Structural Materials in Nuclear Power Systems

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781468471960
  • Publisher: Springer US
  • Publication date: 11/28/2012
  • Series: Modern Analytical Chemistry (Closed)
  • Edition description: Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1981
  • Pages: 485
  • Product dimensions: 6.00 (w) x 9.00 (h) x 1.01 (d)

Table of Contents

1. Introduction and Overview.- 1.1. Reactor Systems and Materials.- 1.1.1. Boiling Water Reactor.- 1.1.2. Pressurized Water Reactor.- 1.1.3. Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor.- 1.1.4. Fusion Reactor Systems.- 1.1.4.1. Magnetic Confinement Concepts.- 1.1.4.2. Inertial Confinement Concepts.- 1.2. Past Performance of Nuclear Plants.- 1.3. Materials and Design Considerations.- 1.3.1. Traditional Design Approach.- 1.3.2. Structural Integrity Analysis.- 1.3.3. Methods of Analysis.- 1.3.3.1. Stress Analysis.- 1.3.3.2. Fracture Mechanics.- 1.3.4. Materials Properties and Phenomena.- 1.3.4.1. Plastic Flow Properties.- 1.3.4.2. Fracture Toughness.- 1.3.4.3. Fatigue.- 1.3.4.4. Environmental Fatigue.- 1.3.4.5. Radiation Effects.- 1.3.4.6. Corrosion.- References.- 2. LWR Core Materials.- 2.1. Fuel and Core Designs.- 2.2. Fuel Performance.- 2.2.1. Fuel Reliability.- 2.2.1.1. Pellet-Cladding Interaction.- 2.2.1.1a. Results of Experimental and Theoretical Studies.- 2.2.1.1b. PCI Failure Models and Criteria.- 2.2.1.1c. PCI Remedies.- 2.2.1.2. Waterside Corrosion of Zircaloys.- 2.2.1.2a. Corrosion in BWRs.- 2.2.1.2b. Corrosion in PWRs.- 2.2.2. Fuel Operating Margins (or Fuel Safety Considerations).- 2.2.2.1. LOCA Criteria.- 2.2.2.1a. Zircaloy Embrittlement Criteria.- 2.2.2.1b. Fuel Pellet Densifïcation.- 2.2.2.1c. Fission Gas Release.- 2.2.2.2. Heat Flux Limits.- 2.2.2.2a. Departure from Nucleate Boiling.- 2.2.2.2b. Fuel Rod Bow.- 2.2.2.3. Core Damage Assessment in Three Mile Island Accident.- 2.3. Plutonium Recycle Fuel Performance.- 2.4. Stainless Steel-UO2 Fuel Experience.- 2.5. Control Materials.- 2.5.1. Control Rod Materials.- 2.5.2. Burnable Poisons.- 2.6. Uranium Conservation Measures.- References.- 3. LMFBR Core Materials.- 3.1. Fuel and Core Designs.- 3.2. Performance of Current Mixed Oxide Fuel Designs.- 3.2.1. Mixed Oxide Fuel Behavior.- 3.2.2. Cladding and Duct Mechanical Behavior.- 3.2.3. Fuel-Cladding Interactions.- 3.2.4. External Cladding Corrosion.- 3.3. Advanced Oxide Fuel Development.- 3.3.1. Optimization of Mixed Oxide Fuels.- 3.3.2. Optimization of Cladding and Duct Materials.- 3.4. Advanced Fuel Development.- 3.4.1. Carbide Fuel Development.- 3.4.2. Nitride Fuel Development.- 3.5. Control Rod Material Development.- 3.6. Proliferation-Resistant Fuel Cycles.- 3.6.1. Modified Mixed Oxide Fuel Cycles.- 3.6.2. Alternative Fuel Cycles.- 3.6.2.1. Thorium-Based Ceramic Fuels.- 3.6.2.2. Metal Alloy Fuels.- References.- 4. Fission Reactor Pressure Boundary Materials.- 4.1. Design and Materials of Construction.- 4.1.1. LWR Vessel and Piping.- 4.1.2. LMFBR Vessel and Piping.- 4.2. Developments in Fracture Mechanics.- 4.2.1. Elastic Fracture.- 4.2.2. Elastic-Plastic and Fully Plastic Fracture.- 4.3. Material Characteristics.- 4.3.1. LWR Materials.- 4.3.1.1. Fracture Toughness.- 4.3.1.2. Radiation Embrittlement.- 4.3.1.3. Fatigue Crack Growth.- 4.3.1.4. Stress-Corrosion Cracking.- 4.3.1.4a. Stress-Corrosion Cracking of Piping.- 4.3.1.4b. Stress-Corrosion Cracking in Nozzle Safe-Ends.- 4.3.1.5. Closing Remarks.