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Meet the Author
M. Nadim Hassoun, PhD, PE, FASCE, FICE, MACI, is Professor Emeritus of Civil Engineering at South Dakota State University.
Akthem AlManaseer, PhD, PEng, FASCE, FACI, FCSCE, MIStructE, is Professor in the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering at San Jose State University.
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The main objective of a course on reinforced concrete design is to develop, in the engineering student, the ability to analyze and design a reinforced concrete member subjected to different types of forces in a simple and logical manner using the basic principles of statics and some empirical formulas based on experimental results. Once the analysis and design procedure is fully understood, its application to different types of structures becomes simple and direct, provided that the student has a good background in structural analysis.
The material presented in this book is based on the requirements of the American Concrete Institute (ACI) Building Code (31895). Also, information has been presented on material properties including volume changes of concrete, stressstrain behavior, creep and elastic and nonlinear behavior of reinforced concrete.
Concrete structures are widely used in the United States and almost all over the world. The progress in the design concept has increased in the last few decades emphasizing safety, serviceability and economy. To achieve economical design of a reinforced concrete member, specific restrictions, rules and formulas are presented in the Codes to ensure both safety and reliability of the structure. Engineering graduates to understand the code rules and consequently be able to design a concrete structure effectively and economically with minimum training period or overhead costs. Taking this into consideration, this book is written to achieve the following objectives.
The book is an outgrowth of the author's lecture notes that represent his teaching and industrial experience over the past thirty years. The industrial experience of the author includes the design and construction supervision and management of many reinforced, prestressed and precast concrete structures. This is in addition to the consulting work he performed to international design and construction firms, professional registration in the U.K. and other countries, and a comprehensive knowledge of the European Codes on the design of concrete structures.
The book is written to cover two courses in reinforced concrete design. Depending on the proficiency required, the first course may cover Chapters 1 through 11, and part of Chapter 13, while the second course may cover the remaining chapters. Part of the late chapters may also be taught in the first course as needed. A number of optional sections have been included in various chapters. These sections are indicated by an asterisk (*) in the Table of Contents, and may easily be distinguished from those which form the basic requirements of the first course. The optional sections may be covered in the second course or relegated to a reading assignment. Brief descriptions of the chapters are given below.
The first chapter of the book presents information on the historical development of concrete, codes of practice, loads and safety provisions and design philosophy and concepts. The second chapter deals with the properties of concrete as well as steel reinforcement used in the design of reinforced concrete structures, including stressstrain relationships, modulus of elasticity and shear modulus of concrete, shrinkage, creep, fire resistance, high performance concrete and fibrous concrete. Since the current ACI Code gives emphasis to the Strength Design Method, this approach has been adopted throughout the text, except in Chapter 5 where the analysis of reinforced concrete sections by the working stress design is explained enough to enable the student and designer to check the deflection of flexural members under service loads. Chapters 3 and 4 cover the analysis and design of reinforced concrete sections based on Strength Design concept. The behavior of reinforced concrete beams loaded to failure, the types of flexural failure and failure mechanism are explained in the way that differs from other textbooks. It is essential for the student to understand the failure concept and the inherent reserve strength before using the necessary design formulas.
Chapters 5 and 6 deal with the elastic behavior and serviceability of concrete beams including deflection and control of cracking. Chapters 7 and 8 cover the bond, development length, shear and diagonal tension. In Chapter 8, expressions are presented to design members of variable depth in addition to prismatic sections. It is quite common to design members of variable depth in actual structures. Chapter 9 covers the design of oneway slabs including joistfloor systems. Distribution of loads from slabs to beams and columns are also presented in this chapter to enhance the student understanding of the design loads on each structural components. Chapter 10, 11 and 12 cover the design of axially loaded, eccentrically loaded and long columns respectively. Chapter 10 allows the student to understand the behavior of columns, failure conditions, ties and spirals, and other code limitations. Absorbing basic information, the student is introduced in Chapter 11 to the design of columns subjected to compression and bending. New mathematical models are introduced to analyze column sections controlled by compression or tension stresses. Biaxial bending for rectangular and circular columns are introduced using Bresler, PCA and Hsu methods. Design of long columns is presented in Chapter 12 using the ACI Moment Maginifier Method.
