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Overview

The fourth edition of Structural Concrete: Theory and Design brings this text fully up to date while maintaining its easy-to-follow, logical approach. Working with the text's numerous step-by-step examples, students quickly grasp the principles and techniques of analyzing and designing reinforced and prestressed concrete elements. Moreover, the authors' emphasis on a top quality, economical approach helps students design concrete structures and members with confidence.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781118131343
  • Publisher: Wiley
  • Publication date: 5/1/2012
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 5
  • Pages: 1032
  • Product dimensions: 7.40 (w) x 9.40 (h) x 1.70 (d)

Meet the Author

M. Nadim Hassoun, PhD, PE, FASCE, FICE, MACI, is Professor Emeritus of Civil Engineering at South Dakota State University.

Akthem Al-Manaseer, PhD, PEng, FASCE, FACI, FCSCE, MIStructE, is Professor in the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering at San Jose State University.

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Read an Excerpt

PREFACE: Preface

The main objective of a course on reinforced concrete design is to develop, in the engineering student, the ability to analyze and design a reinforced concrete member subjected to different types of forces in a simple and logical manner using the basic principles of statics and some empirical formulas based on experimental results. Once the analysis and design procedure is fully understood, its application to different types of structures becomes simple and direct, provided that the student has a good background in structural analysis.

The material presented in this book is based on the requirements of the American Concrete Institute (ACI) Building Code (318-95). Also, information has been presented on material properties including volume changes of concrete, stress-strain behavior, creep and elastic and non-linear behavior of reinforced concrete.

Concrete structures are widely used in the United States and almost all over the world. The progress in the design concept has increased in the last few decades emphasizing safety, serviceability and economy. To achieve economical design of a reinforced concrete member, specific restrictions, rules and formulas are presented in the Codes to ensure both safety and reliability of the structure. Engineering graduates to understand the code rules and consequently be able to design a concrete structure effectively and economically with minimum training period or overhead costs. Taking this into consideration, this book is written to achieve the following objectives.
  1. To present the material for the design of reinforced concrete members in a simple and logical approach.
  2. To arrange the sequence of chapters in a way compatible with the design procedure of actual structures.
  3. To provide a large number of examples in each chapter in clear steps to explain the analysis and design of each type of structural member.
  4. To provide an adequate number of practical problems at the end of each chapter to achieve a high level of comprehension.
  5. To explain the failure mechanism of a reinforced concrete beam due to flexure and to develop the necessary relationships and formulas for design.
  6. To explain the failure mechanism of a reinforced concrete beam due to flexure and to develop the necessary relationships and formulas for design.
  7. To provide adequate number of design aids to help the student in reducing the repetitive computations of specific commonly used values.
  8. To enhance the students ability to use a total quality and economical approach in the design of concrete structures and to help the student to design reinforced concrete members with confidence.
  9. To explain the nonlinear behavior and the development of plastic hinges and plastic rotations in continuous reinforced concrete structures.
  10. To provide flowcharts to aid the student in writing their own programs, as the use of computers are needed in the design of concrete structures. Flow charts and computer programs are discussed in Chapter 21.
  11. To provide a summary at the end of each chapter to help the student to review the materials of each chapter separately.
  12. To provide new information on the design of some members, like beams with variable depth, Chapter 8 , stairs, Chapter 18, and curved beams, Chapter 19, that are not covered in other books on concrete.
  13. To present information on the design of reinforced concrete frames, principles of limit design and moment redistribution in continuous reinforced concrete structures.
  14. To provide examples in S.I. units in all chapters of the book. Equivalent conversion factors from U.S. customary units are given in appendix B.
  15. References are presented at the end of each chapter.

The book is an outgrowth of the author's lecture notes that represent his teaching and industrial experience over the past thirty years. The industrial experience of the author includes the design and construction supervision and management of many reinforced, prestressed and precast concrete structures. This is in addition to the consulting work he performed to international design and construction firms, professional registration in the U.K. and other countries, and a comprehensive knowledge of the European Codes on the design of concrete structures.

