Study Guide for Murphy/Nance's Earth Science Today

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Sample test questions, learning objectives, key terms, vocabulary reviews, acrostic puzzles, and quantitative quizzes. About 200 pages.

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Overview

Sample test questions, learning objectives, key terms, vocabulary reviews, acrostic puzzles, and quantitative quizzes. About 200 pages.

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Editorial Reviews

Booknews
Murphy (geology, St. Francis Xavier U., Nova Scotia) and Nance (geology, Ohio U.) give the undergraduate student a comprehensive, integrated introduction to the various sciences used to study the Earth<-->geology, biology, chemistry, and physics<-->and show how these are interdependent. The book's seven parts examine the foundations of modern geology and the structure of the solid Earth, the hydrosphere, the atmosphere, the evolution of the biosphere over geologic time, the Earth's place within the solar system and the cosmos, and the balance that exists between the Earth's resources, concluding with a discussion of environmental responsibility. This package includes 40 interactive exercises in geology on CD-ROM. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (booknews.com)
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780534521844
  • Publisher: Cengage Learning
  • Publication date: 6/9/1999
  • Series: Earth Science Series
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 112

Meet the Author

Brendan Murphy is Professor of Geology at St. Francis Xavier University in Nova Scotia, Canada, where he has taught since 1982. An active and distinguished researcher whose interests lie in the processes involved in mountain building, he received the President's Research Award in 1993 from his university and the Distinguished Service Award of the Atlantic Geoscience Society in 1995. He received his Ph.D. from McGill University in 1982, and hails from Birr, Ireland.

Damian Nance is Chair of Geological Sciences at Ohio University, where he has taught since 1980. He is a distinguished researcher and writer, having done much research on the early evolution of the Appalachian Mountains. In 1991 he received his university's Outstanding Teaching Award, and has been twice nominated for its Outstanding Graduate Faculty Award. He received his Ph.D. in 1978 from the University of Cambridge, and hails from Cornwall, England. Each has written over 75 scientific papers, 30 of which Brendan Murphy and Damian Nance co-authored.