Chapter 13 and 14 cover the design of footings and retaining walls, while Chapter 15 covers the design of reinforced concrete sections for shear and torsion. Torsional theories as well as ACI Code design procedure are explained. Chapter 16 deals with continuos beams and frames. A unique feature of this chapter is the introduction of the design of frames, frame hinges, limit state design collapse mechanism, rotation and plastic hinges and moment redistribution. Adequate examples are presented to explain the above concepts.
Design of twoway slabs is introduced in Chapter 17. All types of twoway slabs including waffle slabs are presented with adequate examples. Summary of the design procedure is introduced with tables and diagrams. Chapter 18 covers the design of reinforced concrete stairs. Slab type as well as stepped type stairs are explained. The second type, although quite common, has not been covered in any text. Chapter 19 deals with the design of curved beams. In actual structures, curved beams are used frequently. These beams are subjected to flexure, shear and torsion. Design coefficients are presented in this chapter. Chapter 20, covers an introduction to presteressed concrete. Methods of prestressing, fully and partially prestressed concrete design, losses and shear design are presented with examples. Chapter 21 introduces computer programs as well as flow charts.
The unified design method (UDM) for the design of reinforced and prestressed concrete flexural and compression members is presented in chapter 22. This new approach introduces some basic changes in the design limits. Provisions for this method are introduced in the ACI Code, Appendix B. The author suggests that the concept of UDM to be explained to the students with chapters 3, 4 and 11. Examples of chapter 22 can be presented with these chapters.
Finally, the book is written to provide basic and reference materials on the analysis and design of reinforced concrete members in a simple, practical and logical approach. Since this is a required course for seniors in civil engineering, I believe it will be accepted by reinforced concrete instructors at different universities as well as designers who can make use of the information in this book in their practical design of reinforced concrete structures. Solution manual for all problems will be provided. Software for the design of different reinforced concrete members will also be available.
In the Appendix of this book, design tables using customary units and SI units are presented. All the photos are shown in this book were taken by the author. My sincere thanks to the reviewers of the manuscript for their constructive comments and valuable suggestion. Special thanks are due to the civil engineering students at South Dakota State University for their feedback while using the manuscript.
Table of Contents
Preface xiii
Notation xvii
Conversion Factors xxiii
1 Introduction 1
1.1 Structural Concrete 1
1.2 Historical Background 1
1.3 Advantages and Disadvantages of Reinforced Concrete 3
1.4 Codes of Practice 4
1.5 Design Philosophy and Concepts 4
1.6 Units of Measurement 5
1.7 Loads 6
1.8 Safety Provisions 8
1.9 Structural Concrete Elements 9
1.10 Structural Concrete Design 10
1.11 Accuracy of Calculations 10
1.12 Concrete HighRise Buildings 11
References 14
2 Properties of Reinforced Concrete 15
2.1 Factors Affecting Strength of Concrete 15
2.2 Compressive Strength 17
2.3 Stress–Strain Curves of Concrete 18
2.4 Tensile Strength of Concrete 20
2.5 Flexural Strength (Modulus of Rupture) of Concrete 21
2.6 Shear Strength 22
2.7 Modulus of Elasticity of Concrete 22
2.8 Poisson’s Ratio 23
2.9 Shear Modulus 23
2.10 Modular Ratio 24
2.11 Volume Changes of Concrete 24
2.12 Creep 26
2.13 Models for Predicting Shrinkage and Creep of Concrete 28
2.14 Unit Weight of Concrete 64
2.15 Fire Resistance 64
2.16 HighPerformance Concrete 64
2.17 Lightweight Concrete 65
2.18 Fibrous Concrete 66
2.19 Steel Reinforcement 66
Summary 70
