Structural Adjustment, the Environment and Sustainable Development [NOOK Book]

Overview

This is a pioneering study which should serve as a model for future research and will to a wide audience' Dharam Ghai, Director United Nations Research Institute for Social Development Structural Adjustment and the Environment (Earthscan, 1992) was the first book to fully examine the effects of 'structural adjustment programmes the economic reform policies required by the World Bank and IMF as part of their lending operations with borrowing countries. To widespread Critical acclaim it exposed the damaging ...

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Structural Adjustment, the Environment and Sustainable Development

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Overview

This is a pioneering study which should serve as a model for future research and will to a wide audience' Dharam Ghai, Director United Nations Research Institute for Social Development Structural Adjustment and the Environment (Earthscan, 1992) was the first book to fully examine the effects of 'structural adjustment programmes the economic reform policies required by the World Bank and IMF as part of their lending operations with borrowing countries. To widespread Critical acclaim it exposed the damaging environmental and social effects of structural adjustment policies, and called for a thorough revision of the then-current development policy. This new work; Structural Adjustment, the Environment and sustainable Development is a major step forward in the study of structural adjustment policies. It looks in detail at new research and analysis into their effects, and incorporates recent studies by a wide range of academics and policy-makers, leading experts and institutes. Focusing on nine in-depth case studies, the book examines the complex links between macroeconomic policies, social impacts and environmental outcomes, and takes a forward-looking perspective in outlining the alternatives to current structural adjustment policies. Review quotes for Structural Adjustment and the Environment 'Should be essential reading for all students of development' Third World Planning Review 'Breaks new ground in the debate on structural adjustment generally. and in the environment/development debate' International Affairs 'The most substantial contribution to date to what is undoubtedly an important area' Development and Change David Reed is director of the Macroeconomics for Sustainable Development Programme of WWF International, and editor of Structural Adjustment and the Environment (Earthscan, 1992). Originally published in 1996

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Product Details

Meet the Author

David Reed is director, Macroeconomics Program Office, World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF-International) in Washington DC, US; author of Economic Change, Governance and Natural Resource Wealth (2001); and editor of Structural Adjustment, the Environment and Sustainable Development (1996).

