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Overview

The Study Guide to Accompany Professional Cooking, Seventh Edition is a useful tool to help students study and review the material in the textbook Professional Cooking. It contains 35 chapters of key exercises related to key terms; true/false questions; completion, short-answer, and other written exercises; and math exercises. The purpose is to reinforce learning, support your study efforts, and assist you in mastering the material.

This well-illustrated text teaches basic cooking skills that can be applied in any level or type of service operation.

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What People Are Saying

Andre Cointreau
A reference for a lifetime.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780470197516
  • Publisher: Wiley
  • Publication date: 4/12/2010
  • Edition description: Study Guid
  • Edition number: 7
  • Pages: 268
  • Sales rank: 738,573
  • Product dimensions: 8.50 (w) x 10.83 (h) x 0.63 (d)

Table of Contents

Recipe Contents.
About LeCordon Bleu.
Foreword.
Preface.
Acknowledgements.
The Food Service Industry.
Sanitation and Safety.
Tools and Equipment.
Basic Cooking Principles.
The Recipe: Its Structure and Its Use.
The Menu.
Mise en Place.
Stock and Sauces.
Soups.
Understanding Meats and Game.
Cooking Meats and Game.
Understanding Poultry and Game.
Cooking Poultry and Game.
Understanding Fish and Shellfish.
Cooking Fish and Shellfish.
Understanding Vegetables.
Cooking Vegetables.
Patatoes and Other Starches.
Salads and Salad Dressings.
Sandwiches and Hors d'Oeuvres.
Breakfast Preparation, Dairy Products, and Coffee and Tea.
Sausages and Cured Foods.
Pates, Terrines, and Other Cold Foods.
Food Presentation and Garnish.
Recipes from International Cuisines.
Bakeshop Production: Basic Principles and Ingredients.
Yeast Products.
Quick Breads.
Cakes and Icings.
Cookies.
Pies and Pastries.
Creams, Custards, Puddings, Frozen Desserts, and Sauces.
Appenidx 1: Metric Conversion Factors.
Appendix 2: Standard Can Sizes.
Appendix 3: Approximate Weight-Volume Equivalents of Dry Foods.
Appendix 4: Kitchen Math Exercise—Metric Versions.
Appendix 5: Eggs and Safety.
Bibliography.
U.S. - U.K. Cooking Vocabulary.
Subject Index.
Recipe Index.
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First Chapter

Understanding Soups


After reading this chapter, you should be able to

1. Describe the major categories of soups.
2. Serve soups properly.
3. Prepare clarified consommé.
4. Prepare vegetable soups and other clear soups.
5. Prepare cream soups.
6. Prepare purée soups.
7. Prepare bisques, chowders, specialty soups, and national soups.



Soup, according to the dictionary, is a liquid food derived from meat, poultry, fish, and vegetables. This definition is all right as far as it goes, but there's a lot it doesn't tell us. Is a stock, straight from the stock pot, a soup? Is beef stew liquid enough to be called soup? We're interested more in production techniques than in definitions. However, a few more definitions will be necessary before we can go into the kitchen, so that we can talk to each other in the same language. Definitions aren't rules, so don't be alarmed if you hear other books or chefs use these terms differently. What matters is that you learn the techniques and are able to adapt them to many uses.

Classifications of Soups
Soups can be divided into three basic categories: clear or unthickened soups, thick soups, and special soups that don't fit the first two categories. Most of these soups, no matter what their final ingredients may be, are based on stock. Thus, the quality of the soup depends on the stock-making skills discussed in Chapter 8. Chicken stock is the most frequently used soup stock in this country.

CLEAR SOUPS
These soups are all based on a clear, unthickened broth or stock. They may be served plain or garnished with a variety of vegetables and meats.

1. Broth and bouillon are two terms used in many different ways, but in general they both refer to simple, clear soups without solid ingredients. We have already defined broth Chapter 8 as a flavorful liquid obtained from the simmering of meats and/or vegetables.

Broth is usually a by-product of simmering meat or poultry. The recipes for Simmered Fresh Beef Brisket p. 257 and for "Boiled" Fowl p. 315 produce not only the cooked meat or poultry but also flavorful broths, which can be served as soups when properly seasoned and garnished.

To prepare a brown meat broth, follow the procedure in the recipe for Simmered Fresh Beef Brisket, but first brown the meat and mirepoix well before adding water. Flavorful cuts such as beef shank, chuck, or neck are good for making broths.

2. Vegetable soup is a clear, seasoned stock or broth with the addition of one or more vegetables and sometimes meat or poultry products and starches.

3. Consommé is a rich, flavorful stock or broth that has been clarified to make it perfectly clear and transparent. The process of clarification is a technique that we will study in detail.

Far from being just a plain old cup of broth, a well-made consommé is considered one of the greatest of all soups. Its sparkling clarity is a delight to the eye, and its rich, full flavor, strength, and body make it a perfect starter for an elegant dinner.

THICK SOUPS
Unlike clear soups, thick soups are opaque rather than transparent. They are thickened either by adding a thickening agent such as a roux, or by puréeing one or more of their ingredients to provide a heavier consistency.

1. Cream soups are soups that are thickened with roux, beurre manié, liaison, or other added thickening agents and have the addition of milk and/or cream. They are similar to Velouté and Béchamel sauces--in fact, they may be made by diluting and flavoring either of these two leading sauces.

Cream soups are usually named after their major ingredient, such as Cream of Chicken or Cream of Asparagus.

2. Purées are soups that are naturally thickened by puréeing one or more of their ingredients. They are not as smooth and creamy as cream soups.

Purées are normally based on starchy ingredients. They may be made from dried legumes such as Split Pea Soup or from fresh vegetables with a starchy ingredient such as potatoes or rice added. Purées may or may not contain milk or cream.

3. Bisques are thickened soups made from shellfish. They are usually prepared like cream soups and are almost always finished with cream.

The term bisque is sometimes used on menus for a variety of vegetable soups. In these cases it is really a marketing term rather than a technical term, so it is impossible to give a definition that would cover all uses.

4. Chowders are hearty American soups made from fish, shellfish, and/or vegetables. Although they are made in many different ways, they usually contain milk and potatoes. 5. Potage is a term sometimes associated with certain thick, hearty soups, but it is actually a general term for soup. A clear soup is called a potage clair in French.

SPECIALTY AND NATIONAL SOUPS
This is a catch-all category that includes soups that don't fit well into the main categories and soups that are native to particular countries or regions.

Specialty soups are distinguished by unusual ingredients or methods, such as Turtle Soup, Gumbo, Peanut Soup, and Cold Fruit Soup.

Cold soups are sometimes considered specialty soups, and in fact some of them are. But many other popular cold soups, such as jellied consommé, cold cream of cucumber soup, and Vichyssoise vee shee swahz are simply cold versions of basic clear and thick soups.

VEGETARIAN SOUPS AND LOW-FAT SOUPS
A great variety of vegetable-based soups are suitable for vegetarian menus. To plan vegetarian menus, review the categories of vegetarianism discussed on page 88. Vegetable soups for vegans must contain no meat or any other animal product and must be made with water or vegetable stock. To bind thick soups, use a starch slurry or a roux made with oil rather than butter. Lacto-vegetarians, on the other hand, will accept soups containing butter, milk, or cream.