Referecnces 72
Problems 73
3 Flexural Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Beams 75
3.1 Introduction 75
3.2 Assumptions 76
3.3 Behavior of Simply Supported Reinforced Concrete Beam Loaded to Failure 76
3.4 Types of Flexural Failure and Strain Limits 80
3.5 Load Factors 84
3.6 Strength Reduction Factor φ 85
3.7 Significance of Analysis and Design Expressions 87
3.8 Equivalent Compressive Stress Distribution 88
3.9 Singly Reinforced Rectangular Section in Bending 90
3.10 Lower Limit or Minimum Percentage of Steel 101
3.11 Adequacy of Sections 102
3.12 Bundled Bars 106
3.13 Sections in the Transition Region (φ <0.9) 107
3.14 Rectangular Sections with Compression Reinforcement 109
3.15 Analysis of T and ISections 120
3.16 Dimensions of Isolated TShaped Sections 129
3.17 Inverted LShaped Sections 130
3.18 Sections of Other Shapes 130
3.19 Analysis of Sections Using Tables 133
3.20 Additional Examples 134
3.21 Examples Using SI Units 136
Summary 138
References 141
Problems 142
4 Flexural Design of Reinforced Concrete Beams 146
4.1 Introduction 146
4.2 Rectangular Sections with Reinforcement Only 146
4.3 Spacing of Reinforcement and Concrete Cover 149
4.4 Rectangular Sections with Compression Reinforcement 156
4.5 Design of TSections 163
4.6 Additional Examples 168
4.7 Examples Using SI Units 173
Summary 175
Problems 179
5 Shear and Diagonal Tension 183
5.1 Introduction 183
5.2 Shear Stresses in Concrete Beams 183
5.3 Behavior of Beams without Shear Reinforcement 186
5.4 Moment Effect on Shear Strength 188
5.5 Beams with Shear Reinforcement 190
5.6 ACI Code Shear Design Requirements 193
5.7 Design of Vertical Stirrups 196
5.8 Design Summary 200
5.9 Shear Force due to Live Loads 204
5.10 Shear Stresses in Members of Variable Depth 208
5.11 Examples Using SI Units 215
Summary 217
References 218
Problems 218
6 Deflection and Control of Cracking 222
6.1 Deflection of Structural Concrete Members 222
6.2 Instantaneous Deflection 223
6.3 LongTime Deflection 229
6.4 Allowable Deflection 230
6.5 Deflection due to Combinations of Loads 230
6.6 Cracks in Flexural Members 239
6.7 ACI Code Requirements 243
Summary 248
References 249
Problems 250
7 Development Length of Reinforcing Bars 253
7.1 Introduction 253
7.2 Development of Bond Stresses 254
7.3 Development Length in Tension 257
7.4 Development Length in Compression 261
7.5 Summary for Computation of Id in Tension 262
7.6 Critical Sections in Flexural Members 265
7.7 Standard Hooks (ACI Code, Sections 12.5 and 7.1) 269
7.8 Splices of Reinforcement 272
7.9 Moment–Resistance Diagram (Bar Cutoff Points) 277
Summary 282
References 283
Problems 283
8 Design of Deep Beams by the StrutandTie Method 287
*8.1 Introduction 287
*8.2 B– and D–Regions 287
*8.3 StrutandTie Model 287
*8.4 ACI Design Procedure to Build a StrutandTie Model 290
*8.5 StrutandTie Method According to AASHTO LRFD 299
*8.6 Deep Members 300
References 316
9 OneWay Slabs 317
9.1 Types of Slabs 317
9.2 Design of OneWay Solid Slabs 319
9.3 Design Limitations According to ACI Code 320
9.4 Temperature and Shrinkage Reinforcement 321
9.5 Reinforcement Details 322
9.6 Distribution of Loads from OneWay Slabs to Supporting Beams 323
*9.7 OneWay Joist Floor System 328
Summary 331
References 333
Problems 333
10 Axially Loaded Columns 335
10.1 Introduction 335
10.2 Types of Columns 335
10.3 Behavior of Axially Loaded Columns 337
10.4 ACI Code Limitations 337
10.5 Spiral Reinforcement 339
10.6 Design Equations 341
10.7 Axial Tension 342
10.8 Long Columns 342
Summary 345
References 346
Problems 346
11 Members in Compression and Bending 348
11.1 Introduction 348
11.2 Design Assumptions for Columns 350
11.3 Load–Moment Interaction Diagram 350
11.4 Safety Provisions 353
11.5 Balanced Condition: Rectangular Sections 354
11.6 Column Sections under Eccentric Loading 357
11.7 Strength of Columns for Tension Failure 359
11.8 Strength of Columns for Compression Failure 362
11.9 Interaction Diagram Example 368