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Table of Contents

PREFACE. 1. INTRODUCTION. Earth and Its Environment. Earth Science: A Study of Earth Systems. A Revolution in the Earth Sciences. Earth Science and the Scientific Method. Earth Science and Society. Goals for the Rest of the Book. PART I: FOUNDATIONS AND THE SOLID EARTH. 2. EARTH MATERIALS: MINERALS AND ROCKS. Chapter Overview. Minerals. Rocks. Revisiting the Rocks Cycle. Chapter Summary. Key Terms and Concepts. Review Questions. Study Questions. 3. GEOLOGIC TIME AND THE AGE OF THE EARTH. Chapter Overview. The Vastness of Geologic Time. A Short History of Geologic Time. Relative Dating. Relative Time and the Geologic Time Scale. How Old Is the Earth?: The Quest for an Absolute Age. Radiometric Dating. Absolute Time and the Geologic Time Scale. A Sense of Time. Chapter Summary. Key Terms and Concepts. Review Questions. Study Questions. 4. PLATE TECTONICS: DEVELOPMENT OF A THEORY. Chapter Overview. Continental Drift. Paleomagnetism and Sea Floor Spreading. Subduction: Where Does the Old Ocean Crust Go?. Plate Tectonics. Chapter Summary. Key Terms and Concepts. Review Questions. Study Questions. 5. PLATE TECTONICS: PLATES AND PLATE BOUNDARIES. Chapter Overview. Moving Plates. The Structure of Plates. Buoyancy and the Principle of Isostasy. Plate Boundaries. Plate Driving Mechanisms. Chapter Summary. Key Terms and Concepts. Review Questions. Study Questions. 6. MOUNTAINS AND VOLCANOES. Chapter Overview. Introduction. Mountains at Divergent Margins. Mountains with Oceanic Plates. Mountains Produced By Subduction. Mountains Produced by Collision. Mountains Produced along Transform Faults. Mountains in the Past. Mountain Building and Deformation of Rocks. MountainBuilding and Geologic Maps. Chapter Summary. Key Terms and Concepts. Review Questions. Study Questions. 7. THE EARTH'S INTERIOR. Chapter Overview. Introduction. Clues from Heat and Density. Earthquake Waves. Journey to the Center of the Earth. Circulation in the Earth's Interior. Chapter Summary. Key Terms and Concepts. Review Questions. Study Questions. PART II: THE HYDROSPHERE: THE ORIGIN AND MOTION OF WATER ON OUR PLANET. 8. OCEAN WATER. Chapter Overview. Introduction. The Water Molecule. The Hydrologic Cycle. Sea Level. Ocean Basins and Plate Tectonics. Composition of Ocean Water. Why Is Ocean Water Salty? The Relationship between Composition and Source Region. The Origin of Ocean Waters. Chapter Summary. Key Terms and Concepts. Review Questions. Study Questions. 9. CIRCULATION OF OCEAN WATER. Chapter Overview. Introduction. Waves. Coastal Regions. Tides. A General Overview of Ocean Water Circulation. Vertical Profiles of Ocean Water. Ocean Currents. Putting it All Together: El Nio. Chapter Summary. Key Terms and Concepts. Review Questions. Study Questions. 10. FRESH WATER. Chapter Overview. Introduction. The Hydrologic Cycle and the Water Budget. Global Precipitation Patterns. Groundwater. Surface Water. Human Exploitation of Fresh Water. Chapter Summary. Key Terms and Concepts. Review Questions. Study Questions. PART III: THE ATMOSPHERE: THE AIR WE BREATHE. 11. THE ATMOSPHERE. Chapter Overview. Introduction: The Composition of the Atmosphere. Interaction between Water and Air. The Layers of the Atmosphere. Weather and Climate. Chapter Summary. Key Terms and Concepts. Review Questions. Study Questions. 12. CIRCULATION OF THE ATMOSPHERE. Chapter Overview. Atmosphere Circulation. Storms. Persistent Global Atmospheric Circulation Patterns. Chapter Summary. Key Terms and Concepts. Review Questions. Study Questions. PART IV: THE EVOLUTION OF THE EARTH SYSTEMS AND THE BIOSPHERE. 13. EVOLUTION OF THE EARTH SYSTEMS I: THE PRECAMBRIAN. Chapter Overview. Introduction. Principles in the Earth's Evolution. Earth Systems in the Hadean and Archean. Earth Systems in the Proterozoic. Chapter Summary. Key Terms and Concepts. Review Questions. Study Questions. 14. EVOLUTION OF THE EARTH SYSTEMS II: THE PHANEROZOIC. Chapter Overview. Introduction: Geologic Time Scale Revisited. Earth Systems in the Paleozoic Era (545 to 245 Million Years Ago). Late Paleozoic Extinctions: The End of an Era. Earth Systems in the Mesozoic Era (245 to 66 Million Years Ago): The Age of Reptiles. The Life and Death of the Dinosaurs. Earth Systems in the Cenozoic Era (66 Million Years Ago to Recent). The Ice Age: Sculpturing the Modern Landscape. Chapter Summary. Key Terms and Concepts. Review Questions. Study Questions. PART V: ASTRONOMY. 