Structural Analysis of Printed Circuit Board Systems

Overview

This book discusses the building blocks of electronic circuits - the microchips, transistors, resistors, condensers, and so forth, and the boards that support them - from the point of view of mechanics: What are the stresses that result from thermal expansion and contraction? What are the elastic parameters that determine whether a component will survive a certain acceleration? After an introduction to the elements of structural analysis and finite-element analysis, the author turns to components, data and ...

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Paperback (Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1993)
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Overview

This book discusses the building blocks of electronic circuits - the microchips, transistors, resistors, condensers, and so forth, and the boards that support them - from the point of view of mechanics: What are the stresses that result from thermal expansion and contraction? What are the elastic parameters that determine whether a component will survive a certain acceleration? After an introduction to the elements of structural analysis and finite-element analysis, the author turns to components, data and testing. A discussion of leadless chip carriers leads to a detailed thermal analysis of pin grid arrays. For compliant leaded systems, both mechanical (bending and twisting) and thermal stresses are discussed in detail. The book concludes with discussions of the dynamic response of circuit cards, plated holes in cards and boards, and the final assembly of cards and boards.

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Editorial Reviews

Booknews
Treats a broad range of electronics packaging systems from the point of the view of the mechanical engineer of at least a college senior level. Describes structural analysis methods for leadless, pin-in-hole, and surface mounted attachments of components (modules), under mechanical as well as thermal loads, emphasizing the engineering characteristics, structural interactions, and possible failure mechanisms of circuit board systems. Well illustrated. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (booknews.com)
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781461269458
  • Publisher: Springer New York
  • Publication date: 12/31/2012
  • Series: Mechanical Engineering Series
  • Edition description: Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1993
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 291
  • Product dimensions: 6.14 (w) x 9.21 (h) x 0.66 (d)