*11.10 Rectangular Columns with Side Bars 369
*11.11 Load Capacity of Circular Columns 373
11.12 Analysis and Design of Columns Using Charts 378
11.13 Design of Columns under Eccentric Loading 383
*11.14 Biaxial Bending 389
*11.15 Circular Columns with Uniform Reinforcement under Biaxial Bending 391
*11.16 Square and Rectangular Columns under Biaxial Bending 394
*11.17 Parme Load Contour Method 395
*11.18 Equation of Failure Surface 400
*11.19 SI Example 403
Summary 405
References 407
Problems 407
12 Slender Columns 412
12.1 Introduction 412
12.2 Effective Column Length (Klu) 413
12.3 Effective Length Factor (K) 414
12.4 Member Stiffness (EI) 415
12.5 Limitation of the Slenderness Ratio (Klu/r) 419
12.6 MomentMagnifier Design Method 420
Summary 431
References 432
Problems 433
13 Footings 435
13.1 Introduction 435
13.2 Types of Footings 437
13.3 Distribution of Soil Pressure 440
13.4 Design Considerations 441
13.5 Plain Concrete Footings 451
*13.6 Combined Footings 464
*13.7 Footings Under Eccentric Column Loads 470
*13.8 Footings Under Biaxial Moment 472
*13.9 Slabs On Ground 475
*13.10 Footings On Piles 475
13.11 SI Equations 476
Summary 476
References 479
Problems 479
14 Retaining Walls 482
14.1 Introduction 482
14.2 Types of Retaining Walls 482
14.3 Forces on Retaining Walls 484
14.4 Active and Passive Soil Pressures 485
14.5 Effect of Surcharge 489
14.6 Friction on the Retaining Wall Base 491
14.7 Stability against Overturning 491
14.8 Proportions of Retaining Walls 492
14.9 Design Requirements 493
14.10 Drainage 494
14.11 Basement Walls 505
Summary 509
References 510
Problems 510
15 Design for Torsion 515
*15.1 Introduction 515
*15.2 Torsional Moments in Beams 516
*15.3 Torsional Stresses 517
*15.4 Torsional Moment in Rectangular Sections 520
*15.5 Combined Shear and Torsion 521
*15.6 Torsion Theories for Concrete Members 521
*15.7 Torsional Strength of Plain Concrete Members 526
*15.8 Torsion in Reinforced Concrete Members (ACI Code Procedure) 526
*15.9 Summary of ACI Code Procedures 534
Summary 542
References 543
Problems 544
16 Continuous Beams and Frames 547
16.1 Introduction 547
16.2 Maximum Moments in Continuous Beams 548
16.3 Building Frames 553
16.4 Portal Frames 555
16.5 General Frames 557
16.6 Design of Frame Hinges 559
16.7 Introduction to Limit Design 571
16.8 The Collapsec Mechanism 572
16.9 Principles of Limit Design 573
16.10 Upper and Lower Bounds of Load Factors 575
16.11 Limit Analysis 575
16.12 Rotation of Plastic Hinges 579
16.13 Summary of Limit Design Procedure 585
16.14 Moment Redistribution of Maximum Negative or Positive Moments in Continuous Beams 589
Summary 598
References 599
Problems 600
17 Design of TwoWay Slabs 603
17.1 Introduction 603
17.2 Types of TwoWay Slabs 603
17.3 Economical Choice of Concrete Floor Systems 607
17.4 Design Concepts 608
17.5 Column and Middle Strips 612
17.6 Minimum Slab Thickness to Control Deflection 614
17.7 Shear Strength of Slabs 618
17.8 Analysis of TwoWay Slabs by the Direct Design Method 623
17.9 Design Moments in Columns 652
17.10 Transfer of Unbalanced Moments to Columns 653
17.11 Waffle Slabs 665
17.12 Equivalent Frame Method 673
Summary 684
References 686
Problems 686
18 Stairs 689
18.1 Introduction 689
18.2 Types of Stairs 691
18.3 Examples 706
Summary 715
References 715
Problems 716
19 Introduction to Prestressed Concrete 718
19.1 Prestressed Concrete 718
19.2 Materials and Serviceability Requirements 729
19.3 Loss of Prestress 731
19.4 Analysis of Flexural Members 740
19.5 Design of Flexural Members 750
19.6 Cracking Moment 756
19.7 Deflection 758
19.8 Design for Shear 761
19.9 Preliminary Design of Prestressed Concrete Flexural Members 769
19.10 EndBlock Stresses 771
Summary 774
References 776
Problems 777
20 Seismic Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures 780
20.1 Introduction 780
20.2 Seismic Design Category 780
20.3 Analysis Procedures 797
20.4 Load Combinations 812
20.5 Special Requirements in Design of Structures Subjected to Earthquake Loads 813