Since the appeal of vegetarian vegetable soups depends entirely on the freshness and the quality of the vegetables and not on the richness of meat stocks, be especially careful to use high-quality ingredients and to avoid overcooking.

Clear soups are especially suitable for people seeking low-fat foods. Consommés and clear vegetable soups are virtually fat-free, especially if the vegetables have not been sweated in fat before being simmered.

Thick soups can be kept low in fat by thickening them with a slurry of starch such as arrowroot, potato starch, or cornstarch and cold water rather than with a roux. For cream soups, reduce or omit the cream and instead use evaporated skim milk. Purée soups are usually more adaptable than cream soups to low-fat diets, because the vegetable purée adds body and richness to the soup without requiring added fat. A little yogurt or evaporated skim milk can be used to give creaminess to a purée soup. Even garnishing a serving of soup with a teaspoonful of whipped cream gives a feeling of richness while adding only a gram or two of fat.

Service of Soups

STANDARD PORTION SIZES
Appetizer portion: 6 to 8 oz 200 to 250 mL. Main course portion: 10 to 12 oz 300 to 350 mL.

TEMPERATURE
Serve hot soups hot, in hot cups or bowls.

Serve cold soups cold, in chilled bowls, or even nested in a larger bowl of crushed ice.

HOLDING FOR SERVICE
Strangely enough, some chefs who take the greatest care not to overcook meats or vegetables will nevertheless keep a large kettle of soup on the steam table all day. You can imagine what a vegetable soup is like after 4 or 5 hours at these temperatures.

1. Small-batch cooking applies to soups as well as to other foods. Heat small batches frequently to replenish the steam table with fresh soup.

2. Consommés and some other clear soups can be kept hot for longer periods if the vegetable garnish is heated separately and added at service time.

GARNISH
Soup garnishes may be divided into three groups.

1. Garnishes in the soup.
Major ingredients, such as the vegetables in clear vegetable soup, are often considered as garnishes.

Consommés are generally named after their garnish, such as Consommé Brunoise, containing vegetables cut into brunoise shape 1/8-inch dice.

Vegetable cream soups are usually garnished with carefully cut pieces of the vegetable from which they are made.

This group of garnishes includes meats, poultry, seafood, pasta products, and grains such as barley or rice.

These garnishes are treated as part of the preparation or recipe itself, not as something added on.

An elegant way to serve soup with a solid garnish is to arrange the garnish attractively in the bottom of a heated soup plate. This plate is set before the diner, and then the soup is ladled from a tureen by the dining room staff.

2. Toppings.

Clear soups are generally served without toppings, to let the attractiveness of the clear broths and the carefully cut vegetables speak for themselves. Occasional exceptions are toppings of chopped parsley or chives.

Thick soups, especially those that are all one color, are often decorated with a topping. Toppings should be placed on just before service, so that they won't sink or lose their fresh appearance. Their flavors must be appropriate to the soup.

Do not overdo soup toppings. The food should be attractive in itself.

Topping suggestions for thick soups:

Fresh herbs parsley, chives, chopped
Sliced almonds, toasted
Grated cheese
Sieved egg yolks
Chopped or riced egg whites
Croutons
Grated parmesan cheese
Crumbled bacon
Paprika
Sour cream or whipped cream

3. Accompaniments.

American soups are traditionally served with crackers. In addition to the usual saltines, some other suggestions for crisp accompaniments are

Melba toast
Corn chips
Breadsticks
Cheese straws
Profiteroles tiny unsweetened cream puff shells
Whole-grain wafers

 

Clear Soups




Consommé

When we define consommé as a clarified stock or broth, we are forgetting the most important part of the definition. The name consommé means, literally, "completed" or "concentrated." In other words, a consommé is a strong, concentrated stock or broth. In classical cuisine, this was all that was necessary for a stock to be called a consommé. In fact, two kinds were recognized: ordinary or unclarified consommé and clarified consommé.

Rule number one for preparing consommé is that the stock or broth must be strong, rich, and full flavored. Clarification is second in importance to strength. A good consommé, with a mellow but full aroma and plenty of body from the natural gelatin that you can feel in your mouth, is one of the great pleasures of fine cuisine. But clarification is an expensive and time-consuming procedure, and, quite frankly, it's not worth the trouble if the soup is thin and watery.

HOW CLARIFICATION WORKS

Coagulation of proteins was an important subject in our discussion of stock making, because one of our major concerns was how to keep coagulated proteins from making the stock cloudy. Strangely enough, it is this same process of coagulation that enables us to clarify stocks to perfect transparency.

Remember that some proteins, especially those called albumins, will dissolve in cold water. When the water is heated, they gradually solidify or coagulate and rise to the surface. If we control this process very carefully, these proteins will collect all the tiny particles that cloud a stock and will carry them to the surface. The stock is then left perfectly clear.

If, on the other hand, we are not careful, these proteins will break up as they coagulate and will cloud the liquid even more, just as they can do when we make stock.

BASIC INGREDIENTS

The mixture of ingredients we use to clarify a stock is called the clearmeat or the clarification.

1. Lean ground meat is one of the major sources of protein that enables the clearmeat to do its job. It also contributes flavor to the consommé.

It must be lean, because fat is undesirable in a consommé. Beef shank, also called shin beef, is the most desirable meat because it is high in albumin proteins as well as in flavor and in gelatin, and it is very lean.

Beef and/or chicken meat are used to clarify chicken consommé. Meat is not used, obviously, to make fish consommé. Ground lean fish may be used, but it is normal to omit flesh altogether and use only egg whites.

2. Egg whites are included in the clearmeat because, being mostly albumin, they greatly strengthen its clarifying power.

3. Mirepoix and other seasoning and flavoring ingredients are usually included because they add flavor to the finished consommé. They do not actually help in the clarification, except possibly to give solidity to the raft. The raft is the coagulated clearmeat, floating in a solid mass on top of the consommé.

The mirepoix must be cut into fine pieces so that it will float with the raft. A large amount of a particular vegetable may be added if a special flavor is desired, as in, for example, Essence of Celery Consommé.

4. Acid ingredients--tomato products for beef or chicken consommé, lemon juice or white wine for fish consommé--are often added, because the acidity helps coagulate the protein. They are not absolutely necessary--the heat will coagulate the protein anyway--but many chefs like to use them. 

 

PROCEDURE FOR PREPARING CONSOMMÉ




1. Start with a well-flavored, cold, strong stock or broth.
If your stock is weak, reduce it until it is concentrated enough, then cool it before proceeding, or plan on simmering the consommé longer to reduce while clarifying.

2. Select a heavy stock pot or soup pot, preferably one with a spigot at the bottom. The spigot enables you to drain off the finished consommé without disturbing the raft.

3. Combine the clearmeat ingredients in the soup pot and mix them vigorously.

4. Optional step: mix in a small amount of cold water or stock--about 4 to 8 oz per pound 250 to 500 mL per kg of meat--and let stand 30 to 60 minutes. This allows more opportunity for the proteins that do the clarifying to dissolve out of the meat.
Note: Chefs disagree on the importance of this step. Some let the mixture stand overnight in the refrigerator. Others skip this step altogether. Check with your instructor.

5. Gradually add the cold, degreased stock and mix well with the clearmeat. The stock must be cold so that it doesn't cook the proteins on contact. Mixing distributes the dissolved proteins throughout the stock, so that they can collect all the impurities more easily.