The book is written to cover two courses in reinforced concrete design. Depending on the proficiency required, the first course may cover Chapters 1 through 11, and part of Chapter 13, while the second course may cover the remaining chapters. Part of the late chapters may also be taught in the first course as needed. A number of optional sections have been included in various chapters. These sections are indicated by an asterisk (*) in the Table of Contents, and may easily be distinguished from those which form the basic requirements of the first course. The optional sections may be covered in the second course or relegated to a reading assignment. Brief descriptions of the chapters are given below.

The first chapter of the book presents information on the historical development of concrete, codes of practice, loads and safety provisions and design philosophy and concepts. The second chapter deals with the properties of concrete as well as steel reinforcement used in the design of reinforced concrete structures, including stress-strain relationships, modulus of elasticity and shear modulus of concrete, shrinkage, creep, fire resistance, high performance concrete and fibrous concrete. Since the current ACI Code gives emphasis to the Strength Design Method, this approach has been adopted throughout the text, except in Chapter 5 where the analysis of reinforced concrete sections by the working stress design is explained enough to enable the student and designer to check the deflection of flexural members under service loads. Chapters 3 and 4 cover the analysis and design of reinforced concrete sections based on Strength Design concept. The behavior of reinforced concrete beams loaded to failure, the types of flexural failure and failure mechanism are explained in the way that differs from other textbooks. It is essential for the student to understand the failure concept and the inherent reserve strength before using the necessary design formulas.

Chapters 5 and 6 deal with the elastic behavior and serviceability of concrete beams including deflection and control of cracking. Chapters 7 and 8 cover the bond, development length, shear and diagonal tension. In Chapter 8, expressions are presented to design members of variable depth in addition to prismatic sections. It is quite common to design members of variable depth in actual structures. Chapter 9 covers the design of one-way slabs including joist-floor systems. Distribution of loads from slabs to beams and columns are also presented in this chapter to enhance the student understanding of the design loads on each structural components. Chapter 10, 11 and 12 cover the design of axially loaded, eccentrically loaded and long columns respectively. Chapter 10 allows the student to understand the behavior of columns, failure conditions, ties and spirals, and other code limitations. Absorbing basic information, the student is introduced in Chapter 11 to the design of columns subjected to compression and bending. New mathematical models are introduced to analyze column sections controlled by compression or tension stresses. Biaxial bending for rectangular and circular columns are introduced using Bresler, PCA and Hsu methods. Design of long columns is presented in Chapter 12 using the ACI Moment Maginifier Method.

Chapter 13 and 14 cover the design of footings and retaining walls, while Chapter 15 covers the design of reinforced concrete sections for shear and torsion. Torsional theories as well as ACI Code design procedure are explained. Chapter 16 deals with continuos beams and frames. A unique feature of this chapter is the introduction of the design of frames, frame hinges, limit state design collapse mechanism, rotation and plastic hinges and moment redistribution. Adequate examples are presented to explain the above concepts.

Design of two-way slabs is introduced in Chapter 17. All types of two-way slabs including waffle slabs are presented with adequate examples. Summary of the design procedure is introduced with tables and diagrams. Chapter 18 covers the design of reinforced concrete stairs. Slab type as well as stepped type stairs are explained. The second type, although quite common, has not been covered in any text. Chapter 19 deals with the design of curved beams. In actual structures, curved beams are used frequently. These beams are subjected to flexure, shear and torsion. Design coefficients are presented in this chapter. Chapter 20, covers an introduction to presteressed concrete. Methods of prestressing, fully and partially prestressed concrete design, losses and shear design are presented with examples. Chapter 21 introduces computer programs as well as flow charts.

The unified design method (UDM) for the design of reinforced and prestressed concrete flexural and compression members is presented in chapter 22. This new approach introduces some basic changes in the design limits. Provisions for this method are introduced in the ACI Code, Appendix B. The author suggests that the concept of UDM to be explained to the students with chapters 3, 4 and 11. Examples of chapter 22 can be presented with these chapters.

Finally, the book is written to provide basic and reference materials on the analysis and design of reinforced concrete members in a simple, practical and logical approach. Since this is a required course for seniors in civil engineering, I believe it will be accepted by reinforced concrete instructors at different universities as well as designers who can make use of the information in this book in their practical design of reinforced concrete structures. Solution manual for all problems will be provided. Software for the design of different reinforced concrete members will also be available.

