# Study Guide and Selected Solutions Manual for College Physics Volume 2 for College Physics with MasteringPhysics / Edition 7

ISBN-10: 0321592786

ISBN-13: 9780321592781

Pub. Date: 07/03/2009

This book presents fundamental physics principles in a clear, concise manner. The Sixth Edition adds a focus on biomedical applications of physical principles, while continuing to emphasize conceptual understanding as the basis for mastering a variety of

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## Overview

This book presents fundamental physics principles in a clear, concise manner. The Sixth Edition adds a focus on biomedical applications of physical principles, while continuing to emphasize conceptual understanding as the basis for mastering a variety of problem-solving tools. Provides a wide range of relevant applications and illustrative examples to help students understand concepts and relate physics principles to everyday life. Topics include mechanics, thermodynamics, oscillations and wave motion, electricity and magnetism, optics, and modern physics. For anyone hoping to learn more about the fundamentals of physics and applying principles to a variety of real-world situations, devices, and topics.

## Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780321592781
Publisher:
Publication date:
07/03/2009
Edition description:
New Edition
Pages:
288
Sales rank:
300,858
Product dimensions:
8.40(w) x 10.90(h) x 0.50(d)

Preface XV

1 Measurement and Problem Solving 1

Insight: 1.1 Why Study Physics? 2

1.1 Why and How We Measure 2

1.2 SI Units of Length, Mass, and Time 3

Insight: 1.2 What Is Time? 6

1.3 More about the Metric System 7

1.4 Unit Analysis 10

1.5 Unit Conversions 12

Insight: 1.3 Is Unit Conversion Important? 16

1.6 Significant Figures 17

1.7 Problem Solving 20

Chapter Review 24 Exercises 25

2 Kinematics: Description of Motion 32

2.1 Distance and Speed: Scalar Quantities 33

2.2 One-Dimensional Displacement and Velocity: Vector Quantities 35

Learn by Drawing: Cartesian Coordinates and One-Dimensional Displacement 35

2.3 Acceleration 40

Learn by Drawing: Signs of Velocity and Acceleration 42

2.4 Kinematic Equations (Constant Acceleration) 45

2.5 Free Fall 49

Insight: 2.1 Galileo Galilei and the Leaning Tower of Pisa 51

Chapter Review 56 Exercises 57

3 Motion in Two Dimensions 67

3.1 Components of Motion 68

3.2 Vector Addition and Subtraction 73

Learn by Drawing: Make a Sketch and Add Them Up 80

3.3 Projectile Motion 81

3.4 Relative Velocity 90

Chapter Review 94 Exercises 95

4 Force and Motion 103

4.1 The Concepts of Force and Net Force 104

4.2 Inertia and Newton’s First Law of Motion 105

4.3 Newton’s Second Law of Motion 106

Insight: 4.1 gs of Force and Effects on the Human Body 108

4.4 Newton’s Third Law of Motion 112

Insight: 4.2 Sailing into the Wind–Tacking 115

4.5 More on Newton’s Laws: Free-Body Diagrams and Translational Equilibrium 116

Learn by Drawing: Forces on an Object on an Inclined Plane and Free-body Diagrams 116