6. Set the pot over a moderately low fire and let it come to a simmer very slowly.

7. Stir the contents occasionally so that the clearmeat circulates throughout the stock and doesn't burn to the bottom.

8. When the simmering point is approaching, stop stirring. The clearmeat will rise to the surface and form a raft.

9. Move to lower heat so that the liquid maintains a slow simmer. Do not cover. Boiling would break up the raft and cloud the consommé. The same principle operates in stock making.

10. Let simmer 11/2 hours, without disturbing the raft.

11. Strain the consommé through a china cap lined with several layers of cheesecloth. If you are not using a stock pot with a spigot, ladle the consommé out carefully, without breaking up the raft. Let the liquid drain through the cheesecloth by gravity. Do not force it, or fine particles will pass through and cloud the consommé.

12. Degrease.
Remove all traces of fat from the surface. Strips of clean brown paper passed across the surface are effective in absorbing every last speck of fat, without absorbing much consommé.

13. Adjust the seasonings.
Kosher salt is preferred to regular table salt because it has no impurities or additives that could cloud the stock.


EMERGENCY PROCEDURES


1. Clarifying hot stock.

If you do not have time to cool the stock properly before clarifying, at least cool it as much as you can. Even 10 minutes in a cold-water bath will help. Then, mix ice cubes or crushed ice with the clearmeat. This will help keep it from coagulating when the hot stock hits it. Proceed as in the basic method.

Finally, review your production planning so that you can avoid this emergency in the future.

2. Clarifying without meat.
In a pinch, you can clarify a stock with egg whites alone. Use at least three or four egg whites per gallon 4 liters of stock, plus some mirepoix if possible. Great care is necessary, because the raft will be very fragile and easily broken up.

Egg whites and mirepoix alone are often used for clarifying fish stocks.

3. Failed clarification.
If the clarification fails because you let it boil, or for some other reason, it can still be rescued, even if there is no time for another complete clarification.

Strain the consommé, cool it as much as you can, then slowly add it to a mixture of ice cubes and egg whites. Carefully return to a simmer as in the basic method, and proceed with the clarification.

This should be done in emergencies only. The ice cubes dilute the consommé, and the egg white clarification is risky.

4. Poor color.
Beef or veal consommé, made from brown stock, should have an amber color. It is not dark brown like canned consommé. Chicken consommé is a very pale amber.

It is possible to correct a pale consommé by adding a few drops of caramel color to the finished soup. But for best results, check the color of the stock before clarification. If it is too pale, cut an onion in half and place it cut side down on a flat-top range until it is black, or char it under a broiler. Add this to the clearmeat. The caramelized sugar of the onion will color the stock.

 

Consommé




Yield: 1 gal 4 L Portions: 16 Portion size: 8 oz 250 mL 20 6 oz 200 mL
U.S. METRIC INGREDIENTS PROCEDURE
1 lb 500 g Lean beef, preferably shin, ground 1. Review the information on preparing consommé, pages 155­156.
    Mirepoix, chopped into small pieces: 2. Combine the beef, mirepoix, egg whites, tomatoes, herbs, and spices in a tall, heavy stock pot. Mix the ingredients vigorously with a wooden paddle or a heavy whip.
8 oz 250 g Onion
4 oz 125 g Celery
4 oz 125 g Carrot
8 oz 250 g Egg whites  
8 oz 250 g Canned tomatoes, crushed  
6­8 6­8 Parsley stems, chopped  
pinch pinch Thyme  
1 1 Bay leaf  
2 2 Whole cloves  
1/2 tsp 2 mL Peppercorns, crushed  
5 qt 5 L Cold beef or veal stock brown or white 3. Add about a pint of cold stock and stir well. Let stand about 30 minutes. Optional step: see p. 155 for explanation.
      4. Gradually stir in the remaining stock. Be sure the stock is well mixed with the other ingredients.
      5. Set the pot on moderately low heat and let it come to a simmer very slowly. Stir occasionally.
      6. When the simmering point is approaching, stop stirring.
      7. Move the pot to lower heat and simmer very slowly for about 11/2 hours. Do not stir or disturb the raft that forms on top.
      8. Very carefully strain the consommé through a china cap lined with several layers of cheesecloth.
      9. Degrease thoroughly.
      10. Season to taste.
Per serving: Calories, 30; Protein, 3 g; Fat, 1 g 31% cal.; Cholesterol, 15 mg; Carbohydrates, 2 g; Fiber, 0 g; Sodium, 75 mg.


Double Consommé:
Use twice the quantity of beef in the basic recipe. Add 8 oz 250 g leeks to the mirepoix.

Chicken Consommé:
Use chicken stock instead of beef or veal stock. Add to the clearmeat 8 oz 250 g chicken trimmings such as wing tips and necks which have been chopped and browned in a hot oven. Omit tomato and add 1 oz 30 mL lemon juice.

Cold Jellied Consommé:
Unflavored gelatin must often be added to consommé to make jellied consommé. The amount needed depends on the strength of the stock and on the amount of jelling desired. Classically, a chilled consommé is only half jelled, more like a thick syrup. Some people, however, prefer a gelatin content high enough to solidify the consommé. In the following guidelines, use the lower quantity of gelatin for a semi-jelled soup, the higher quantity for a fully jelled soup. Also, for tomatoed consommé Madrilène, increase the gelatin slightly, because the acidity of the tomatoes weakens the gelatin.
1. If the stock is thin when cold, add 1­2 oz 30­60 g gelatin per gallon 4 L.
2. If the stock is slightly jelled and syrupy when cold, add 1/2­1 oz 15­30 g gelatin per gallon 4 L.
3. If the stock is jelled when cold, no gelatin is needed. Or add up to 1/2 oz 15 g per gallon 4 L if a firmer texture is desired.
Gelatin may be added to the clearmeat in step 2 of the recipe. This is the best method, because there is no danger of clouding the consommé. It may also be added to the finished consommé after softening it in cold water. See page 544 for instructions on the use of gelatin.

Consommé Madrilène:
Increase the tomatoes in the basic recipe to 24 oz 750 g. Use beef, veal, or chicken stock. Serve hot or jellied.

Essence of Celery Consommé:
Increase the celery in the basic recipe to 1 lb 500 g.

Consommé au Porto:
Flavor the finished Consommé with 6-8 oz 200-250 mL port wine per gallon 4 L.

Consommé au Sherry:
Flavor the finished Consommé with 6-8 oz 200-250 mL sherry wine per gallon 4 L.

 

Garnished Consommés




For the following consommés, prepare and cook the garnish separately. At service time, add one or two tablespoons of the garnish to each portion. See page 96 for description of cuts.

Consommé Brunoise:
Onion or leek, carrot, celery, and turnip optional, cut brunoise. Sweat lightly in butter and simmer in a little consommé until tender.

Consommé Julienne:
Onion or leek, carrot, and celery, cut julienne. Prepare like Brunoise garnish.

Consommé Printanière:
Small dice of spring vegetables: carrot, turnip, celery, green beans. Prepare like Brunoise garnish.

Consommé Paysanne:
Thin slices of leeks, carrots, celery, turnip, and cabbage. Prepare like Brunoise garnish.

Consommé with Pearl Tapioca:
Cooked pearl tapioca.

Consommé Vermicelli:
Cooked broken vermicelli very thin spaghetti.