In the Appendix of this book, design tables using customary units and SI units are presented. All the photos are shown in this book were taken by the author. My sincere thanks to the reviewers of the manuscript for their constructive comments and valuable suggestion. Special thanks are due to the civil engineering students at South Dakota State University for their feedback while using the manuscript.
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Table of Contents

Preface xiii

Notation xvii

Conversion Factors xxiii

1 Introduction 1

1.1 Structural Concrete 1

1.2 Historical Background 1

1.3 Advantages and Disadvantages of Reinforced Concrete 3

1.4 Codes of Practice 4

1.5 Design Philosophy and Concepts 4

1.6 Units of Measurement 5

1.7 Loads 6

1.8 Safety Provisions 8

1.9 Structural Concrete Elements 9

1.10 Structural Concrete Design 10

1.11 Accuracy of Calculations 10

1.12 Concrete High-Rise Buildings 11

References 14

2 Properties of Reinforced Concrete 15

2.1 Factors Affecting Strength of Concrete 15

2.2 Compressive Strength 17

2.3 Stress–Strain Curves of Concrete 18

2.4 Tensile Strength of Concrete 20

2.5 Flexural Strength (Modulus of Rupture) of Concrete 21

2.6 Shear Strength 22

2.7 Modulus of Elasticity of Concrete 22

2.8 Poisson’s Ratio 23

2.9 Shear Modulus 23

2.10 Modular Ratio 24

2.11 Volume Changes of Concrete 24

2.12 Creep 26

2.13 Models for Predicting Shrinkage and Creep of Concrete 28

2.14 Unit Weight of Concrete 64

2.15 Fire Resistance 64

2.16 High-Performance Concrete 64

2.17 Lightweight Concrete 65

2.18 Fibrous Concrete 66

2.19 Steel Reinforcement 66

Summary 70

Referecnces 72

Problems 73

3 Flexural Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Beams 75

3.1 Introduction 75

3.2 Assumptions 76

3.3 Behavior of Simply Supported Reinforced Concrete Beam Loaded to Failure 76

3.4 Types of Flexural Failure and Strain Limits 80

3.5 Load Factors 84

3.6 Strength Reduction Factor φ 85

3.7 Significance of Analysis and Design Expressions 87

3.8 Equivalent Compressive Stress Distribution 88

3.9 Singly Reinforced Rectangular Section in Bending 90

3.10 Lower Limit or Minimum Percentage of Steel 101

3.11 Adequacy of Sections 102

3.12 Bundled Bars 106

3.13 Sections in the Transition Region (φ <0.9) 107

3.14 Rectangular Sections with Compression Reinforcement 109

3.15 Analysis of T- and I-Sections 120

3.16 Dimensions of Isolated T-Shaped Sections 129

3.17 Inverted L-Shaped Sections 130

3.18 Sections of Other Shapes 130

3.19 Analysis of Sections Using Tables 133

3.20 Additional Examples 134

3.21 Examples Using SI Units 136

Summary 138

References 141

Problems 142

4 Flexural Design of Reinforced Concrete Beams 146

4.1 Introduction 146

4.2 Rectangular Sections with Reinforcement Only 146

4.3 Spacing of Reinforcement and Concrete Cover 149

4.4 Rectangular Sections with Compression Reinforcement 156

4.5 Design of T-Sections 163

4.6 Additional Examples 168

4.7 Examples Using SI Units 173

Summary 175

Problems 179

5 Shear and Diagonal Tension 183

5.1 Introduction 183

5.2 Shear Stresses in Concrete Beams 183

5.3 Behavior of Beams without Shear Reinforcement 186

5.4 Moment Effect on Shear Strength 188

5.5 Beams with Shear Reinforcement 190

5.6 ACI Code Shear Design Requirements 193

5.7 Design of Vertical Stirrups 196

5.8 Design Summary 200

5.9 Shear Force due to Live Loads 204

5.10 Shear Stresses in Members of Variable Depth 208

5.11 Examples Using SI Units 215

Summary 217

References 218

Problems 218

6 Deflection and Control of Cracking 222

6.1 Deflection of Structural Concrete Members 222

6.2 Instantaneous Deflection 223

6.3 Long-Time Deflection 229

6.4 Allowable Deflection 230

6.5 Deflection due to Combinations of Loads 230

6.6 Cracks in Flexural Members 239

6.7 ACI Code Requirements 243

Summary 248

References 249

Problems 250

7 Development Length of Reinforcing Bars 253

7.1 Introduction 253

7.2 Development of Bond Stresses 254

7.3 Development Length in Tension 257