- 4.3.2. LMFBR Materials.- 4.3.2.1. Elevated-Temperature Low-Cycle Fatigue.- 4.3.2.2. Fatigue Crack Growth.- 4.3.2.3. Closing Remarks.- 4.4. Materials Improvements.- 4.4.1. Improvements to Vessel Steels.- 4.4.2. Remedies for BWR Pipe Cracking.- 4.4.2.1. Modifications to Type 304 Stainless Steel.- 4.4.2.2. Alternative Materials.- 4.4.3. Improvements to Castings.- References.- 5. Fusion First-Wall/Blanket Materials.- 5.1. First-Wall/Blanket Designs.- 5.1.1. Magnetic Fusion.- 5.1.2. Inertial Confinement Fusion.- 5.2. Materials and Structural Integrity Considerations.- 5.2.1. Candidate Metals and Alloys.- 5.2.1.1. Helium Embrittlement.- 5.2.1.2. Swelling Behavior.- 5.2.1.3. Fatigue Behavior.- 5.2.1.4. Closing Remarks.- 5.2.2. Candidate Ceramics.- 5.2.2.1. Brittle Fracture Characteristics.- 5.2.2.2. Erosion Characteristics.- 5.2.2.3. Irradiation Effects.- 5.2.2.4. Closing Remarks.- References.- 6. Heat Exchanger Materials.- 6.1. Design and Materials of Construction.- 6.1.1. PWR Steam Generator.- 6.1.2. LMFBR Heat Exchangers.- 6.1.2.1. Steam Generator.- 6.1.2.2. Intermediate Heat Exchanger.- 6.1.3. CTR Steam Generator.- 6.1.4. Condenser.- 6.2. PWR Steam Generator Experience.- 6.2.1. Corrosion Damage Processes.- 6.2.1.1. Denting.- 6.2.1.2. Stress-Corrosion Cracking.- 6.2.1.3. “Phosphate Thinning”.- 6.2.2. Vibration and Mechanical Problems.- 6.2.2.1. Fretting and Wear.- 6.2.2.2. Fatigue Cracking.- 6.2.3. Avoidance or Mitigation of Steam Generator Damage.- 6.2.3.1. Chemical Control.- 6.2.3.2. Design and Fabrication Changes.- 6.2.3.3. Modified or Alternative Materials.- 6.2.3.3a. Inconel 600.- 6.2.3.3b. Alloy 800.- 6.2.3.3c. Inconel 690.- 6.2.3.3d. SCR-3 Alloy.- 6.2.3.3e. Ferritic (Martensitic) Stainless Steels.- 6.3. LMFBR Steam Generator and IHX Development.- 6.3.1. Steam Generator Materials Properties.- 6.3.1.1. Sodium Corrosion.- 6.3.1.2. Water-Steam Corrosion Performance.- 6.3.1.3. Tube Wastage by Sodium-Water Reactions.- 6.3.2. IHX Materials Properties.- 6.3.3. Closing Remarks.- 6.4. Condenser Experience.- 6.4.1. Copper-Base Alloys.- 6.4.1.1. Admiralty Brass.- 6.4.1.2. 90-10 Copper-Nickel (CL and CA7O6).- 6.4.1.3. 70-30 Copper-Nickel (CN and CA715).- 6.4.1.4. Aluminum Brass and Bronze.- 6.4.1.5. Chromium-Modified Copper-Nickel Alloys (IN-838 or CA-722).- 6.4.2. Iron-Chromium Base Alloys.- 6.4.3. Titanium-Base Alloys.- 6.4.4. Closing Remarks.- References.- 7. Steam Turbine Materials.- 7.1. Design and Materials of Construction.- 7.1.1. Major Components.- 7.1.1.1. Rotors.- 7.1.1.2. (Shrunk-on) Discs.- 7.1.1.3. Blades.- 7.1.2. Material Characteristics.- 7.2. Turbine Damage Mechanisms.- 7.2.1. Stress-Corrosion Cracking.- 7.2.2. Thermal-Mechanical Crack Growth.- 7.2.3. Moisture Erosion.- 7.3. Improvements in Turbine Materials.- 7.3.1. Low-Alloy Ferritic Steels.- 7.3.1.1. Impurity Reductions.- 7.3.1.2. Elimination of Temper Embrittlement.- 7.3.2. Alternative Blade Materials.- References.- 8. Future Trends in Nuclear Materials.- 8.1. Overview of the Materials Problems.- 8.2. Specific Materials Developments.- 8.2.1. Clean (Low-Alloy) Steels.- 8.2.2. “Stainless” Steels.- 8.2.3. Nickel-Base Alloys.- 8.2.4. New Materials—Titanium.- 8.2.5. Barriers and Coatings.- 8.2.5.1. Fuel Rod Cladding Barriers.- 8.2.5.2. Fusion First-Wall Coatings.- 8.2.5.3. Tritium Barriers.- 8.3. Related Technologies.- 8.4. Closing Remarks.- References.- Appendixes.- Appendix A.- Appendix B.- Appendix C.

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