 

 

Chicken and Celery Consommé




Yield: 1 gal 4 L Portions: 16 Portion size: 8 oz 250 mL
U.S. METRIC INGREDIENTS PROCEDURE
2 lb 12 oz 1.2 kg Chicken leg meat, minced 1. Palce the minced chicken, egg whites, celery, salt, pepper, and herbs in a sauce pot.
12 12 Egg whites 2. Stir in the stock and bring to simmering point over a moderate heat. Stir occasionally, paying particular attention to possible sticking or scorching of the ingredients on the base of the pot.
1 lb 6 oz 600 g Celery, cut as for mirepoix 3. Stop stirring as simmering point is approaching and simmer very gently without disturbing for 30 minutes.
1/2 oz 15 g Salt 4. Strain the consumme through a china cap lined with several layers of cheesecloth. Skim and degrease thoroughly. Transfer to a clean pot.
1/2 oz 15 g Black peppercorns, crushed 5. Poach the chicken breast in chicken stock for 10 minutes. Cool in the stock to retain juiciness and then cut into cubes.
3 3 Thyme sprigs 6. At service time reheat the soup and ladle into warm bowls. Sprinkle each portion with some cubed chicken and the julienne of celery.
2 2 Bay leaves  
20 20 Parsley stems  
51/2 qt 5.5 L Chicken stock  
10 oz 300 g Chicken breast  
as needed as needed Chicken stock  
6 oz 180 g Celery cut in julienne  
Per serving: Calories, 35; Protein, 4 g; Fat, 1 g 27% cal.; Cholesterol, 15 mg; Carbohydrates, 2 g; Fiber, 0 g; Sodium, 460 mg.


 

Vegetable Soups

Clear vegetable soups are made from a clear stock or broth, not necessarily clarified, with the addition of one or more vegetables and sometimes meat or poultry and/or pasta or grains. Most vegetable soups are made from meat or poultry stock or broth. Meatless or vegetarian soups are made from vegetable broth or water.

GUIDELINES FOR PREPARING VEGETABLE SOUPS




Procedures for making these soups are not complicated. Most of them are made simply by simmering vegetables in stock until done. But care and attention to details are still necessary for producing a quality soup.

1. Start with a clear, flavorful stock or broth.
This is one reason it's important to be able to make stocks that are clear, not cloudy.

2. Select vegetables and other ingredients whose flavors go well together.
Don't just throw in everything you've got. Judgment, combined with experience, must be used to create a pleasing combination. Five or six vegetables are usually enough. More than that just make a jumble.

3. Cut vegetables uniformly.
Neat, careful cutting means uniform cooking and attractive appearance. Sizes of cuts are important, too. Pieces should be large enough to be identifiable, but small enough to eat conveniently with a spoon.

4. Cooking vegetables slowly in a little butter before combining with liquid improves their flavor and gives the soup a mellower, richer taste.

5. Cook starches such as grains and pasta separately and add to the soup later.
Cooking them in the soup makes it cloudy. Potatoes are sometimes cooked directly in the soup, but they should be rinsed of excess starch after cutting, if you want to keep the soup as clear as possible.

6. Observe differences in cooking times.
Add long-cooking vegetables first, short-cooking vegetables near the end. Some vegetables, like tomatoes, need only be added to the hot soup after it is removed from the fire.

7. Don't overcook.
Some cooks feel that soups must be simmered a long time to extract flavors into the liquid. But you should already have done this when you made the stock! Vegetables in soup should be no more overcooked than vegetable side dishes, especially since the soup will probably spend a longer time in the steam table.

 

 

Clear Vegetable Soup




Yield: 6 qt 6 L Portions: 24 Portion size: 8 oz 250 mL
U.S. METRIC INGREDIENTS PROCEDURE
4 oz 125 g Butter or chicken fat 1. Heat the butter in a heavy sauce pot over medium low heat.
11/2 lb 750 g Onions, small dice 2. Add the onions, carrots, celery, and turnip. Sweat the vegetables in the butter over low heat until they are about half cooked. Do not let them brown.
1 lb 500 g Carrots, small dice 3. Add the stock. Bring to a boil and skim carefully. Simmer until vegetables are just barely tender.
1 lb 500 g Celery, small dice 4. Add the tomatoes and simmer another 5 minutes.
12 oz 375 g Turnip, small dice 5. Degrease the soup and season with salt and white pepper.
6 qt 6 L Chicken stock 6. Just before serving, add the peas.
1 lb 500 g Drained canned tomatoes, coarsely chopped  
to taste to taste Salt  
to taste to taste White pepper  
12 oz 375 g Frozen peas, thawed  
Per serving: Calories, 80; Protein, 3 g; Fat, 4.5 g 46% cal.; Cholesterol, 15 mg; Carbohydrates, 9 g; Fiber, 2 g; Sodium, 125 mg.


VARIATIONS

Other vegetables may be used in addition to or in place of one or more of the vegetables in the basic recipe.
Add with the vegetables sweated in butter:

Leeks
Green cabbage
Rutabagas
Parsnips

Add to the simmering soup, timing the addition so that all the vegetables are done at the same time:

Potatoes
Lima beans
Green beans
Corn

Other cuts may be used for the vegetables instead of small dice, such as batonnet, julienne, or paysanne see p. 96.




Vegetable Rice Soup:
Add 1 1/2 to 2 cups 350 to 500 mL cooked rice to the finished soup.

Chicken Vegetable Rice Soup:
Add 12 oz 375 g cooked, diced chicken to Vegetable Rice Soup.

Vegetable Beef Soup:
Use beef stock instead of chicken stock. Add 12 oz 375 g cooked, diced beef when tomatoes are added. Also, add the juice from the tomatoes.

Vegetable Beef Barley Soup:
Add 1 1/2 to 2 cups 350 to 500 mL cooked barley to vegetable Beef Soup.

 

 

Piquant Vegetable Soup with Chick Peas


Yield: 6 qt 6 L Portions: 24 Portion size: 8 oz 250 mL
U.S. METRIC INGREDIENTS PROCEDURE
2 oz 60 mL Vegetable oil 1. Heat the oil in a soup pot over moderate heat.
1 1/4 lb 625 g Red onion, small dice 2. Add the onion, garlic, bell pepper, and green chile. Sweat the vegetables in the oil over low heat until they are about half cooked. Do not let them brown.
1 tbsp 15 mL Garlic, chopped 3. Add the stock. Bring to a boil and skim carefully. Simmer until the vegetables are just barely tender.
1 lb 500 g Green bell pepper, small dice 4. Add the tomatoes, chick peas, and corn. Simmer another 5 minutes.
2­4 oz 60­125 g Jalapeño or other green chile, brunoise 5. Shortly before serving, add the cooked green beans. The beans should be cooked separately and added at the end, so that their color won't be destroyed by the acidity of the tomatoes.
5 qt 5 L Chicken stock or vegetable stock 6. Add salt and white pepper to taste.
1 1/4 lb 625 g Tomatoes, peeled, seeded, and chopped 7. To serve, ladle a portion into soup plates and sprinkle with grated cheese and a little chopped cilantro.
1 1/4 lb 625 g Cooked chick peas  
8 oz 250 g Corn kernels, frozen or fresh  
8 oz 250 g Green beans, cooked until just tender and cut into 1/2-inch 1 cm pieces  
to taste to taste Salt  
to taste to taste White pepper  
to taste to taste Hot red pepper sauce optional  
   
Garnish
 
12 oz 375 g Grated cheddar cheese  
1/3 cup 75 mL Chopped cilantro or whole cilantro leaves  
Per serving: Calories, 160; Protein, 8 g; Fat, 8 g 45% cal.; Cholesterol, 20 mg; Carbohydrates, 14 g; Fiber, 3 g; Sodium, 105 mg.