7.4 Development Length in Compression 261

7.5 Summary for Computation of Id in Tension 262

7.6 Critical Sections in Flexural Members 265

7.7 Standard Hooks (ACI Code, Sections 12.5 and 7.1) 269

7.8 Splices of Reinforcement 272

7.9 Moment–Resistance Diagram (Bar Cutoff Points) 277

Summary 282

References 283

Problems 283

8 Design of Deep Beams by the Strut-and-Tie Method 287

*8.1 Introduction 287

*8.2 B– and D–Regions 287

*8.3 Strut-and-Tie Model 287

*8.4 ACI Design Procedure to Build a Strut-and-Tie Model 290

*8.5 Strut-and-Tie Method According to AASHTO LRFD 299

*8.6 Deep Members 300

References 316

9 One-Way Slabs 317

9.1 Types of Slabs 317

9.2 Design of One-Way Solid Slabs 319

9.3 Design Limitations According to ACI Code 320

9.4 Temperature and Shrinkage Reinforcement 321

9.5 Reinforcement Details 322

9.6 Distribution of Loads from One-Way Slabs to Supporting Beams 323

*9.7 One-Way Joist Floor System 328

Summary 331

References 333

Problems 333

10 Axially Loaded Columns 335

10.1 Introduction 335

10.2 Types of Columns 335

10.3 Behavior of Axially Loaded Columns 337

10.4 ACI Code Limitations 337

10.5 Spiral Reinforcement 339

10.6 Design Equations 341

10.7 Axial Tension 342

10.8 Long Columns 342

Summary 345

References 346

Problems 346

11 Members in Compression and Bending 348

11.1 Introduction 348

11.2 Design Assumptions for Columns 350

11.3 Load–Moment Interaction Diagram 350

11.4 Safety Provisions 353

11.5 Balanced Condition: Rectangular Sections 354

11.6 Column Sections under Eccentric Loading 357

11.7 Strength of Columns for Tension Failure 359

11.8 Strength of Columns for Compression Failure 362

11.9 Interaction Diagram Example 368

*11.10 Rectangular Columns with Side Bars 369

*11.11 Load Capacity of Circular Columns 373

11.12 Analysis and Design of Columns Using Charts 378

11.13 Design of Columns under Eccentric Loading 383

*11.14 Biaxial Bending 389

*11.15 Circular Columns with Uniform Reinforcement under Biaxial Bending 391

*11.16 Square and Rectangular Columns under Biaxial Bending 394

*11.17 Parme Load Contour Method 395

*11.18 Equation of Failure Surface 400

*11.19 SI Example 403

Summary 405

References 407

Problems 407

12 Slender Columns 412

12.1 Introduction 412

12.2 Effective Column Length (Klu) 413

12.3 Effective Length Factor (K) 414

12.4 Member Stiffness (EI) 415

12.5 Limitation of the Slenderness Ratio (Klu/r) 419

12.6 Moment-Magnifier Design Method 420

Summary 431

References 432

Problems 433

13 Footings 435

13.1 Introduction 435

13.2 Types of Footings 437

13.3 Distribution of Soil Pressure 440

13.4 Design Considerations 441

13.5 Plain Concrete Footings 451

*13.6 Combined Footings 464

*13.7 Footings Under Eccentric Column Loads 470

*13.8 Footings Under Biaxial Moment 472

*13.9 Slabs On Ground 475

*13.10 Footings On Piles 475

13.11 SI Equations 476

Summary 476

References 479

Problems 479

14 Retaining Walls 482

14.1 Introduction 482

14.2 Types of Retaining Walls 482

14.3 Forces on Retaining Walls 484

14.4 Active and Passive Soil Pressures 485

14.5 Effect of Surcharge 489

14.6 Friction on the Retaining Wall Base 491

14.7 Stability against Overturning 491

14.8 Proportions of Retaining Walls 492

14.9 Design Requirements 493

14.10 Drainage 494

14.11 Basement Walls 505

Summary 509

References 510

Problems 510

15 Design for Torsion 515

*15.1 Introduction 515

*15.2 Torsional Moments in Beams 516

*15.3 Torsional Stresses 517

*15.4 Torsional Moment in Rectangular Sections 520

*15.5 Combined Shear and Torsion 521

*15.6 Torsion Theories for Concrete Members 521

*15.7 Torsional Strength of Plain Concrete Members 526

*15.8 Torsion in Reinforced Concrete Members (ACI Code Procedure) 526

*15.9 Summary of ACI Code Procedures 534

Summary 542

References 543

Problems 544

16 Continuous Beams and Frames 547

16.1 Introduction 547

16.2 Maximum Moments in Continuous Beams 548

16.3 Building Frames 553

16.4 Portal Frames 555

16.5 General Frames 557

16.6 Design of Frame Hinges 559