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Table of Contents

Foreword
Preface
Introduction
Lessons Derived from the First Research Program
Influence of the First WWF Program on This Second Study
Structure of This Study
Part One
1. An Instrument of Global Economic Policy
The Evolving Debate on Adjustment
Attribution of Cause
But in Whose Interests?
And What about Long-term Impacts?
The Adjustment Imperative
The End of the Golden Age
The Legacy of Supply-side Economics
World Bank Intervention
The Push Toward Privatization
A New Generation of Criticisms
Increasing Vulnerability to External Shocks and Pressures
Impacts on Industrial Policy
Distributional Equity
'Deregulating' Labor Markets
Gender Equity
Environmental Impacts of Liberalized Trade Regimes
Environmental Costs of Expanding Non-traditional
Agricultural Exports
Restructuring the World Economy
An Instrument of Global Economic Policy
Adjustment's Resilience
2. Sustainable Development
The Political Foundations of Sustainable Development
The Stockholm Conference
Sharpening Global Environmental Tensions
First Articulations of Sustainable Development
The Rio Conference
An Operational Approach to Sustainable Development
Toward an Operational Definition
Reforming National Development Strategies
Changing International Development Patterns
Adjustment Policy in the Context of Sustainable Development
Part Two
Introduction
Organization of the Research Program
Common Methodological Challenges
3. Case Study for Cameroon
Background
The Setting
Methodology
The Environment
Salient Features
Major Environmental Problems and their Causes
The Environmental Impacts of Past Development Policies
Environmental Policies and Sustainability
Long-term Environmental Trends
The Economy
Economic Performance and Structural Adjustment since 1985
Economic and Social Impacts of Recent and Current Adjustment
Environmental Impacts of Recent and Current Adjustment
Four Case Studies
Conclusions
Sustainable Development
Development Scenarios
Requisites for Sustainable Development
Implications for Adjustment and Development
Program Design
Prospects for Adoption of Sustainable Development Policies
4. Case Study for Mali
The Environment
Salient Features
Major Environmental Problems and Their Causes
Environmental Impacts of Past Development Policies
Environmental Policies
Long-term Environmental Trends
The Economy
Development Strategy
Economic Performance and Structural Adjustment
Economic and Social Impacts of Adjustment
Environmental Impacts of Adjustment
Three Case Studies
Conclusions on Adjustment-environment Linkages
Sustainable Development
Development Scenarios
Requisites for Sustainable Development
Implications for Adjustment and Development
Program Design
Prospects for Sustainable Development Policies
5. Case Study for Tanzania
Background
State of the Economy and the Environment
Environmental Policy
Structural Adjustment
Adjustment-environment Linkages: Analysis
Deforestation
Soil Erosion
The Influence of Structural Adjustment
Sustainable Development: Future Scenarios
If Current Adjustment Programs Continue
Under Alternative Policies
Trade-offs
Recommendations
Activities That Could Be Integrated into Existing
Structural Adjustment Programs
Changing the Objectives of Future Structural
Adjustment Programs
Sequencing of Structural Adjustment
Policies to Pursue in Parallel with Structural Adjustment
Limiting Factors
6. Case Study for Zambia
Background
State of the Economy and the Environment
Environmental Policy
Structural Adjustment
Adjustment-environment Linkages
Loss of Wildlife
Deforestation
Urban Water Pollution
Poverty and the Environment
Distribution of Costs and Benefits
Sustainable Development: Future Scenarios
If Current Adjustment Programs Continue
If Current Sectoral Policies Continue
Under Alternative Policies
Trade-offs
Recommendations
Reorienting Current Structural Adjustment Programs
Developing Alternative Structural Adjustment Policies
Policies to Pursue in Parallel with Structural Adjustment
7. Case Study for El Salvador
Environmental Overview
Population and the Environment
Current Dynamics of Environmental Degradation
The Unsustainability of Past Development
The Early Role of Agroexport Production
Economic Diversification in the Fifties and Sixties
Failed Attempts at Agrarian Transformation and Economic
Diversification during the Seventies
Reforms under the Civil War, the Eighties and Early Nineties
Economic Reform: Context and Overall Performance
Economic Decline During the Early Eighties
The Role of U.S. Economic Aid and Remittances
The First Stage of Economic Reform
The Structural Adjustment Stage of Economic Reform
Economic Growth, the Breakdown of Rural Livelihoods, and the Environment
Private Consumption-led Growth under Structural Adjustment
Economic Growth, Urbanization, and Environmental Degradation
Poverty and Environmental Degradation in the Rural Economy
Economic Reform and the Environment: The Institutional Dimension
The Demise of the National Institutional Capacity During the First Stage
The Roles of USAID, the World Bank, and the IDB
Comments and Recommendations
8. Case Study for Jamaica
Past Economic Reforms and Structural Adjustment Policies
Population Concentrations and Human Settlements
Water Contamination
External Migration
Environmental Impacts of Past Development Policies and Practices
Case Studies of Economy-environment Links
Bauxite/alumina
Coffee
Tourism
Cement
Environmental Institutions
Conclusions
Recommendations
Impacts of Current and Planned Adjustment Programs
Development Choices
9. Case Study for Venezuela
Economic Policy and Structural Adjustment
Social Impacts on the Labor Markets and the Urban Environment
Poverty and Social Policies
Labor Markets
The Urban Environment
The Environment and Structural Adjustment
Effects of Structural Adjustment Policies on the Environment
Environmental Indicators
Institutions, the Environment, and Structural Adjustment Effects
Exploring Future Impacts: Scenarios for the Economy and the Environment
Macroeconomic Performance Modeled
The Environment and Structural Adjustment Scenarios
Sustainable Development
Sociopolitical Feasibility Analysis
Conclusions
10. Case Study for Pakistan
Introduction
Economic Development
The Environment and Natural Resources
Social and Environmental Elements in Structural Adjustment Programs
The Environmental and Social Impacts of Reforms
Long-run Projections
Equilibrium Analysis
Analysis of the Distributional Impacts
Waterlogging and Salinization in Irrigated Agriculture
Summary and Conclusions
11. Case Study for Vietnam
The Economic Context of Reform
Constraints to Sustainable Growth
Major Environmental Issues Facing Vietnam
Land and Soil Resources
Forest Resources
Water Resources
Fishery Resources
Biodiversity
Water Pollution
Air and Atmospheric Pollution
Solid Waste
Hazardous Waste
Integrating Development Policies and the Environment
Agricultural Policy
Forestry Policy
Industrial Policy
Energy Policy
Modeling the Vietnamese Economy: Paths Toward Integration
The Model
Policy Experiments
Conclusions and Recommendations
Preconditions for Integration
The Capital-theoretic Basis for Recommendations
Part Three
12. Conclusions: Short-term Environmental Impacts of Structural Adjustment Programs
Direct Environmental Effects of Price Corrections
External Adjustments
Internal Adjustments
Indirect Environmental Impacts of Economic Reforms
Social Impacts
Institutional Impacts
Summary of the Indirect Environmental Impacts of Economic Reforms
General Summary
13. Conclusions: Impacts of Structural Adjustment on the Sustainability of Developing Countries
The Economic Dimension of Sustainable Development
Sound Macroeconomic Management
Poverty-alleviating Growth
Agricultural Production
The Role of the State
Cost Internalization
The Social Dimension of Sustainable Development
Distributional Equity
Social Services
Gender Equity
Population Stabilization
Political Participation
The Environmental Dimension of Sustainable Development
Consumption of Renewable Natural Resources
Consumption of Nonrenewable Resources
Sink Functions
Natural Capital
Precautionary Principle
Institutional Framework
In Conclusion
14. Recommendations
Integrating Environmental Issues into Macroeconomic Reforms
Poverty
The Role of the State
National Institutional Reforms
The Role of Civil Society
Reform of International Financial Institutions
Reform of International Institutions
Bibliography
Acronyms and Abbreviations
Index

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