Structural Materials in Nuclear Power Systems

Paperback (Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1981)
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781468471960
  • Publisher: Springer US
  • Publication date: 11/28/2012
  • Series: Modern Analytical Chemistry (Closed)
  • Edition description: Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1981
  • Pages: 485
  • Product dimensions: 6.00 (w) x 9.00 (h) x 1.01 (d)

Table of Contents

1. Introduction and Overview.- 1.1. Reactor Systems and Materials.- 1.1.1. Boiling Water Reactor.- 1.1.2. Pressurized Water Reactor.- 1.1.3. Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor.- 1.1.4. Fusion Reactor Systems.- Magnetic Confinement Concepts.- Inertial Confinement Concepts.- 1.2. Past Performance of Nuclear Plants.- 1.3. Materials and Design Considerations.- 1.3.1. Traditional Design Approach.- 1.3.2. Structural Integrity Analysis.- 1.3.3. Methods of Analysis.- Stress Analysis.- Fracture Mechanics.- 1.3.4. Materials Properties and Phenomena.- Plastic Flow Properties.- Fracture Toughness.- Fatigue.- Environmental Fatigue.- Radiation Effects.- Corrosion.- References.- 2. LWR Core Materials.- 2.1. Fuel and Core Designs.- 2.2. Fuel Performance.- 2.2.1. Fuel Reliability.- Pellet-Cladding Interaction.- Results of Experimental and Theoretical Studies.- PCI Failure Models and Criteria.- PCI Remedies.- Waterside Corrosion of Zircaloys.- Corrosion in BWRs.- Corrosion in PWRs.- 2.2.2. Fuel Operating Margins (or Fuel Safety Considerations).- LOCA Criteria.- Zircaloy Embrittlement Criteria.- Fuel Pellet Densifïcation.- Fission Gas Release.- Heat Flux Limits.- Departure from Nucleate Boiling.- Fuel Rod Bow.- Core Damage Assessment in Three Mile Island Accident.- 2.3. Plutonium Recycle Fuel Performance.- 2.4. Stainless Steel-UO2 Fuel Experience.- 2.5. Control Materials.- 2.5.1. Control Rod Materials.- 2.5.2. Burnable Poisons.- 2.6. Uranium Conservation Measures.- References.- 3. LMFBR Core Materials.- 3.1. Fuel and Core Designs.- 3.2. Performance of Current Mixed Oxide Fuel Designs.- 3.2.1. Mixed Oxide Fuel Behavior.- 3.2.2. Cladding and Duct Mechanical Behavior.- 3.2.3. Fuel-Cladding Interactions.- 3.2.4. External Cladding Corrosion.- 3.3. Advanced Oxide Fuel Development.- 3.3.1. Optimization of Mixed Oxide Fuels.- 3.3.2. Optimization of Cladding and Duct Materials.- 3.4. Advanced Fuel Development.- 3.4.1. Carbide Fuel Development.- 3.4.2. Nitride Fuel Development.- 3.5. Control Rod Material Development.- 3.6. Proliferation-Resistant Fuel Cycles.- 3.6.1. Modified Mixed Oxide Fuel Cycles.- 3.6.2. Alternative Fuel Cycles.- Thorium-Based Ceramic Fuels.- Metal Alloy Fuels.- References.- 4. Fission Reactor Pressure Boundary Materials.- 4.1. Design and Materials of Construction.- 4.1.1. LWR Vessel and Piping.- 4.1.2. LMFBR Vessel and Piping.- 4.2. Developments in Fracture Mechanics.- 4.2.1. Elastic Fracture.- 4.2.2. Elastic-Plastic and Fully Plastic Fracture.- 4.3. Material Characteristics.- 4.3.1. LWR Materials.- Fracture Toughness.- Radiation Embrittlement.- Fatigue Crack Growth.- Stress-Corrosion Cracking.- Stress-Corrosion Cracking of Piping.