Prologue: The Beginnings of Human Society, to c. 4000 B.C.E.
The Paleolithic Age, 200,000-10,000 B.C.E.
The Neolithic Age, 10,000-4000 B.C.E.
Chapter 1: Early Western Civilization, 4000-1000 B.C.E.
The Concept of Western Civilization
Mesopotamia, Home of the First Civilization, 4000-1000 B.C.E.
Egypt, the First Unified Country, 3050-1000 B.C.E.
The Hittites, the Minoans, and the Mycenaeans, 2200-1000 B.C.E.
Terms of History: Civilization
Document: Hammurabi’s Laws for Physicians
Document: Declaring Innocence on Judgment Day in Ancient Egypt
Chapter 2: Near East Empires and the Reemergence of Civilization in Greece, 1000-500 B.C.E.
From Dark Age to Empire in the Near East, 1000-500 B.C.E.
The Reemergence of Greek Civilization, 1000-750 B.C.E.
The Creation of the Greek City-State, 750-500 B.C.E.
New Directions for the Greek City-State, 750-500 B.C.E.
Document: Excerpt from a Gatha
Seeing History: The Shift in Sculptural Style from Egypt to Greece
Document: Zaleucus’s Law Code for a Greek City-State in Seventh-Century B.C.E. Italy
Taking Measure: Greek Family Size and Agricultural Labor in the Archaic Age
Contrasting Views: Persians Debate Democracy, Oligarchy, and Monarchy
Chapter 3: The Greek Golden Age, c. 500-c. 400 B.C.E.
Wars between Persia and Greece, 499-479 B.C.E.
Athenian Confidence in the Golden Age, 478-431 B.C.E.
Tradition and Innovation in Athens’s Golden Age
The End of Athens’s Golden Age, 431-403 B.C.E.
Contrasting Views: The Nature of Women and Marriage
Document: Athenian Regulations for a Rebellious Ally
Document: Sophists Argue Both Sides of a Case
Taking Measure: Military Forces of Athens and Sparta at the Beginning of the Peloponnesian War(431 B.C.E.)
Chapter 4: From the Classical to the Hellenistic World, 400-30 B.C.E.
Classical Greece after the Peloponnesian War, 400-350 B.C.E.
The Rise of Macedonia, 359-323 B.C.E.
The Hellenistic Kingdoms, 323-30 B.C.E.
Document: Aristotle on the Nature of the Greek Polis
Document: Epigrams by Women Poets
New Sources, New Perspectives: Papyrus Discoveries and Menander’s Comedies
Chapter 5: The Rise of Rome and Its Republic, 753-44 B.C.E.
Roman Social and Religious Traditions
From Monarchy to Republic
Roman Imperialism and Its Consequences
Civil War and the Destruction of the Republic
Document: The Rape and Suicide of Lucretia
Taking Measure: Census Records during the First and Second Punic Wars
Document: Polybius on Roman Military Discipline
Contrasting Views: What Was Julius Caesar Like?
Chapter 6: The Creation of the Roman Empire, 44 B.C.E.-284 C.E.
From Republic to Empire, 44 B.C.E.-14 C.E.
Politics and Society in the Early Roman Empire
The Emergence of Christianity in the Early Roman Empire
From Stability to Crisis in the Third Century C.E.
Document: Augustus, Res Gestae (My Accomplishments)
Document: The Scene at a Roman Bath
Contrasting Views: Christians in the Empire: Conspirators or Faithful Subjects?
Document: A Roman Stoic Philosopher on the Capabilities of Women
Taking Measure: The Value of Roman Imperial Coinage, 27 B.C.E.-300 C.E.
Chapter 7: The Transformation of the Roman Empire, 284-600 C.E.
From Principate to Dominate in the Late Roman Empire, 284-395
The Official Christianization of the Empire, 312-c. 540
Non-Roman Kingdoms in the Western Roman Empire, c. 370-550s
The Roman Empire in the East, c. 500-565
Document: Diocletian’s Edict on Maximum Prices and Wages
Taking Measure: Peasants’ Use of Farm Produce in the Roman Empire
Document: The Edict of Milan on Religious Freedom
Seeing History: Changing Religious Beliefs: Pagan and Christian Sarcophagi
Contrasting Views: Debate: Did Romans or Huns Better Protect Life, Law, and Freedom?
Chapter 8: The Heirs of Rome: Islam, Byzantium, and Europe, 600-750
Islam: A New Religion and a New Empire
Western Europe: A Medley of Kingdoms
Terms of History: Medieval
Document: The Fatihah of the Qur’an
Document: The Pact of Umar
Seeing History: Who Conquered Whom? A Persian and an Arabic Coin Compared
Document: On Holy Images
Taking Measure: Papal Letters Sent from Rome to Northern Europe, c. 600-c. 700
New Sources, New Perspectives: Anthropology, Archaeology, and Changing Notions of Ethnicity
Chapter 9: From Centralization to Fragmentation, 750-1050
The Byzantine Emperor and Local Elites
The Rise and Fall of the Abbasid Caliphate
The Carolingian Empire
After the Carolingians: The Emergence of Local Rule
Document: The Book of the Prefect
Document: When She Approached
Contrasting Views: Charlemagne: Roman Emperor, Father of Europe, or the Chief Bishop?