 

 

 

Mushroom Barley Soup


Yield: 6 qt 6 L Portions: 24 Portion size: 8 oz 250 mL
U.S. METRIC INGREDIENTS PROCEDURE
8 oz 250 g Barley 1. Cook the barley in boiling water until tender. Drain.
10 oz 300 g Onion, brunoise 2. In a heavy sauce pot or stock pot, sweat the vegetables in the fat until they are about half cooked. Do not let them brown.
5 oz 150 g Carrot, brunoise 3. Add the chicken stock. Bring to a boil. Reduce heat and simmer until the vegetables are just tender.
5 oz 150 g White turnip, brunoise 4. While the soup is simmering, sauté the mushrooms briefly in fat without letting them brown.
2 oz 60 g Butter or chicken fat 5. Add the mushrooms and the drained, cooked barely to the soup. Simmer another 5 minutes.
5 qt 5 L Chicken stock 6. Degrease the soup. Season to taste with salt and pepper.
2 lb 1 kg Mushrooms, diced  
4 oz 125 g Butter or chicken fat  
to taste to taste Salt  
to taste to taste White pepper  
Per serving: Calories, 60; Protein, 3 g; Fat, 1 g 15% cal.; Cholesterol, 20 mg; Carbohydrates, 10 g; Fiber, 3 g; Sodium, 75 mg.


 

 

Other Clear Soups

In addition to vegetable soups, there are many other clear or unthickened soups known to various cuisines. They range from simple broths to elaborate concoctions of meats, vegetables, starches, and other ingredients. Although many of them contain vegetables, we don't classify them as vegetable soups because other ingredients are generally more prominent.

 

Chicken Noodle Soup




Yield: 6 qt 6 L Portions: 24 Portion size: 8 oz 250 mL
U.S. METRIC INGREDIENTS PROCEDURE
10 oz 300 g Egg noodles 1. Cook the noodles in boiling, salted water. See procedure for cooking pasta, p. 492. Drain and rinse in cold water.
10 oz 300 g Cooked chicken meat 2. Cut the chicken into small dice.
6 qt 6 L Chicken stock 3. Bring the stock to a simmer. Season to taste with salt and white pepper. If stock doesn't have enough flavor, add more stock and reduce to concentrate the flavor.
to taste to taste Salt 4. Just before service, add the chicken and noodles to the stock. Let them heat through before serving.
to taste to taste White pepper 5. Garnish each portion with a little chopped parsley. Note: See poultry chapter p. 315 for preparing "boiled" chicken and broth for use in soups. Other leftover cooked chicken may also be used.
    Chopped parsley  
Per serving: Calories, 70; Protein, 6 g; Fat, 1.5 g 21% cal.; Cholesterol, 25 mg; Carbohydrates, 7 g; Fiber, 0 g; Sodium, 20 mg.


 

Beef Noodle Soup:
Prepare as in basic recipe, using beef and beef stock.

Chicken or Beef Noodle Soup with Vegetables:
Before adding the chicken and noodles, simmer 10 oz 300 g diced carrots and 5 oz 150 g diced celery in the stock until tender.

 

 

Brunswick Soup




Yield: 6 qt 6 L Portions: 24 Portion size: 8 oz 250 mL
U.S. METRIC INGREDIENTS PROCEDURE
10 oz 300 g Onions, small dice 1. In a heavy pot, sweat the onions in the butter until about half cooked. Do not brown.
1 oz 30 g Butter or oil 2. Add the chicken stock and bring to a boil. Simmer about 10 minutes.
5 qt 5 L Chicken stock 3. Add the remaining vegetables and the chicken. Simmer until the vegetables are tender, about 10­15 minutes.
11/4 lb 600 g Tomato concassé 4. While the soup is simmering, sauté the mushrooms briefly in fat without letting them brown.
11/4 lb 600 g Lima beans, frozen  
11/4 lb 600 g Okra, fresh or frozen, cut in 1/4-in. 1/2 cm pieces  
1 lb 475 g Corn, frozen  
11/4 lb 600 g Cooked chicken meat and giblets, small dice  
Per serving: Calories, 120; Protein, 10 g; Fat, 3 g 23% cal.; Cholesterol, 40 mg; Carbohydrates, 13 g; Fiber, 3 g; Sodium, 45 mg.


 

 

Chicken Tomato Bouillon with Pesto




Yield: 6 qt 6 L Portions: 24 Portion size: 8 oz 250 mL
U.S. METRIC INGREDIENTS PROCEDURE
6 qt 6 L Chicken stock 1. Place the stock, juice, celery, onion, basil, and thyme in a sauce pot. Bring to a boil.
2 qt 2 L Tomato juice 2. Simmer about 45 minutes, until vegetables are soft and flavors are well blended.
8 oz 250 g Celery, chopped 3. Strain and season with salt, pepper, and a pinch of sugar.
8 oz 250 g Onion, chopped 4. Garnish each portion with a tablespoon of pesto lightly swirled into the soup.
11/2 tsp 7 mL Basil  
11/2 tsp 2 mL Thyme  
to taste to taste Salt  
to taste to taste Pepper  
pinch pinch Sugar  
12 oz 375 mL Pesto p. 497 thinned with olive oil  
Per serving: Calories, 210; Protein, 3 g; Fat, 21 g 87% cal.; Cholesterol, 10 mg; Carbohydrates, 4 g; Fiber, 1 g; Sodium, 410 mg.


 

Chicken Tomato Bouillon with Rice:
Add 2 cups 500 mL cooked rice at service time.

Cold Chicken Tomato Bouillon:
Chill the soup and add a few drops of lemon juice to taste. Serve each portion with a spoonful of sour cream.

 

Oxtail Soup




Yield: 6 qt 6 L Portions: 24 Portion size: 8 oz 250 mL
U.S. METRIC INGREDIENTS PROCEDURE
6 lb 2.7 kg Oxtails 1. Using a heavy chef's knife, cut the oxtails into sections at the joints.
    Mirepoix: 2. Place the oxtails in a bake pan and brown in a 450°F 230°C oven. When they are partially browned, add the mirepoix to the pan and brown it along with the oxtails.
10 oz 300 g Onion, medium dice 3. Place the oxtails and mirepoix in a stock pot with the stock.
5 oz 150 g Carrot, medium dice 4. Pour off the fat from the pan in which the meat was browned. Deglaze the pan with a little of the stock and add this to the stock pot.
5 oz 150 g Celery, medium dice 5. Bring to boil. Reduce heat to a simmer and skin well. Add the sachet.
6 qt 6 L Brown stock see note 6. Simmer until the meat is tender, about 3 hours. Add a little water if necessary during cooking to keep the meat completely covered.
    Sachet: 7. Remove the pieces of oxtail from the broth. trim the meat off the bones and dice it. Place it in a small pan with a little of the broth. Keep warm if the soup is to be finished immediately, or chill for later use.
1 1 Bay leaf 8. Strain the broth. Degrease carefully.
pinch pinch Thyme 9. Sweat the carrots, turnips, and leeks in the butter until half cooked.
6 6 Peppercorns 10. Add the broth. Simmer until vegetables are tender.
2 2 Whole cloves 11. Add the tomatoes and the reserved oxtail meat. Simmer another minute.
1 clove 1 clove Garlic 12. Add the sherry, if desired. Season to taste with salt and pepper.
11/4 lb 600 g Carrots, small dice  
11/4 lb 600 g White turnip, small dice  
10 oz 300 g Leeks, white part only, cut julienne  
4 oz 125 g Butter  
10 oz 300 g Tomatoes canned, drained, coarsely chopped  
2 oz 60 mL Sherry optional  
to taste to taste Salt  
to taste to taste Pepper  
Note: Water is sometimes used instead of stock. If this is done, brown 4-5 lb about 2 kg of beef or veal bones with the oxtails and simmer in the soup with them. Double the quantity of mirepoix.
Per serving: Calories, 240; Protein, 24 g; Fat, 11 g 45% cal.; Cholesterol, 90 mg; Carbohydrates, 6 g; Fiber, 2 g; Sodium, 220 mg.