16.7 Introduction to Limit Design 571

16.8 The Collapsec Mechanism 572

16.9 Principles of Limit Design 573

16.10 Upper and Lower Bounds of Load Factors 575

16.11 Limit Analysis 575

16.12 Rotation of Plastic Hinges 579

16.13 Summary of Limit Design Procedure 585

16.14 Moment Redistribution of Maximum Negative or Positive Moments in Continuous Beams 589

Summary 598

References 599

Problems 600

17 Design of Two-Way Slabs 603

17.1 Introduction 603

17.2 Types of Two-Way Slabs 603

17.3 Economical Choice of Concrete Floor Systems 607

17.4 Design Concepts 608

17.5 Column and Middle Strips 612

17.6 Minimum Slab Thickness to Control Deflection 614

17.7 Shear Strength of Slabs 618

17.8 Analysis of Two-Way Slabs by the Direct Design Method 623

17.9 Design Moments in Columns 652

17.10 Transfer of Unbalanced Moments to Columns 653

17.11 Waffle Slabs 665

17.12 Equivalent Frame Method 673

Summary 684

References 686

Problems 686

18 Stairs 689

18.1 Introduction 689

18.2 Types of Stairs 691

18.3 Examples 706

Summary 715

References 715

Problems 716

19 Introduction to Prestressed Concrete 718

19.1 Prestressed Concrete 718

19.2 Materials and Serviceability Requirements 729

19.3 Loss of Prestress 731

19.4 Analysis of Flexural Members 740

19.5 Design of Flexural Members 750

19.6 Cracking Moment 756

19.7 Deflection 758

19.8 Design for Shear 761

19.9 Preliminary Design of Prestressed Concrete Flexural Members 769

19.10 End-Block Stresses 771

Summary 774

References 776

Problems 777

20 Seismic Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures 780

20.1 Introduction 780

20.2 Seismic Design Category 780

20.3 Analysis Procedures 797

20.4 Load Combinations 812

20.5 Special Requirements in Design of Structures Subjected to Earthquake Loads 813

References 849

Problems 849

21 Beams Curved in Plan 851

21.1 Introduction 851

21.2 Uniformly Loaded Circular Beams 851

21.3 Semicircular Beam Fixed at End Supports 858

21.4 Fixed-End Semicircular Beam under Uniform Loading 862

21.5 Circular Beam Subjected to Uniform Loading 865

21.6 Circular Beam Subjected to a Concentrated Load at Midspan 868

21.7 V-Shape Beams Subjected to Uniform Loading 871

21.8 V-Shape Beams Subjected to a Concentrated Load at the Centerline of the Beam 874

Summary 878

References 879

Problems 879

22 Prestressed Concrete Bridge Design Based on AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications 880

22.1 Introduction 880

22.2 Typical Cross Sections 881

22.3 Design Philosophy of AASHTO Specificatioins 884

22.4 Load Factors and Combinations (AASHTO 3.4) 885

22.5 Gravity Loads 889

22.6 Design for Flexural and Axial Force Effects (AASHTO 5.7) 898

22.7 Design for Shear (AASHTO 5.8) 899

22.8 Loss of Prestress (AASHTO 5.9.5) 906

22.9 Deflections (AASHTO 5.7.3.6) 908

References 937

23 Design and Analysis Flowcharts 938

Appendix A: Design Tables (U.S. Customary Units) 962

Appendix B: Design Tables (SI Units) 972

Appendix C: Structural Aids 980

Index 1001

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Preface

PREFACE: Preface

The main objective of a course on reinforced concrete design is to develop, in the engineering student, the ability to analyze and design a reinforced concrete member subjected to different types of forces in a simple and logical manner using the basic principles of statics and some empirical formulas based on experimental results. Once the analysis and design procedure is fully understood, its application to different types of structures becomes simple and direct, provided that the student has a good background in structural analysis.

The material presented in this book is based on the requirements of the American Concrete Institute (ACI) Building Code (318-95). Also, information has been presented on material properties including volume changes of concrete, stress-strain behavior, creep and elastic and non-linear behavior of reinforced concrete.