Table of Contents

1. Elements of Structural Analysis.- 1. Rods.- 2. Beams.- 2.1. Flexure.- 2.2. Beams on Elastic Foundation.- 2.3. Torsion.- 2.4. Frames.- 3. Plates.- 3.1. Cylindrical Bending.- 3.2. Pure Bending.- 3.3. Circular Plates.- 3.4. Rectangular Plates in Flexure.- 4. Thermal Stress.- 4.1. One-Dimensional Treatment: Bimaterial Rods.- 4.2. Timoshenko’s Formula for Thermal Bending of Bimaterial Circular Plates.- 5. Plastic Beam Deformation.- 6. Energy Methods in Structural Analysis.- 7. Experimental Methods of Analysis.- 7.1. Load Testers.- 7.2. Strain Gauges.- 7.3. Capacitance Measurement.- 7.4. Fiberoptic Probe/Photodiode Measurement.- 7.5. Photoelasticity.- 7.6. Holographic Interferometry.- 7.7. Piezo-electric Stress Sensors.- 7.8. Moire Interferometry.- 7.9. Electrical Resistance Method.- References.- 2. Finite Element Analysis.- 1. Preliminaries.- 2. Direct Stiffness Matrix Approach.- 3. The Principle of Minimum Potential Energy.- 4. Element Types.- 5. Finite Element Dynamic Analysis.- 6. Stress and Strain Calculations.- 7. Structural Codes.- 8. Steps in the Use of Finite Element Analysis.- References.- 3. Components, Data, and Testing.- 1. Modules.- 2. Circuit Cards and Boards.- 2.1. General Description.- 2.2. Properties of Laminated Construction.- 3. Pin Leads of PGA Modules.- 4. Strength of Compliant Leads in Surface-Mount Construction.- 5. Stiffness of Compliant Leads.- 6. Solder Strength.- References.- 4. Leadless Chip Carriers.- 1. Loads and Materials.- 2. Thermal Stress Analysis.- 3. The Influence of Solder Joint Shape.- 4. Constitutive Equation for Solder Mount.- 5. Conclusions.- 6. Exercises and Questions.- References.- 5. Thermal Stress in Pin-Grid Arrays: Primary Analysis of
Pins.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Elastic Foundation Modulus of a Soldered Pin.- 3. Elastic Foundation Treatment for the Embedded Pin.- 4. Solder Pressure Calculation.- 5. Plastic Analysis of the Pin.- 6. Axial Pin Force Due to Flexure.- 7. A Magnified-Scale Experiment.- 8. Conclusions.- 9. Exercises and Questions.- References.- 6. Thermal Stress in Pin-Grid Arrays: Interaction Between Module and Circuit Card.- 1. Pin Force Analysis Due to Module and Card Bending.- 2. Influence of Pin-End Moments.- 3. Influence of the Primary Axial Pin Forces.- 4. Influence of Secondary Axial Pin Forces.- 5. Solution of the System of Equations.- 6. Module and Card Stretch Due to Pin Shear.- 7. System Reduction Factor.- 8. Conclusions.- 9. Exercises and Questions.- References.- 7. Compliant Leaded Systems: The Local Assembly.- 1. Experimental Studies.- 2. Analytical Model.- 3. Properties of Simple Local Assemblies.- 4. Discrete Local Assembly.- 5. Built-up (Multiple-Module) Local Assemblies.- 5.1. Stacked-Module Arrangement.- 5.2. Double-Sided Module Assemblies.- 5.3. Card Longer Than Module.- 5.4. Experimental Results.- 6. Orthotropy of Local Assemblies.- 7. Module Group Assemblies.- 8. Conclusions.- 9. Exercises and Questions.- References.- 8. Bending in Compliant Leaded Systems.- 1. The Role of Leads.- 2. Application of the Finite Element Method.- 3. Strip Method.- 4. Building Block Method.- 5. Hybrid Experimental/Analytical Method.- 6. Conclusions.- 7. Exercises and Questions.- References.- 9. Approximate Engineering Theory for the Twisting of Compliant Leaded Circuit Card/Module Systems.- 1. Fundamental Approach.- 2. Torsional Stiffness Calculation.- 3. Rectangular Cards with a Module.- 4. Module Clusters.- 5. Finite Element Check of the Approximate Theory.- 6. Conclusions.- 7. Exercises and Questions.- References.- 10. Analytical Theory and Experimental Work in Compliant Leaded Systems Subjected to Twisting.- 1. Analytical Theory.- 2. Torsional Stiffness.- 3. Experimental Study.- 4. Large Displacements.- 5. Approximate Large Displacement Analysis of a Square Card.- 6. Torsional Fatigue.- 7. Conclusions.- 8. Exercises and Questions.- References.- 11. Thermal Stresses in Compliant Leaded Systems.- 1. Motivation for Analysis.- 2. Analytical Lead Stress Computation.- 2.1. Plane Frame Analysis.- 2.2. Three-Dimensional Frame Analysis.- 3. Finite Element Thermal Stress Analysis.- 4. Stress Reduction in Compliant Leaded Solder Joints.- 5. Thermal Fatigue in Solder Joints of Compliant Leads.- 6. Thermal Cycling Reliability.- 7. Exercises and Questions.- References.- 12. Dynamic Response of Circuit Card Systems.- 1. General Considerations.- 2. Dynamic Load Levels and Measurement.- 3. Vibration Analysis in Circuit Card Systems.- 4. Transient Vibration and Shock Response.- 5. Fatigue Considerations.- 6. Conclusions.- 7. Exercises and Questions.- References.- 13. Plated Holes in Cards and Boards.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Thermal Stress from Module-to-Card Mismatch.- 3. Thermal Stress from Barrel-to-Board Mismatch.- 3.1. Failure Mechanisms.- 3.2. Structural Modeling.- 3.3. Finite Element Models.- 3.4. Copper Inner-Plane Bending.- 4. Experimental Methods.- 5. Vias.- 6. Conclusions.- 7. Exercises and Questions.- References.- 14. Assembly of Cards and Boards.- 1. Physical Description.- 2. ZIF Connector Actuation.- 3. Connector Contact.- 3.1. Contact Forces and Friction Regimes.- 3.2. Electrical Contact Resistance.- 3.3. Plating Ductility.- 3.4. Friction and Wear (Tribology).- 3.5. Contact Temperature.- 4. Dynamic Response.- 5. Thermal Stress.- 6. A Combined Permanent and Separable Connector System.- 7. Conclusions.- 8. Exercises and Questions.- References.- Author Index.

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