Variation
Oxtail soup is often clarified. Chill the broth after step 7 and clarify like consumme. See pages 155-156 for procedure.

 

 

Oriental Style Shrimp Soup with "Egg Flowers"


Yield: 3 qt 3 L Portions: 12 Portion size: 8 oz 250 mL
U.S. METRIC INGREDIENTS PROCEDURE
3 lb 4 oz 1.5 kg Small shrimp 1. Using a pestle and mortar, crush the whole shrimps and crab shells.
3 lb 4 oz 1.5 kg Crab shells see note 2. Heat the sesame oil in a brazier over medium heat. Add the shrimps, crab shells, onion, celery, garlic, and red pepper. Fry until golden, stirring.
1 lb 450 g Onion, peeled and chopped 3. Add the peppercorns, sea salt, ginger, and lemon grass to the pot and mix well. Pour in the chicken stock, stir, and bring to a boil. Cook at a low simmer, uncovered, for 1 hour. Cool and refrigerate overnight if you want to develop a stronger flavor.
10 oz 300 g Celery stalks, medium dice 4. Strain the stock into a clean sauce pot. Heat the stock until warm, not hot.
1 1 Garlic head, cut in half
horizontally
5. In a food processor or blender, blend together the red pepper, chicken meat, lemon grass, dill stems, kaffir lime leaf, star anise, tomato paste, and saffron threads. Add the egg white and mix in well.
7 oz 190 g Red bell pepper, seeded, medium dice 6. Add this mixture to the warm stock. Whisk continuously over medium heat. When just about to boil, a frothy crust will form. Stop whisking.
2 oz 60 mL Oriental sesame oil 7. Make a small hole in the center of the crust with a spoon, taste the soup beneath, and season through the hole. Cook at low simmer for 20 minutes and then strain through a china cap lined with cheesecloth.
1 oz 30 g Black peppercorns, coarsely crushed 8. At service time reheat the soup. Whisk the egg whites to break them up, but do not whip to a froth. Pour into the soup in a thin steady stream, stirring slowly with a fork to create a fine thread effect.
1 oz 30 g Sea salt 9. Serve the soup in warm bowls and garnish with the shrimp, chives, dill sprigs, and Japanese pickled ginger.
21/2 oz 75 g Fresh ginger, peeled, fine dice  
6 6 Lemon grass stalks, roughly chopped  
41/2 qt 4.5 L Chicken stock  
7 oz 190 g Red bell pepper, small dice  
10 oz 300 g Lean chicken meat, minced  
1 1 Lemon grass stalk, chopped  
2 oz 30 g Dill stems  
1 1 Kaffir lime leaf optional, see note  
2 pieces 2 pieces Star anise  
1 tbsp 15 mL Tomato paste  
2 tsp 2 g Saffron threads  
3 3 Egg whites  
    Garnish:  
3 3 Egg whites  
4 oz 125 g Small shrimp, peeled and cooked  
8 tsp 18 g Chives, chopped  
8 tsp 18 g Dill sprigs  
4 tsp 18 g Japanese pickled ginger  
Note: If crab shells are not available, substitute half their weight of whole small shrimp or shrimp shells. Kaffir lime leaves are available in markets that sell oriental and Indian spices.
Per serving: Calories, 120; Protein, 13 g; Fat, 7 g 50% cal.; Cholesterol, 120 mg; Carbohydrates, 3 g; Fiber, 0 g; Sodium, 1250 mg.


 

Thick Soups




Cream Soups
Learning to cook professionally, as you have already heard, is not learning recipes but learning basic techniques that you can apply to specific needs.

The basic techniques of sauce making were discussed in Chapter 8. If we tell you that cream soups are simply diluted Velouté or Béchamel sauces, flavored with the ingredient for which they are named, you should almost be able to make a cream of celery soup without any further instructions.

It's not quite that simple. There are some complications, but they are mostly a matter of detail. You already know the basic techniques.

THE CLASSIC CREAM SOUPS
In the great kitchens of several decades ago, cream soups were exactly as we have just described: diluted, flavored sauces. In fact, what we now call cream soups were divided into two groupes, veloutes and creams.

 

Cream of Celery Soup Cream Soup Method 1




Yield: 6 qt 6 L Portions: 24 Portion size: 8 oz 250 mL
U.S. METRIC INGREDIENTS PROCEDURE
3 lb 1.5 kg Celery, small dice 1. Review cream soup guidelines and Method 1.
12 oz 375 g Onion, small dice 2. Sweat the celery and onions in the butter in a heavy sauce pot until they are almost tender. Do not let them brown.
3 oz 90 g Butter 3. Add the velouté to the pot. Simmer until the vegetables are very tender.
4 1/2 qt 4 1/2 L Velouté Sauce, made with chicken or veal stock see note 4. Skim any fat or scum from the soup.
3 pt 1 1/2 L Hot milk or white stock 5. Pass the soup through a food mill to purée it.
approximately     6. Pass the puréed soup through a fine china cap or through cheesecloth.
to taste to taste Salt 7. Add enough hot milk or stock to bring the soup to the proper consistency.
to taste to taste White pepper 8. Heat the soup again, but do not let it boil.
3 cups 750 mL Heavy cream, hot 9. Season to taste.
    Optional garnish: 10. At service time, add the cream. Add the garnish if desired.
6 oz 175 g Celery, julienne, cooked  
Note: Béchamel may be used in place of Velouté if desired. This is often done for vegetarian menus.
Per serving: Calories, 320; Protein, 5 g; Fat, 27 g 75% cal.; Cholesterol, 90 mg; Carbohydrates, 15 g; Fiber, 1 g; Sodium, 240 mg.


VARIATIONS, METHOD 1
For the following cream soups, make the substitutions in the basic recipe as indicated. Frozen and canned vegetables may be used where appropriate, in place of fresh. Also, trimmings may be used if they are clean and of good quality, such as the bottom ends of asparagus or broccoli stalks.

Cream of Asparagus:
Use 3 lb 1.5 kg asparagus stalks in place of celery. Optional garnish: cooked asparagus tips.

Cream of Broccoli:
Use 3 lb 1.5 kg broccoli in place of celery. Optional garnish: small cooked broccoli florets.