4.6 Friction 121

Chapter Review 130 Exercises 131

5 Work and Energy 140

5.1 Work Done by a Constant Force 141

Learn by Drawing: Work: Area under the F-versus-x Curve 142

Learn by Drawing: Determining the Sign of Work 143

5.2 Work Done by a Variable Force 145

5.3 The Work—Energy Theorem: Kinetic Energy 148

5.4 Potential Energy 152

5.5 Conservation of Energy 155

Insight: 5.1 People Power: Using Body Energy 156

Learn by Drawing: Energy Exchanges: A Falling Ball 161

5.6 Power 164

Insight: 5.2 Hybrid Energy Conversion 164

Chapter Review 168 Exercises 169

6 Linear Momentum and Collisions 177

6.1 Linear Momentum 178

6.2 Impulse 182

6.3 Conservation of Linear Momentum 185

Insight: 6.1 The Automobile Air Bag and Martian Air Bags 186

6.4 Elastic and Inelastic Collisions 191

6.5 Center of Mass 198

6.6 Jet Propulsion and Rockets 204

Chapter Review 207 Exercises 207

7 Circular Motion and Gravitation 216

7.1 Angular Measure 217

7.2 Angular Speed and Velocity 219

Learn by Drawing: The Small-Angle Approximation 219

7.3 Uniform Circular Motion and Centripetal Acceleration 223

Insight: 7.1 The Centrifuge: Separating Blood Components 225

7.4 Angular Acceleration 228

7.5 Newton’s Law of Gravitation 231

Insight: 7.2 Space Exploration: Gravity Assists 238

7.6 Kepler’s Laws and Earth Satellites 238

Insight: 7.3 "Weightlessness": Effects on the Human Body 245

Chapter Review 247 Exercises 248

8 Rotational Motion and Equilibrium 256

8.1 Rigid Bodies, Translations, and Rotations 257

8.2 Torque, Equilibrium, and Stability 259

8.3 Rotational Dynamics 270

Insight: 8.1 Stability in Action 271

8.4 Rotational Work and Kinetic Energy 277

8.5 Angular Momentum 280

Insight: 8.2 Slide or Roll to a Stop? Antilock Brakes 281

Chapter Review 287 Exercises 288

9 Solids and Fluids 297

9.1 Solids and Elastic Moduli 298

9.2 Fluids: Pressure and Pascal’s Principle 302

Insight: 9.1 Osteoporosis and Bone Mineral Density (BMD) 304

Insight: 9.2 An Atmospheric Effect: Possible Earaches 311

Insight: 9.3 Blood Pressure and Its Measurement 312

9.3 Buoyancy and Archimedes’ Principle 313

9.4 Fluid Dynamics and Bernoulli’s Equation 319

*9.5 Surface Tension, Viscosity, and Poiseuille’s Law 324

Insight: 9.4 The Lungs and Baby’s First Breath 325

Chapter Review 329 Exercises 330

10 Temperature and Kinetic Theory 338

10.1 Temperature and Heat 339

10.2 The Celsius and Fahrenheit Temperature Scales 340

Insight: 10.1 Human Body Temperature 343

10.3 Gas Laws, Absolute Temperature, and the Kelvin Temperature Scale 343

Insight: 10.2 Warm-Blooded versus Cold-Blooded 344

10.4 Thermal Expansion 350

Learn by Drawing: Thermal Area Expansion 351

10.5 The Kinetic Theory of Gases 354

Insight: 10.3 Physiological Diffusion in Life Processes 357

*10.6 Kinetic Theory, Diatomic Gases, and the Equipartition Theorem 357

Chapter Review 360 Exercises 361

11 Heat 367

11.1 Definition and Units of Heat 368

11.2 Specific Heat and Calorimetry 370

11.3 Phase Changes and Latent Heat 374

Learn by Drawing: From Cold Ice to Hot Steam 377

11.4 Heat Transfer 379

Insight: 11.1 Physiological Regulation of Body Temperature 380

Insight: 11.2 Physics, the Construction Industry, and Energy Conservation 384

Insight: 11.3 The Greenhouse Effect 388

Chapter Review 390 Exercises 391

12 Thermodynamics 397

12.1 Thermodynamic Systems, States, and Processes 398

12.2 The First Law of Thermodynamics 399

12.3 Thermodynamic Processes for an Ideal Gas 403

Learn by Drawing: Leaning on Isotherms 409

12.4 The Second Law of Thermodynamics and Entropy 410

Insight: 12.1 Life, Order, and the Second Law 414

12.5 Heat Engines and Thermal Pumps 414

Learn by Drawing: Representing Work in Thermal Cycles 415

Insight: 12.2 Thermodynamics and the Human Body 420

12.6 The Carnot Cycle and Ideal Heat Engines 422

Chapter Review 425 Exercises 426

13 Vibrations and Waves 433

13.1 Simple Harmonic Motion 434

Learn by Drawing: Oscillating in a Parabolic Potential Well 437

13.2 Equations of Motion 439

13.3 Wave Motion 446

13.4 Wave Properties 449

Insight: 13.1 Earthquakes, Seismic Waves, and Seismology 450

13.5 Standing Waves and Resonance 454

Insight: 13.2 Desirable and Undesirable Resonances 458

Chapter Review 459 Exercises 460

14 Sound 467

14.1 Sound Waves 468

Insight: 14.1 Ultrasound in Medicine 470

14.2 The Speed of Sound 471

14.3 Sound Intensity and Sound Intensity Level 474

Insight: 14.2 The Physiology and Physics of the Ear and Hearing 475

14.4 Sound Phenomena 481

14.5 The Doppler Effect 484

Insight: 14.3 Doppler Applications: Blood Cells and Raindrops 490

14.6 Musical Instruments and Sound Characteristics 491

Chapter Review 496 Exercises 498

15 Electric Charge, Forces, and Fields 505

15.1 Electric Charge 506

15.2 Electrostatic Charging 508

15.3 Electric Force 512

15.4 Electric Field 517

Learn by Drawing: Using the Superposition Principle to Determine the Electric Field Direction 518

