirements 120

10.3 The Model Building Process 121

Chapter 11: Getting Started 124

11.1 User Requirements Statements 124

11.2 Separating Data and Control 125

11.3 Establishing the System Context 129

11.4 Partitioning the Top Levels 132

11.5 Summary 135

Chapter 12: Developing the Model's Structure 137

12.1 Abstraction and Decomposition 137

12.2 The Seven-Plus-or-Minus-Two Principle 138

12.3 Grouping and Decomposing Processes 139

12.4 Grouping and Decomposing Flows 140

12.5 Naming Processes and Flows 147

12.6 Use of Stores 149

12.7 Functionally Identical Processes 150

12.8 De-emphasizing the Control Model 151

12.9 Control Intensive Systems 153

12.10 The Dilemma of Detail: Requirements Versus Design 155

12.11 The Final Product 156

12.12 Summary 156

Chapter 13: Preparing Process Specifications 158

13.1 The Role of Process Specifications 158

13.2 The Different Types of PSPECs 159

13.3 Some Important Signal Conventions 162

13.4 Structured English 165

13.5 Annotating with Comments 167

13.6 Summary 167

Chapter 14: Preparing Control Specifications 169

14.1 Avoiding Control Specifications 169

14.2 Combinational Control 170

14.3 Sequential Control 176

14.4 Multi-Sheet CSPECs 182

14.5 Fitting CSPECs In 185

14.6 Summary 189

Chapter 15: Defining Timing 190

15.1 Timing Overview 190

15.2 Response Time Specification 192

15.3 Summary 193

Chapter 16: Managing the Dictionary 194

16.1 Flow Types 194

16.2 Dictionary Symbols 198

16.3 Summary 199

PART IV: The Architecture Model 201

Chapter 17: Overview 203

17.1 Requirements-to-Architecture Template 204

17.2 Architecture Model Symbols 207

Chapter 18: Architecture Diagrams 211

18.1 Architecture Context Diagrams 211

18.2 Flows and Interconnects 213

18.3 Architecture Flow Diagrams 213

18.4 Architecture Interconnect Diagrams 218

18.5 Summary 224

Chapter 19: Architecture Dictionary and Module Specifications 225

19.1 Architecture Module Specification 226

19.2 Architecture Interconnect Specification 229

19.3 Timing Requirements 232

19.4 Architecture Dictionary 233

19.5 Summary 234

Chapter 20: Completing the Architecture Model 235

20.1 Allocation to Hardware and Software 235

20.2 The Hardware and Software Architectures 236

20.3 The Complete Architecture Model 238

PART V: Building the Architecture Model 241

Chapter 21: Overview 243

21.1 Architecture Development Process 244

21.2 Systems Come in Hierarchies 246

Chapter 22: Enhancing the Requirements Model 248

22.1 Input and Output Processing 249

22.2 User Interface Processing 251

22.3 Maintenance and Self-Test Processing 254

22.4 The Complete Enhanced Requirements Model 256

22.5 Technology-Independent Versus Technology-Nonspecific 257

22.6 Organizational Implications 260

22.7 Summary 261


Chapter 23: Creating the System Architecture Model 263

23.1 Architecture Context Diagram 263

23.2 Architecture Flow and Interconnect Diagrams 264

23.3 Example of AFD and AID Mapping 266

23.4 Model Consistency and Balancing 268

23.5 The Complete Architecture Model 271

23.6 Summary 272

Chapter 24: Creating the Hardware and Software Architecture Models 273

24.1 Hardware and Software Partitioning 276

24.4 Applying the Template to Software Requirements 279

24.3 Developing the Software Architecture 282

24.4 The Hardware and Software Architecture Process 284

24.5 Summary 285

Chapter 25: Architecture Development Summary 286

25.1 Partitioning the Modeling Process 286

PART VI: Examples 293

Chapter 26: Automobile Management System 295

26.1 Problem Statement 295

26.2 Requirements and Architecture Development 297

26.3 Requirements Model 299

26.4 Architecture Model 319

Chapter 27: Home Heating System 326

27.1 Problem Statement 326

27.2 Requirements Model 330

27.3 Architecture Model 340

Chapter 28: Vending Machine 342

28.1 Customer Dialogue 342

28.2 Requirements Model 344

28.3 Architecture Model 355

Appendices 363

Appendix A: Standard Symbols and Definitions 363

A.1 Introduction 363

A.2 Standard Symbols 363

A.3 Requirements Model 367

A.4 Architecture Model 382

Appendix B: Making the Models into Documents 392

B.1 Organizing the Models 392

B.2 Military Standards 396

Appendix C: Information Modeling: The Third Perspective 398

References 403

Index 405

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