Cream of Carrot: Use 3 lb 1.5 kg carrots in place of celery. Garnish: chopped parsley.

Cream of Cauliflower:
Use 3 lb 1.5 kg cauliflower in place of celery. Optional garnish: tiny, cooked cauliflower florets.

Cream of Corn:
Use 3 lb 1.5 kg whole kernel corn fresh, frozen, or canned in place of celery. Do not sweat the corn with the onions. Instead, sweat the onions alone, add the velouté, then add the corn. Garnish: corn kernels.

Cream of Cucumber:
Use 3 lb 1.5 kg peeled, seeded cucumber in place of celery. Optional garnish: small diced, cooked cucumber.

Cream of Mushroom:
Use 1 1/2 lb 750 g mushrooms in place of celery. Optional garnish: julienne, brunoise, or sliced cooked mushrooms.

Cream of Pea:
Use 3 lb 1.5 kg frozen peas in place of celery. Do not sweat the peas with the onions, but add them after the veloute has been added.

Cream of Spinach:
Use 3 lb 1.5 kg fresh spinach or 2 lb 900 g frozen spinach in place of celery. Do not sweat the spinach with the onions. Blanch it, drain it well, and add it to the veloute in step 3.

Cream of Watercress:
Use 1 1/2 lb. 750 g watercress in place of celery.

Cream of Chicken:
Reduce celery to 6 oz 175 g and add 6 oz 175 g carrot note that, together with the onion, this makes 1 1/2 lb 750 g mirepoix. Use a Veloute Sauce made with a strong, flavorful chicken stock. After the soup is strained, add 6 oz 175 g cooked chicken meat, cut into julienne or fine dice.

Cold Cream Soups:
Most cream soups are delicious cold as well as hot. For example, Cold Cream of Cucumber Soup is a special favorite in summer.
Procedure:
1. Chill soup after step 9 in recipe.
2. Add cold cream after soup is well chilled.
3. Dilute with extra milk, cream, or stock if soup becomes too thick.
4. Season carefully. Cold foods require more seasoning.

 

 

 

Cream of Mushroom Soup Cream Soup Method 2




Yield: 6 qt 6 L Portions: 24 Portion size: 8 oz 250 mL
U.S. METRIC INGREDIENTS PROCEDURE
12 oz 375 g Butter 1. Review cream soup guidelines and Method 2.
12 oz 375 g Onion, chopped fine 2. Heat the butter in a heavy sauce pot over moderate heat.
1 1/2lb 750 g Mushrooms, chopped 3. Add the onions and mushrooms. Sweat the vegetables without letting them brown.
9 oz 275 g Flour 4. Add the flour and stir to make a roux. Cook the roux for a few minutes, but do not let it start to brown.
4 1/2 qt 4 1/2 L White stock, chicken or veal, hot 5. Gradually beat in the stock. Bring to a boil, stirring with a whip as it thickens.
3 pt 1 1/2 L Hot milk 6. Simmer until vegetables are very tender.

approximately

  &n\ bsp; 7. Skim the soup carefully.
to taste to taste Salt 8. Pass the soup through a food mill to purée it.
to taste to taste White pepper 9. Pass the puréed soup through a fine china cap or through cheesecloth.
3 cups 750 mL Heavy cream, hot 10. Add enough hot milk to the soup to bring it to the proper consistency.
    Optional garnish: 11. Heat the soup again, but do not let it boil.
6 oz 175 g Mushrooms, brunoise, sautéed in butter 12. Season to taste.
      13. At service time, add the cream. Add the garnish, if desired.
Per serving: Calories, 300; Protein, 5 g; Fat, 25 g 75% cal.; Cholesterol, 85 mg; Carbohydrates, 14 g; Fiber, 1 g; Sodium, 170 mg.


VARIATIONS, METHOD 2
For each variation, replace the mushrooms with the vegetable and quantity indicated. See the note to the variations for Cream of Celery Soup, page 167.

Cream of Asparagus:

3 lb 1.5 kg asparagus.

Cream of Broccoli:

3 lb 1.5 kg broccoli.

Cream of Carrot:

3 lb 1.5 kg carrots.

Cream of Cauliflower:

3 lb 1.5 kg Cauliflower.

Cream of Celery:

3 lb 1.5 kg Celery.

Cream of Corn:

3 lb 1.5 kg whole kernel Corn.

Cream of Cucumber:

3 lb 1.5 kg peeled, seeded cucumber.

Cream of Green Pea:

3 lb 1.5 kg frozen peas. Add after step 5.

Cream of Spinach:

3 lb 1.5 kg fresh or 2 lb 900 g frozen spinach. Blanch, drain, and add after step 5.

Cream of Watercress:

3 lb 1.5 kg watercress.

Cream of Chicken:

6 oz 175 g celery and 6 oz 175 g carrot. Use strong chicken stock. Add 6 oz 175 g cooked chicken meat, cut into julienne or fine dice, to finish soup after straining.

 

 

Cream of Broccoli Soup Cream Soup Method 3




Yield: 6 qt 6 L Portions: 24 Portion size: 8 oz 250 mL
U.S. METRIC INGREDIENTS PROCEDURE
4 1/2 qt 4 1/2 L White stock, chicken or veal 1. Bring the stock to a boil in a heavy sauce pot.
3 lb 1.5 kg Broccoli fresh or frozen, chopped 2. Add the broccoli and onion. Optional: Vegetables may be sweated in butter first, to develop flavors.
12 oz 375 g Onion, chopped fine 3. Simmer until the vegetables are tender. Do not overcook or the broccoli will lose its fresh, green color.
9 oz 275 g Butter, clarified 4. Combine the butter and flour in a saucepan to make a roux. Cook the roux a few minutes, but do not let it color. Cool the roux slightly. Note: Beurre manié may be used instead of roux.
9 oz 275 g Flour 5. Beat the roux into the soup. Simmer until no starch taste remains.
3 pt 1 1/2 L Hot milk 6. Pass the soup through a food mill and then through a fine china cap or cheesecloth.

approximately

    7. Add enough hot milk to bring the soup to proper consistency.
to taste to taste Salt 8. Heat the soup again, but do not let it boil.
to taste to taste White pepper 9. Season to taste.
3 cups 750 mL Heavy cream, hot  
    Optional garnish:  
6 oz 175 g Small broccoli florets, cooked  
Per serving: Calories, 280; Protein, 6 g; Fat, 22 g 69% cal.; Cholesterol, 75 mg; Carbohydrates, 16 g; Fiber, 2 g; Sodium, 150 mg.