15. THE PLANETS. Chapter Overview. Introduction. Development of Fundamental Concepts. The Origin and Early Evolution of the Solar System. The Origin of the Earth and Moon. The Terrestrial Planets and Their Satellites. Comparison of the Terrestrial Planets. The Jovian Planets and Their Satellites. Asteroids, Comets, and Meteoroids. Chapter Summary. Key Concepts. Review Questions. Study Questions. 16. THE SUN AND THE STARS. Chapter Overview. Introduction. The Sun's Energy and Composition. From the Sun to the Earth. Beyond the Solar System. Stars, Constellations, and Galaxies. Life Cycle of the Stars. Origin of the Chemical Elements. Origin of the Universe: The Big Bang Theory. Chapter Summary. Key Terms and Concepts. Review Questions. Study Questions. PART VI: NATURAL RESOURCES. 17. MINERAL RESOURCES. Chapter Overview. What are Metals and Industrial Minerals?. Distribution and Uses of Mineral Resources: Some Facts and Figures. Metallic Minerals. Nonmetallic or Industrial Minerals. What Makes a Mineral Deposit?. Mineral Deposits in Igneous Rocks. Mineral Deposits in Sedimentary Rocks. Mineral Deposits in Metamorphic Rocks. Plate Tectonics and Mineral Deposits. Mineral Exploration. What the Future Holds. Chapter Summary. Key Terms and Concepts. Review Questions. Study Questions. 18. ENERGY RESOURCES. Chapter Overview. Energy Supply and Demand. Energy in the Solid Earth: Fossil Fuels. Energy in the Solid Earth: Alternative Sources. Energy in a Hydrosphere. Energy in the Atmosphere. Energy in the Biosphere. Energy Outlook for the Future. Chapter Summary. Key Terms and Concepts. Review Questions. Study Questions. PART VII: EARTH SCIENCE AND THE ENVIRONMENT. 19. BIOGEOCHEMISTRY: INTERACTION BETWEEN THE EARTH'S RESERVOIRS. Chapter Overview. PREFACE. 1. INTRODUCTION. Earth and Its Environment. Earth Science: A Study of Earth Systems. A Revolution in the Earth Sciences. Earth Science and the Scientific Method. Earth Science and Society. Goals for the Rest of the Book. PART I: FOUNDATIONS AND THE SOLID EARTH. 2. EARTH MATERIALS: MINERALS AND ROCKS. Chapter Overview. Minerals. Rocks. Revisiting the Rocks Cycle. Chapter Summary. Key Terms and Concepts. Review Questions. Study Questions. 3. GEOLOGIC TIME AND THE AGE OF THE EARTH. Chapter Overview. The Vastness of Geologic Time. A Short History of Geologic Time. Relative Dating. Relative Time and the Geologic Time Scale. How Old Is the Earth?: The Quest for an Absolute Age. Radiometric Dating. Absolute Time and the Geologic Time Scale. A Sense of Time. Chapter Summary. Key Terms and Concepts. Review Questions. Study Questions. 4. PLATE TECTONICS: DEVELOPMENT OF A THEORY. Chapter Overview. Continental Drift. Paleomagnetism and Sea Floor Spreading. Subduction: Where Does the Old Ocean Crust Go? Plate Tectonics. Chapter Summary. Key Terms and Concepts. Review Questions. Study Questions. 5. PLATE TECTONICS: PLATES AND PLATE BOUNDARIES. Chapter Overview. Moving Plates. The Structure of Plates. Buoyancy and the Principle of Isostasy. Plate Boundaries. Plate Driving Mechanisms. Chapter Summary. Key Terms and Concepts. Review Questions. Study Questions. 6. MOUNTAINS AND VOLCANOES. Chapter Overview. Introduction. Mountains at Divergent Margins. Mountains with Oceanic Plates. Mountains Produced By Subduction. Mountains Produced by Collision. Mountains Produced along Transform Faults. Mountains in the Past. Mountain Building and Deformation of Rocks. Mountain Building and Geologic Maps. Chapter Summary. Key Terms and Concepts. Review Questions. Study Questions. 7. THE EARTH'S INTERIOR. Chapter Overview. Introduction. Clues from Heat and Density. Earthquake Waves. Journey to the Center of the Earth. Circulation in the Earth's Interior. Chapter Summary. Key Terms and Concepts. Review Questions. Study Questions. PART II: THE HYDROSPHERE: THE ORIGIN AND MOTION OF WATER ON OUR PLANET. 8. OCEAN WATER. Chapter Overview. Introduction. The Water Molecule. The Hydrologic Cycle. Sea Level. Ocean Basins and Plate Tectonics. Composition of Ocean Water. Why Is Ocean Water Salty? The Relationship between Composition and Source Region. The Origin of Ocean Waters. Chapter Summary. Key Terms and Concepts. Review Questions. Study Questions. 9. CIRCULATION OF OCEAN WATER. Chapter Overview. Introduction. Waves. Coastal Regions. Tides. A General Overview of Ocean Water Circulation. Vertical Profiles of Ocean Water. Ocean Currents. Putting it All Together: El Nio. Chapter Summary. Key Terms and Concepts. Review Questions. Study Questions. 