Concrete structures are widely used in the United States and almost all over the world. The progress in the design concept has increased in the last few decades emphasizing safety, serviceability and economy. To achieve economical design of a reinforced concrete member, specific restrictions, rules and formulas are presented in the Codes to ensure both safety and reliability of the structure. Engineering graduates to understand the code rules and consequently be able to design a concrete structure effectively and economically with minimum training period or overhead costs. Taking this into consideration, this book is written to achieve the following objectives.
  1. To present the material for the design of reinforced concrete members in a simple and logicalapproach.
  2. To arrange the sequence of chapters in a way compatible with the design procedure of actual structures.
  3. To provide a large number of examples in each chapter in clear steps to explain the analysis and design of each type of structural member.
  4. To provide an adequate number of practical problems at the end of each chapter to achieve a high level of comprehension.
  5. To explain the failure mechanism of a reinforced concrete beam due to flexure and to develop the necessary relationships and formulas for design.
  6. To explain the failure mechanism of a reinforced concrete beam due to flexure and to develop the necessary relationships and formulas for design.
  7. To provide adequate number of design aids to help the student in reducing the repetitive computations of specific commonly used values.
  8. To enhance the students ability to use a total quality and economical approach in the design of concrete structures and to help the student to design reinforced concrete members with confidence.
  9. To explain the nonlinear behavior and the development of plastic hinges and plastic rotations in continuous reinforced concrete structures.
  10. To provide flowcharts to aid the student in writing their own programs, as the use of computers are needed in the design of concrete structures. Flow charts and computer programs are discussed in Chapter 21.
  11. To provide a summary at the end of each chapter to help the student to review the materials of each chapter separately.
  12. To provide new information on the design of some members, like beams with variable depth, Chapter 8 , stairs, Chapter 18, and curved beams, Chapter 19, that are not covered in other books on concrete.
  13. To present information on the design of reinforced concrete frames, principles of limit design and moment redistribution in continuous reinforced concrete structures.
  14. To provide examples in S.I. units in all chapters of the book. Equivalent conversion factors from U.S. customary units are given in appendix B.
  15. References are presented at the end of each chapter.

The book is an outgrowth of the author's lecture notes that represent his teaching and industrial experience over the past thirty years. The industrial experience of the author includes the design and construction supervision and management of many reinforced, prestressed and precast concrete structures. This is in addition to the consulting work he performed to international design and construction firms, professional registration in the U.K. and other countries, and a comprehensive knowledge of the European Codes on the design of concrete structures.

The book is written to cover two courses in reinforced concrete design. Depending on the proficiency required, the first course may cover Chapters 1 through 11, and part of Chapter 13, while the second course may cover the remaining chapters. Part of the late chapters may also be taught in the first course as needed. A number of optional sections have been included in various chapters. These sections are indicated by an asterisk (*) in the Table of Contents, and may easily be distinguished from those which form the basic requirements of the first course. The optional sections may be covered in the second course or relegated to a reading assignment. Brief descriptions of the chapters are given below.