Terms of History: Feudalism
Taking Measure: Sellers, Buyers, and Donors, 800-1000
Chapter 10: Commercial Quickening and Religious Reform, 1050-1150
The Commercial Revolution
The Revival of Monarchies
Document: Peppercorns as Money
Contrasting Views: Henry IV
New Sources, New Perspectives: The Cairo Geniza
Document: Penances for the Invaders (1070)
Taking Measure: English Livestock in 1086
Chapter 11: The Flowering of the Middle Ages, 1150-1215
New Schools and Churches
Governments as Institutions
The Growth of a Vernacular High Culture
Religious Fervor and Crusade
Seeing History: Romanesque versus Gothic: The View Down the Nave
Contrasting Views: Magna Carta
Document: Frederick I’s Reply to the Romans
Document: Bertran de Born, "I love the joyful time of Easter"
Document: The Children’s Crusade (1212)
Chapter 12: The Medieval Synthesisand Its Cracks, 1215-1340
The Church’s Mission
Reconciling This World and the Next
The Politics of Control
New Sources, New Perspectives: The Peasants of Montaillou
Document: Thomas Aquinas Writes about Sex
Document: The Debate between Reason and the Lover
Taking Measure: Grain Prices during the Great Famine
Chapter 13: Crisis and Renaissance, 1340-1492
Crisis: Disease, War, and Schism
The Renaissance: New Forms of Thought and Expression
Taking Measure: Population Losses and the Black Death
Contrasting Views: Joan of Arc: Who Was "the Maid"?
Document: Wat Tyler’s Rebellion (1381)
Terms of History: Renaissance
Document: The Ducal Entry into Ghent (1458)
Chapter 14: Global Encounters and the Shock of the Reformation, 1492-1560
The Discovery of New Worlds
The Protestant Reformation
Reshaping Society through Religion
Striving for Mastery
Seeing History: Expanding Geographic Knowledge: World Maps in an Age of Exploration
Document: Columbus Describes His First Voyage (1493)
Contrasting Views: Martin Luther: Holy Man or Heretic?
Document: Ordinances for Calvinist Churches (1547)
Chapter 15: Wars of Religion and the Clash of Worldviews, 1560-1648
Religious Conflicts Threaten State Power, 1560-1618
The Thirty Years’ War, 1618-1648
Economic Crisis and Realignment
The Rise of Science and a Scientific Worldview
Document: The Horrors of the Thirty Years’ War, 1626
Taking Measure: Precious Metals and the Spanish Colonies, 1550-1800
New Sources, New Perspectives: Tree Rings and the Little Ice Age
Document: Sentence Pronounced against Galileo (1633)
Seeing History: Religious Differences in Painting of the Baroque Period: Rubens and Rembrandt
Chapter 16: Absolutism, Constitutionalism, and the Search for Order, 1640-1700
Louis XIV: Absolutism and Its Limits
Constitutionalism in England
Outposts of Constitutionalism
Absolutism in Central and Eastern Europe
The Search for Order in Elite and Popular Culture
Document: Marie de Sévigné, Letter Describing the French Court (1675)
Contrasting Views: The English Civil War
Taking Measure: The Seventeenth-Century Army
Document: John Milton, Defense of Freedom of the Press (1644)
Chapter 17: The Atlantic System and Its Consequences, 1700-1750
The Atlantic System and the World Economy
New Social and Cultural Patterns
Consolidation of the European State System
The Birthplace of the Enlightenment
New Sources, New Perspectives: Oral History and the Life of Slaves
Document: The Social Effects of Growing Consumption (1728)
Taking Measure: Relationship of Crop Harvested to Seed Used, 1400-1800
Terms of History: Progress
Document: Montesquieu, Persian Letters: Letter 37 (1721)
Chapter 18: The Promise of Enlightenment, 1750-1789
The Enlightenment at Its Height
Society and Culture in an Age of Enlightenment
State Power in an Era of Reform
Rebellions against State Power
Document: Denis Diderot, "Encyclopedia" (1755)
Contrasting Views: Women and the Enlightenment
Terms of History: Enlightenment
Taking Measure: European Urbanization, 1750-1800
Document: Thomas Jefferson, Declaration of Independence (July 4, 1776)
Chapter 19: The Cataclysm of Revolution, 1789-1799
The Revolutionary Wave, 1787-1789
From Monarchy to Republic, 1789-1793
Terror and Resistance
Revolution on the March
Terms of History: Revolution
Document: The Rights of Minorities (1789)
Document: Address on Abolishing the Slave Trade (February 5, 1790)
Contrasting Views: Perspectives on the French Revolution
Chapter 20: Napoleon and the Revolutionary Legacy, 1800-1830
The Rise of Napoleon Bonaparte
"Europe Was at My Feet": Napoleon’s Conquests
The "Restoration" of Europe