References 849
Problems 849
21 Beams Curved in Plan 851
21.1 Introduction 851
21.2 Uniformly Loaded Circular Beams 851
21.3 Semicircular Beam Fixed at End Supports 858
21.4 FixedEnd Semicircular Beam under Uniform Loading 862
21.5 Circular Beam Subjected to Uniform Loading 865
21.6 Circular Beam Subjected to a Concentrated Load at Midspan 868
21.7 VShape Beams Subjected to Uniform Loading 871
21.8 VShape Beams Subjected to a Concentrated Load at the Centerline of the Beam 874
Summary 878
References 879
Problems 879
22 Prestressed Concrete Bridge Design Based on AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications 880
22.1 Introduction 880
22.2 Typical Cross Sections 881
22.3 Design Philosophy of AASHTO Specificatioins 884
22.4 Load Factors and Combinations (AASHTO 3.4) 885
22.5 Gravity Loads 889
22.6 Design for Flexural and Axial Force Effects (AASHTO 5.7) 898
22.7 Design for Shear (AASHTO 5.8) 899
22.8 Loss of Prestress (AASHTO 5.9.5) 906
22.9 Deflections (AASHTO 5.7.3.6) 908
References 937
23 Design and Analysis Flowcharts 938
Appendix A: Design Tables (U.S. Customary Units) 962
Appendix B: Design Tables (SI Units) 972
Appendix C: Structural Aids 980
Index 1001
Preface
The main objective of a course on reinforced concrete design is to develop, in the engineering student, the ability to analyze and design a reinforced concrete member subjected to different types of forces in a simple and logical manner using the basic principles of statics and some empirical formulas based on experimental results. Once the analysis and design procedure is fully understood, its application to different types of structures becomes simple and direct, provided that the student has a good background in structural analysis.
The material presented in this book is based on the requirements of the American Concrete Institute (ACI) Building Code (31895). Also, information has been presented on material properties including volume changes of concrete, stressstrain behavior, creep and elastic and nonlinear behavior of reinforced concrete.
Concrete structures are widely used in the United States and almost all over the world. The progress in the design concept has increased in the last few decades emphasizing safety, serviceability and economy. To achieve economical design of a reinforced concrete member, specific restrictions, rules and formulas are presented in the Codes to ensure both safety and reliability of the structure. Engineering graduates to understand the code rules and consequently be able to design a concrete structure effectively and economically with minimum training period or overhead costs. Taking this into consideration, this book is written to achieve the following objectives.
The book is an outgrowth of the author's lecture notes that represent his teaching and industrial experience over the past thirty years. The industrial experience of the author includes the design and construction supervision and management of many reinforced, prestressed and precast concrete structures. This is in addition to the consulting work he performed to international design and construction firms, professional registration in the U.K. and other countries, and a comprehensive knowledge of the European Codes on the design of concrete structures.
The book is written to cover two courses in reinforced concrete design. Depending on the proficiency required, the first course may cover Chapters 1 through 11, and part of Chapter 13, while the second course may cover the remaining chapters. Part of the late chapters may also be taught in the first course as needed. A number of optional sections have been included in various chapters. These sections are indicated by an asterisk (*) in the Table of Contents, and may easily be distinguished from those which form the basic requirements of the first course. The optional sections may be covered in the second course or relegated to a reading assignment. Brief descriptions of the chapters are given below.