Learn by Drawing: Sketching Electric Lines of Force 521

Insight: 15.1 Lightning and Lightning Rods 523

Insight: 15.2 Electric Fields in Law Enforcement and Nature: Stun Guns and Electric Fish 524

15.5 Conductors and Electric Fields 526

*15.6 Gauss’s Law for Electric Fields: A Qualitative Approach 528

Chapter Review 529 Exercises 530

16 Electric Potential, Energy, and Capacitance 536

16.1 Electric Potential Energy and Electric Potential Difference 537

Learn by Drawing: ¢V Is Independent of Reference Point 538

16.2 Equipotential Surfaces and the Electric Field 543

Learn by Drawing: Graphical Relationship between Electric Field Lines and Equipotentials 547

16.3 Capacitance 549

Insight: 16.1 Electric Potential and Nerve Signal Transmission 552

16.4 Dielectrics 552

16.5 Capacitors in Series and in Parallel 557

Chapter Review 561 Exercises 562

17 Electric Current and Resistance 568

17.1 Batteries and Direct Current 569

Learn by Drawing: Sketching Circuits 571

17.2 Current and Drift Velocity 571

17.3 Resistance and Ohm’s Law 573

Insight: 17.1 The "Bio-Generation" of High Voltage 575

Insight: 17.2 Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) 578

17.4 Electric Power 580

Chapter Review 585 Exercises 586

18 Basic Electric Circuits 591

18.1 Resistances in Series, Parallel, and Series—Parallel Combinations 592

18.2 Multiloop Circuits and Kirchhoff’s Rules 599

Learn by Drawing: Kirchhoff Plots: A Graphical Interpretation of Kirchhoff’s Loop Theorem 602

18.3 RC Circuits 604

18.4 Ammeters and Voltmeters 607

Insight: 18.1 Applications of RC Circuits to Cardiac Medicine 608

18.5 Household Circuits and Electrical Safety 611

Insight: 18.2 Electricity and Personal Safety 614

Chapter Review 615 Exercises 616

19 Magnetism 623

19.1 Magnets, Magnetic Poles, and Magnetic Field Direction 624

19.2 Magnetic Field Strength and Magnetic Force 626

19.3 Applications: Charged Particles in Magnetic Fields 629

19.4 Magnetic Forces on Current-Carrying Wires 632

19.5 Applications: Current-Carrying Wires in Magnetic Fields 635

19.6 Electromagnetism: The Source of Magnetic Fields 637

19.7 Magnetic Materials 641

Insight: 19.1 The Magnetic Force in Future Medicine 642

*19.8 Geomagnetism: The Earth’s Magnetic Field 644

Insight: 19.2 Magnetism in Nature 645

Chapter Review 647 Exercises 648

20 Electromagnetic Induction and Waves 656

20.1 Induced emf: Faraday’s Law and Lenz’s Law 657

20.2 Electric Generators and Back emf 663

Insight: 20.1 Electromagnetic Induction at Work: Flashlights and Antiterrorism 664