10. FRESH WATER. Chapter Overview. Introduction. The Hydrologic Cycle and the Water Budget. Global Precipitation Patterns. Groundwater. Surface Water. Human Exploitation of Fresh Water. Chapter Summary. Key Terms and Concepts. Review Questions. Study Questions. PART III: THE ATMOSPHERE: THE AIR WE BREATHE. 11. THE ATMOSPHERE. Chapter Overview. Introduction: The Composition of the Atmosphere. Interaction between Water and Air. The Layers of the Atmosphere. Weather and Climate. Chapter Summary. Key Terms and Concepts. Review Questions. Study Questions. 12. CIRCULATION OF THE ATMOSPHERE. Chapter Overview. Atmosphere Circulation. Storms. Persistent Global Atmospheric Circulation Patterns. Chapter Summary. Key Terms and Concepts. Review Questions. Study Questions. PART IV: THE EVOLUTION OF THE EARTH SYSTEMS AND THE BIOSPHERE. 13. EVOLUTION OF THE EARTH SYSTEMS I: THE PRECAMBRIAN. Chapter Overview. Introduction. Principles in the Earth's Evolution. Earth Systems in the Hadean and Archean. Earth Systems in the Proterozoic. Chapter Summary. Key Terms and Concepts. Review Questions. Study Questions. 14. EVOLUTION OF THE EARTH SYSTEMS II: THE PHANEROZOIC. Chapter Overview. Introduction: Geologic Time Scale Revisited. Earth Systems in the Paleozoic Era (545 to 245 Million Years Ago). Late Paleozoic Extinctions: The End of an Era. Earth Systems in the Mesozoic Era (245 to 66 Million Years Ago): The Age of Reptiles. The Life and Death of the Dinosaurs. Earth Systems in the Cenozoic Era (66 Million Years Ago to Recent). The Ice Age: Sculpturing the Modern Landscape. Chapter Summary. Key Terms and Concepts. Review Questions. Study Questions. PART V: ASTRONOMY. 15. THE PLANETS. Chapter Overview. Introduction. Development of Fundamental Concepts. The Origin and Early Evolution of the Solar System. The Origin of the Earth and Moon. The Terrestrial Planets and Their Satellites. Comparison of the Terrestrial Planets. The Jovian Planets and Their Satellites. Asteroids, Comets, and Meteoroids. Chapter Summary. Key Concepts. Review Questions. Study Questions. 16. THE SUN AND THE STARS. Chapter Overview. Introduction. The Sun's Energy and Composition. From the Sun to the Earth. Beyond the Solar System. Stars, Constellations, and Galaxies. Life Cycle of the Stars. Origin of the Chemical Elements. Origin of the Universe: The Big Bang Theory. Chapter Summary. Key Terms and Concepts. Review Questions. Study Questions. PART VI: NATURAL RESOURCES. 17. MINERAL RESOURCES. Chapter Overview. What are Metals and Industrial Minerals? Distribution and Uses of Mineral Resources: Some Facts and Figures. Metallic Minerals. Nonmetallic or Industrial Minerals. What Makes a Mineral Deposit? Mineral Deposits in Igneous Rocks. Mineral Deposits in Sedimentary Rocks. Mineral Deposits in Metamorphic Rocks. Plate Tectonics and Mineral Deposits. Mineral Exploration. What the Future Holds. Chapter Summary. Key Terms and Concepts. Review Questions. Study Questions. 18. ENERGY RESOURCES. Chapter Overview. Energy Supply and Demand. Energy in the Solid Earth: Fossil Fuels. Energy in the Solid Earth: Alternative Sources. Energy in a Hydrosphere. Energy in the Atmosphere. Energy in the Biosphere. Energy Outlook for the Future. Chapter Summary. Key Terms and Concepts. Review Questions. Study Questions. PART VII: EARTH SCIENCE AND THE ENVIRONMENT. 19. BIOGEOCHEMISTRY: INTERACTION BETWEEN THE EARTH'S RESERVOIRS. Chapter Overview. Introduction. The Food Chain. Soil Profiles. The Odyssey of a Single Carbon Atom. Biogeochemistry: An Interdisciplinary Science. The Carbon Cycle. The Nitrogen Cycle. The Phosphorous Cycle. Chapter Summary. Key Terms and Concepts. Review Questions. Study Questions. 20. OUR FRAGILE ATMOSPHERE. Chapter Overview. Introduction. The Ozone Layer. Formation of Ozone. Mechanisms and Implications of Ozone Depletion. The Greenhouse Effect: A Matter of Balance. Understanding the Greenhouse Effect. A Recent Perspective. The Recent Past: Variations in Solar Output. Earth-Sun Geometry: Global Temperatures over the Past One Million Years. From the Sun to the Earth. Feedback Systems and the Gaia Hypothesis. The Role of Calcium and Carbon Dioxide in the Feedback Cycle. Predictable Temperature Swings for at Least One Billion Years. Putting It All Together: Greenhouse Effect and Global Warmth. Conclusion. Chapter Summary. Key Terms and Concepts. Review Questions. Study Questions. AFTERWORD: THE FATE OF PLANET EARTH. APPENDICES. GLOSSARY. CREDITS. INDEX.
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