The first chapter of the book presents information on the historical development of concrete, codes of practice, loads and safety provisions and design philosophy and concepts. The second chapter deals with the properties of concrete as well as steel reinforcement used in the design of reinforced concrete structures, including stressstrain relationships, modulus of elasticity and shear modulus of concrete, shrinkage, creep, fire resistance, high performance concrete and fibrous concrete. Since the current ACI Code gives emphasis to the Strength Design Method, this approach has been adopted throughout the text, except in Chapter 5 where the analysis of reinforced concrete sections by the working stress design is explained enough to enable the student and designer to check the deflection of flexural members under service loads. Chapters 3 and 4 cover the analysis and design of reinforced concrete sections based on Strength Design concept. The behavior of reinforced concrete beams loaded to failure, the types of flexural failure and failure mechanism are explained in the way that differs from other textbooks. It is essential for the student to understand the failure concept and the inherent reserve strength before using the necessary design formulas.
Chapters 5 and 6 deal with the elastic behavior and serviceability of concrete beams including deflection and control of cracking. Chapters 7 and 8 cover the bond, development length, shear and diagonal tension. In Chapter 8, expressions are presented to design members of variable depth in addition to prismatic sections. It is quite common to design members of variable depth in actual structures. Chapter 9 covers the design of oneway slabs including joistfloor systems. Distribution of loads from slabs to beams and columns are also presented in this chapter to enhance the student understanding of the design loads on each structural components. Chapter 10, 11 and 12 cover the design of axially loaded, eccentrically loaded and long columns respectively. Chapter 10 allows the student to understand the behavior of columns, failure conditions, ties and spirals, and other code limitations. Absorbing basic information, the student is introduced in Chapter 11 to the design of columns subjected to compression and bending. New mathematical models are introduced to analyze column sections controlled by compression or tension stresses. Biaxial bending for rectangular and circular columns are introduced using Bresler, PCA and Hsu methods. Design of long columns is presented in Chapter 12 using the ACI Moment Maginifier Method.
Chapter 13 and 14 cover the design of footings and retaining walls, while Chapter 15 covers the design of reinforced concrete sections for shear and torsion. Torsional theories as well as ACI Code design procedure are explained. Chapter 16 deals with continuos beams and frames. A unique feature of this chapter is the introduction of the design of frames, frame hinges, limit state design collapse mechanism, rotation and plastic hinges and moment redistribution. Adequate examples are presented to explain the above concepts.
Design of twoway slabs is introduced in Chapter 17. All types of twoway slabs including waffle slabs are presented with adequate examples. Summary of the design procedure is introduced with tables and diagrams. Chapter 18 covers the design of reinforced concrete stairs. Slab type as well as stepped type stairs are explained. The second type, although quite common, has not been covered in any text. Chapter 19 deals with the design of curved beams. In actual structures, curved beams are used frequently. These beams are subjected to flexure, shear and torsion. Design coefficients are presented in this chapter. Chapter 20, covers an introduction to presteressed concrete. Methods of prestressing, fully and partially prestressed concrete design, losses and shear design are presented with examples. Chapter 21 introduces computer programs as well as flow charts.
The unified design method (UDM) for the design of reinforced and prestressed concrete flexural and compression members is presented in chapter 22. This new approach introduces some basic changes in the design limits. Provisions for this method are introduced in the ACI Code, Appendix B. The author suggests that the concept of UDM to be explained to the students with chapters 3, 4 and 11. Examples of chapter 22 can be presented with these chapters.
Finally, the book is written to provide basic and reference materials on the analysis and design of reinforced concrete members in a simple, practical and logical approach. Since this is a required course for seniors in civil engineering, I believe it will be accepted by reinforced concrete instructors at different universities as well as designers who can make use of the information in this book in their practical design of reinforced concrete structures. Solution manual for all problems will be provided. Software for the design of different reinforced concrete members will also be available.
In the Appendix of this book, design tables using customary units and SI units are presented. All the photos are shown in this book were taken by the author. My sincere thanks to the reviewers of the manuscript for their constructive comments and valuable suggestion. Special thanks are due to the civil engineering students at South Dakota State University for their feedback while using the manuscript.