Insight: 20.2 Electromagnetic Induction at Play: Hobbies and Transportation 666

20.3 Transformers and Power Transmission 668

20.4 Electromagnetic Waves 672

Chapter Review 679 Exercises 679

21 AC Circuits 686

21.1 Resistance in an AC Circuit 687

21.2 Capacitive Reactance 689

21.3 Inductive Reactance 691

21.4 Impedance: RLC Circuits 693

21.5 Circuit Resonance 697

Chapter Review 700 Exercises 701

22 Reflection and Refraction of Light 705

22.1 Wave Fronts and Rays 706

22.2 Reflection 707

22.3 Refraction 708

Learn by Drawing: Tracing the Reflected Rays 708

Insight: 22.1 A Dark, Rainy Night 709

Insight: 22.2 Negative Index of Refraction and the "Perfect" Lens 715

22.4 Total Internal Reflection and Fiber Optics 717

Insight: 22.3 Fiber Optics: Medical Applications 720

22.5 Dispersion 721

Insight: 22.4 The Rainbow 722

Chapter Review 723 Exercises 724

23 Mirrors and Lenses 729

23.1 Plane Mirrors 730

23.2 Spherical Mirrors 732

Insight: 23.1 It’s All Done with Mirrors 733

Learn by Drawing: A Mirror Ray Diagram (see Example 23.2) 734

23.3 Lenses 740

Learn by Drawing: A Lens Ray Diagram (see Example 23.5) 743

Insight: 23.2 Fresnel Lenses 748

23.4 The Lens Maker’s Equation 750

*23.5 Lens Aberrations 752

Chapter Review 753 Exercises 754

24 Physical Optics: The Wave Nature of Light 760

24.1 Young’s Double-Slit Experiment 761

24.2 Thin-Film Interference 764

Insight: 24.1 Nonreflecting Lenses 768

24.3 Diffraction 768

24.4 Polarization 775

Learn by Drawing: Three Polarizers (see Integrated Example 24.6.) 778

*24.5 Atmospheric Scattering of Light 782

Insight: 24.2 LCDs and Polarized Light 783

Insight: 24.3 Optical Biopsy 785

Chapter Review 785 Exercises 786

25 Vision and Optical Instruments 792

25.1 The Human Eye 793

Insight: 25.1 Cornea "Orthodontics" and Surgery 797

25.2 Microscopes 799

25.3 Telescopes 803

25.4 Diffraction and Resolution 807

Insight: 25.2 Telescopes Using Nonvisible Radiation 808

*25.5 Color 810

Chapter Review 813 Exercises 814

26 Relativity 819

26.1 Classical Relativity and the Michelson—Morley Experiment 820

26.2 The Postulates of Special Relativity and the Relativity of Simultaneity 822

26.3 The Relativity of Length and Time: Time Dilation and Length Contraction 825

26.4 Relativistic Kinetic Energy, Momentum, Total Energy, and Mass—Energy Equivalence 833

26.5 The General Theory of Relativity 837

Insight: 26.1 Relativity in Everyday Living 838

Insight: 26.2 Black Holes, Gravitational Waves, and LIGO 842

Chapter Review 844 Exercises 845

27 Quantum Physics 851

27.1 Quantization: Planck’s Hypothesis 852

27.2 Quanta of Light: Photons and the Photoelectric Effect 854

Learn by Drawing: The Photoelectric Effect and Energy Conservation 856

27.3 Quantum "Particles": The Compton Effect 858

27.4 The Bohr Theory of the Hydrogen Atom 860

27.5 A Quantum Success: The Laser 866

Insight: 27.1 CD and DVD Systems 869

Insight: 27.2 Lasers in Modern Medicine 870

Chapter Review 871 Exercises 873

28 Quantum Mechanics and Atomic Physics 877

28.1 Matter Waves: The de Broglie Hypothesis 878

28.2 The Schrödinger Wave Equation 881

Insight: 28.1 The Electron Microscope 883

Insight: 28.2 The Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) 884

28.3 Atomic Quantum Numbers and the Periodic Table 885

Insight: 28.3 Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) 888

28.4 The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle 894

28.5 Particles and Antiparticles 896

Chapter Review 897 Exercises 898

29 The Nucleus 902

29.1 Nuclear Structure and the Nuclear Force 903

29.3 Decay Rate and Half-Life 911

29.4 Nuclear Stability and Binding Energy 917

29.5 Radiation Detection, Dosage, and Applications 922

Insight: 29.1 Biological and Medical Applications of Radiation 927

Chapter Review 929 Exercises 930

30 Nuclear Reactions and Elementary Particles 935

30.1 Nuclear Reactions 936

30.2 Nuclear Fission 939

30.3 Nuclear Fusion 944

30.4 Beta Decay and the Neutrino 946

30.5 Fundamental Forces and Exchange Particles 948

30.6 Elementary Particles 951

30.7 The Quark Model 953

30.8 Force Unification Theories, the Standard Model, and the Early Universe 954

Chapter Review 956 Exercises 957

APPENDIX I Mathematical Review (with Examples) for College Physics A-1

APPENDIX II Kinetic Theory of Gases A-5

APPENDIX III Planetary Data A-6

APPENDIX IV Alphabetical Listing of the Chemical Elements A-7

APPENDIX V Properties of Selected Isotopes A-7

Photo Credits P-1

Index I-1