The first chapter of the book presents information on the historical development of concrete, codes of practice, loads and safety provisions and design philosophy and concepts. The second chapter deals with the properties of concrete as well as steel reinforcement used in the design of reinforced concrete structures, including stress-strain relationships, modulus of elasticity and shear modulus of concrete, shrinkage, creep, fire resistance, high performance concrete and fibrous concrete. Since the current ACI Code gives emphasis to the Strength Design Method, this approach has been adopted throughout the text, except in Chapter 5 where the analysis of reinforced concrete sections by the working stress design is explained enough to enable the student and designer to check the deflection of flexural members under service loads. Chapters 3 and 4 cover the analysis and design of reinforced concrete sections based on Strength Design concept. The behavior of reinforced concrete beams loaded to failure, the types of flexural failure and failure mechanism are explained in the way that differs from other textbooks. It is essential for the student to understand the failure concept and the inherent reserve strength before using the necessary design formulas.

Chapters 5 and 6 deal with the elastic behavior and serviceability of concrete beams including deflection and control of cracking. Chapters 7 and 8 cover the bond, development length, shear and diagonal tension. In Chapter 8, expressions are presented to design members of variable depth in addition to prismatic sections. It is quite common to design members of variable depth in actual structures. Chapter 9 covers the design of one-way slabs including joist-floor systems. Distribution of loads from slabs to beams and columns are also presented in this chapter to enhance the student understanding of the design loads on each structural components. Chapter 10, 11 and 12 cover the design of axially loaded, eccentrically loaded and long columns respectively. Chapter 10 allows the student to understand the behavior of columns, failure conditions, ties and spirals, and other code limitations. Absorbing basic information, the student is introduced in Chapter 11 to the design of columns subjected to compression and bending. New mathematical models are introduced to analyze column sections controlled by compression or tension stresses. Biaxial bending for rectangular and circular columns are introduced using Bresler, PCA and Hsu methods. Design of long columns is presented in Chapter 12 using the ACI Moment Maginifier Method.

Chapter 13 and 14 cover the design of footings and retaining walls, while Chapter 15 covers the design of reinforced concrete sections for shear and torsion. Torsional theories as well as ACI Code design procedure are explained. Chapter 16 deals with continuos beams and frames. A unique feature of this chapter is the introduction of the design of frames, frame hinges, limit state design collapse mechanism, rotation and plastic hinges and moment redistribution. Adequate examples are presented to explain the above concepts.

Design of two-way slabs is introduced in Chapter 17. All types of two-way slabs including waffle slabs are presented with adequate examples. Summary of the design procedure is introduced with tables and diagrams. Chapter 18 covers the design of reinforced concrete stairs. Slab type as well as stepped type stairs are explained. The second type, although quite common, has not been covered in any text. Chapter 19 deals with the design of curved beams. In actual structures, curved beams are used frequently. These beams are subjected to flexure, shear and torsion. Design coefficients are presented in this chapter. Chapter 20, covers an introduction to presteressed concrete. Methods of prestressing, fully and partially prestressed concrete design, losses and shear design are presented with examples. Chapter 21 introduces computer programs as well as flow charts.

The unified design method (UDM) for the design of reinforced and prestressed concrete flexural and compression members is presented in chapter 22. This new approach introduces some basic changes in the design limits. Provisions for this method are introduced in the ACI Code, Appendix B. The author suggests that the concept of UDM to be explained to the students with chapters 3, 4 and 11. Examples of chapter 22 can be presented with these chapters.

Finally, the book is written to provide basic and reference materials on the analysis and design of reinforced concrete members in a simple, practical and logical approach. Since this is a required course for seniors in civil engineering, I believe it will be accepted by reinforced concrete instructors at different universities as well as designers who can make use of the information in this book in their practical design of reinforced concrete structures. Solution manual for all problems will be provided. Software for the design of different reinforced concrete members will also be available.

In the Appendix of this book, design tables using customary units and SI units are presented. All the photos are shown in this book were taken by the author. My sincere thanks to the reviewers of the manuscript for their constructive comments and valuable suggestion. Special thanks are due to the civil engineering students at South Dakota State University for their feedback while using the manuscript.
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