- Stress-Corrosion Cracking in Nozzle Safe-Ends.- Closing Remarks.- 4.3.2. LMFBR Materials.- Elevated-Temperature Low-Cycle Fatigue.- Fatigue Crack Growth.- Closing Remarks.- 4.4. Materials Improvements.- 4.4.1. Improvements to Vessel Steels.- 4.4.2. Remedies for BWR Pipe Cracking.- Modifications to Type 304 Stainless Steel.- Alternative Materials.- 4.4.3. Improvements to Castings.- References.- 5. Fusion First-Wall/Blanket Materials.- 5.1. First-Wall/Blanket Designs.- 5.1.1. Magnetic Fusion.- 5.1.2. Inertial Confinement Fusion.- 5.2. Materials and Structural Integrity Considerations.- 5.2.1. Candidate Metals and Alloys.- Helium Embrittlement.- Swelling Behavior.- Fatigue Behavior.- Closing Remarks.- 5.2.2. Candidate Ceramics.- Brittle Fracture Characteristics.- Erosion Characteristics.- Irradiation Effects.- Closing Remarks.- References.- 6. Heat Exchanger Materials.- 6.1. Design and Materials of Construction.- 6.1.1. PWR Steam Generator.- 6.1.2. LMFBR Heat Exchangers.- Steam Generator.- Intermediate Heat Exchanger.- 6.1.3. CTR Steam Generator.- 6.1.4. Condenser.- 6.2. PWR Steam Generator Experience.- 6.2.1. Corrosion Damage Processes.- Denting.- Stress-Corrosion Cracking.- “Phosphate Thinning”.- 6.2.2. Vibration and Mechanical Problems.- Fretting and Wear.- Fatigue Cracking.- 6.2.3. Avoidance or Mitigation of Steam Generator Damage.- Chemical Control.- Design and Fabrication Changes.- Modified or Alternative Materials.- Inconel 600.- Alloy 800.- Inconel 690.- SCR-3 Alloy.- Ferritic (Martensitic) Stainless Steels.- 6.3. LMFBR Steam Generator and IHX Development.- 6.3.1. Steam Generator Materials Properties.- Sodium Corrosion.- Water-Steam Corrosion Performance.- Tube Wastage by Sodium-Water Reactions.- 6.3.2. IHX Materials Properties.- 6.3.3. Closing Remarks.- 6.4. Condenser Experience.- 6.4.1. Copper-Base Alloys.- Admiralty Brass.- 90-10 Copper-Nickel (CL and CA7O6).- 70-30 Copper-Nickel (CN and CA715).- Aluminum Brass and Bronze.- Chromium-Modified Copper-Nickel Alloys (IN-838 or CA-722).- 6.4.2. Iron-Chromium Base Alloys.- 6.4.3. Titanium-Base Alloys.- 6.4.4. Closing Remarks.- References.- 7. Steam Turbine Materials.- 7.1. Design and Materials of Construction.- 7.1.1. Major Components.- Rotors.- (Shrunk-on) Discs.- Blades.- 7.1.2. Material Characteristics.- 7.2. Turbine Damage Mechanisms.- 7.2.1. Stress-Corrosion Cracking.- 7.2.2. Thermal-Mechanical Crack Growth.- 7.2.3. Moisture Erosion.- 7.3. Improvements in Turbine Materials.- 7.3.1. Low-Alloy Ferritic Steels.- Impurity Reductions.- Elimination of Temper Embrittlement.- 7.3.2. Alternative Blade Materials.- References.- 8. Future Trends in Nuclear Materials.- 8.1. Overview of the Materials Problems.- 8.2. Specific Materials Developments.- 8.2.1. Clean (Low-Alloy) Steels.- 8.2.2. “Stainless” Steels.- 8.2.3. Nickel-Base Alloys.- 8.2.4. New Materials—Titanium.- 8.2.5. Barriers and Coatings.- Fuel Rod Cladding Barriers.- Fusion First-Wall Coatings.- Tritium Barriers.- 8.3. Related Technologies.- 8.4. Closing Remarks.- References.- Appendixes.- Appendix A.- Appendix B.- Appendix C.

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