Challenges to the Conservative Order
Seeing History: The Clothing Revolution: The Social Meaning of Change in Postrevolutionary Fashion
Document: An Ordinary Soldier on Campaign with Napoleon (1812)
Contrasting Views: Napoleon: For and Against
Document: Wordsworth’s Poetry (1798)
Chapter 21: Industrialization and Social Ferment, 1830-1850
The Industrial Revolution
Reforming the Social Order
Ideologies and Political Movements
The Revolutions of 1848
Taking Measure: Railroad Lines, 1830-1850
New Sources, New Perspectives: Statistics and the Standard of Living of the Working Class
Document: Marx and Engels, The Communist Manifesto (1848)
Document: Alexis de Tocqueville Describes the June Days in Paris (1848)
Chapter 22: Politics and Culture of the Nation-State, 1850-1870
The End of the Concert of Europe
War and Nation Building
Nation Building through Social Order
The Culture of Social Order
Document: Mrs. Seacole: The Other Florence Nightingale
Document: Education of a Mathematical Genius in Russia
Terms of History: Nationalism
Document: Bismarck Tricks the Public to Get His War
Seeing History: Photographing the Nation: Domesticity and War
Chapter 23: Empire, Industry, and Everyday Life, 1870-1890
The New Imperialism
The Industry of Empire
Imperial Society and Culture
The Birth of Mass Politics
Document: An African King Describes His Government
Taking Measure: European Emigration, 1870-1890
Contrasting Views: Experiences of Migration
Document: Henrik Ibsen, From A Doll’s House
Chapter 24: Modernity and the Road to War, 1890-1914
Public Debate over Private Life
Modernity and the Revolt in Ideas
Growing Tensions in Mass Politics
European Imperialism Challenged
Roads to War
Terms of History: Modern
New Sources, New Perspectives: Psychohistory and Its Lessons
Document: Leon Pinsker Calls for a Jewish State
Document: Turkish Nationalism
Document: Vietnamese Resistance and the Importance of Becoming Modern
Taking Measure: The Growth in Armaments, 1890-1914
Chapter 25: World War I and Its Aftermath, 1914-1929
The Great War, 1914-1918
Protest, Revolution, and War’s End, 1917-1918
The Search for Peace in an Era of Revolution
A Decade of Recovery: Europe in the 1920s
Mass Culture and the Rise of Modern Dictators
Seeing History: Portraying Soldiers in World War I
Document: Outbreak of the Russian Revolution
Taking Measure: The Victims of Influenza, 1918-1919
Contrasting Views: The Middle East at the End of World War I: Freedom or Subjugation?
Document: Memory and Battlefield Tourism
Chapter 26: The Great Depression and World War II, 1929-1945
The Great Depression
Democracies on the Defensive
The Road to Global War
World War II, 1939-1945
Document: A Family Copes with Unemployment
Terms of History: Fascism
Contrasting Views: Nazism and Hitler: For and Against
Document: The Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere
New Sources, New Perspectives: Museums and Memory
Chapter 27: The Cold War and the Remaking of Europe, 1945-1960s
World Politics Transformed
Political and Economic Recovery in Europe
Decolonization in a Cold War Climate
Daily Life and Culture in the Shadow of Nuclear War
New Sources, New Perspectives: Government Archives and the Truth about the Cold War
Document: The Schuman Plan on European Unity (1950)
Document: Torture in Algeria
Document: Popular Culture, Youth Consumerism, and the Birth of the Generation Gap
Chapter 28: Postindustrial Society and the End of the Cold War Order, 1960s-1989
The Revolution in Technology
Postindustrial Society and Culture
Protesting Cold War Conditions
The Testing of Superpower Domination and the End of the Cold War
Taking Measure: Postindustrial Occupational Structure, 1984
Seeing History: Critiquing the Soviet System: Dissident Art in the 1960s and 1970s
Contrasting Views: Feminist Debates
Document: Margaret Thatcher’s Economic Vision
Document: Criticizing Gorbachev
Chapter 29: A New Globalism, 1989 to the Present
Collapse of the Soviet Union and Its Aftermath
The Nation-State in a Global Age
An Interconnected World’s New Challenges
Global Culture and Society in the Twenty-first Century
Terms of History: Globalization
Document: Václav Havel, "Czechoslovakia Is Returning to Europe"
Document: The Green Parties Unite Transnationally and Announce Common Goals (2006)
Taking Measure: World Population Growth, 1950-2010
Contrasting Views: The Dutch Debate Globalization, Muslim Immigrants, and Turkey’s Admission to the EU