Variations, Method 3
For other cream soups, replace the broccoli with 3 lb 1.5 kg of any of the following:
Asparagus
Carrots
Cauliflower
Celery
Corn
Green peas
Spinach

 

 

Cream of Tomato Soup


Yield: 6 qt 6 L Portions: 24 Portion size: 8 oz 250 mL
U.S. METRIC INGREDIENTS PROCEDURE
4 oz 125 g Salt pork, diced 1. In a heavy sauce pot, cook the salt pork over medium heat to render the fat.
4 oz 125 g Onion, medium dice 2. Add the onion, carrot, and celery. Sweat until they are slightly softened.
2 oz 60 g Carrots, medium dice 3. Add the flour and stir to make a roux. Cook the roux a few minutes.
2 oz 60 g Celery, medium dice 4. Slowly beat in the stock. Bring to a boil, stirring while the liquid thickens slightly.
2 oz 60 g Flour 5. Add the tomatoes, tomato purée, and sachet. Simmer about 1 hour.
3 qt 3 L White stock 6. Strain through a china cap. Press down on the solids with a ladle to force out all the juices and some of the pulp. Alternative method: pass through a food mill, then strain.
2 lb 1 kg Canned tomatoes 7. If the soup is being made ahead, chill the tomato base and proceed to the next step just before service.
2 lb 1 kg Tomato purée 8. Return the tomato base to the sauce pot and bring back to a simmer.
    Sachet: 9. Stir in the hot cream sauce.
1 1 Bay leaf 10. If the soup is too thick, thin out with a little stock.
pinch pinch Thyme 11. Season to taste with salt and pepper.
1 1 Whole clove  
2 2 Peppercorns, crushed  
2 qt 2 L Cream Sauce, hot  
to taste to taste Salt  
to taste to taste White pepper  
Per serving: Calories, 210; Protein, 5 g; Fat, 15 g 64% cal.; Cholesterol, 45 mg; Carbohydrates, 14 g; Fiber, 1 g; Sodium, 230 mg.


VARIATIONS
If you study this recipe, you will see that the first part through step 6 is essentially a tomato sauce. The recipe can be broken down as follows:
1 part Tomato sauce
1 part Stock
1 part Cream Sauce
Using this formula, you can also make Cream of Tomato Soup from Tomato Sauce I or from canned tomato sauce. You can also make it from canned tomato puree, if you simmer it with extra herbs, seasoning, and mirepoix. Check all seasoning and flavors carefully when using canned, prepared products.

 

Puree Soups

Techniques

Puree soups are made by simmering dried or fresh vegetables, especially high-starch vegetables, in stock or water, then pureeing the soup. Thus, they are relatively easy to prepare. Pureed soups are not as smooth and refined as cream soups but are heartier and coarser in texture and character.

Techniques vary greatly, depending on the ingredients and the desired result.

BASIC PROCEDURE FOR MAKING PUREE SOUPS




1. Sweat mirepoix or other fresh vegetables in fat.
2. Add liquid.
3. Add dried or starchy vegetables.
4.Simmer until vegetables are tender. Fresh vegetables should be completely cooked but not overcooked or falling apart.
5. Puree soup in a food mill or with an immersion blender.

Variation: Some soups made from dried legunes, such as bean soup, are not pureed but are served as is or slightly mashed up.

6. Puree soups are generally not bound with an added starch but rely on the starches present in the vegetables. Some fresh vegetable purees, however, settle out. These may be thickened with a little starch if desired.
7. Add cream if required.
8. Adjust seasoning.

 

 

Purée of Carrot Soup Potage Crecy




Yield: 6 qt 6 L Portions: 24 Portion size: 8 oz 250 mL
U.S. METRIC INGREDIENTS PROCEDURE
4 oz 125 g Butter 1. Heat the butter in a heavy sauce pot over moderately low heat.
4 lb 2 kg Carrots, small dice 2. Add the carrots and onions. Sweat the vegetables until they are about half cooked. Do not let them brown.
1 lb 500 g Onions, small dice 3. Add the stock and potatoes. Bring to a boil.
5 qt 5 L Chicken stock or white veal stock 4. Simmer until the vegetables are tender.
1 lb 500 g Potatoes, small dice 5. Purée the soup by passing it through a food mill or by using an immersion blender.
to taste to taste Salt 6. Bring the soup back to a simmer. If necessary, add more stock to thin out the soup to the proper consistency.
to taste to taste White pepper 7. Season to taste.
    Optional: 8. If desired, finish soup with hot cream at service time.
1 1/2­2 cups 350­500 mL Cream, hot  
Per serving: Calories, 90; Protein, 2 g; Fat, 4.5 g 40% cal.; Cholesterol, 15 mg; Carbohydrates, 13 g; Fiber, 3 g; Sodium, 95 mg.


VARIATIONS
Rice
may be used in place of potatoes as the binding agent in the above recipe or in any of the variations below except Purée of Potato, Purée of Potato and Leek, and Purée of Watercress. Use 8 oz 250 g raw rice in place of 1 lb 500 g potatoes. The soup must be simmered until the rice is very soft.

Puree of Cauliflower Soup Puree Duabarry:
Use 4 lb 2 kg cauliflower in place of carrots.

Puree of Celery or Celery Root Soup:
Use 4 lb 2 kg celery or celery root in place of carrots.

Puree of Jerusalem Artichoke Soup:
Use 4 lb 2 kg Jerusalem artichokes in place of carrots.

Puree of Potato Soup: Pontage Parmentier:
Omit carrots from basic recipe, add 10 oz 300 g leeks to the onion, and increase the potatoes to 5 lb 2.5 kg.

Puree of Potato and Leek Soup:
Use 2 lb 1 kg leeks in place of the carrots. Increase the potatoes to 2 1/2 lb 1.25 kg.

Puree of Turnip Soup:
Use 4 lb 2 kg white turnips in place of carrots.

Puree of Watercress Soup:
Prepare like Puree of Potato Soup, but add 5 bunches watercress, chopped, when the potatoes are almost tender.

Potage Solferino:
Combine equal parts Puree of Potato and leek Soup, and Cream of Tomato Soup.

 

 

Purée of Green Pea Soup with Mint Cream


Yield: 6 qt 6 L Portions: 24 Portion size: 8 oz 250 mL
U.S. METRIC INGREDIENTS PROCEDURE
2 oz 60 g Butter 1. Heat the butter in a heavy sauce pot over moderately low heat.
6 oz 175 g Onions, small dice 2. Add the onions and sweat them without letting them brown.
4 qt 4 L Chicken stock 3. Add the stock and bring to a boil.
6 lb 3 kg Fresh or frozen peas 4. Add the peas. Simmer until the peas are soft, about 5 minutes.
to taste to taste Salt 5. Pass the soup through a food mill or purée with an immersion blender.
to taste to taste White pepper 6. Return the stock to a simmer. Add additional stock if necessary to bring to a proper consistency.
8 oz 250 mL Heavy cream 7. Adjust the seasoning.
    Garnish: 8. At service time, heat the heavy cream and stir into the soup.
12 oz 375 mL Heavy cream 9. Whip the cream until it forms soft peaks. Fold in the shredded mint leaves.
1/4 cup 60 mL Mint leaves, finely shredded 10. Immediately before serving, place a tablespoonful of the mint cream on top of each portion. Within a few minutes the whipped cream will melt into a mintflecked foam.
Per serving: Calories, 200; Protein, 7 g; Fat, 11 g 50% cal.; Cholesterol, 40 mg; Carbohydrates, 18 g; Fiber, 6 g; Sodium, 40 mg.


   

 

Potage Cressonière Watercress Soup


Yield: 4 qt 4 L Portions: 16 Portion size: 8 oz 250 mL
U.S. METRIC INGREDIENTS PROCEDURE
3 bunches 3 bunches Watercress 1. Wash the watercress and separate the leaves from the stems. Set some of the nicer leaves aside for the garnish. Coarsely chop up the stems and set aside. Quickly blanch the leaves in boiling salted water and refresh. Once completely cooled, drain. Squeeze out any excess water and finely chop.
1 lb 500 g Leeks, white part only 2. Thinly slice the leeks and sweat in butter with the watercress stems. Gently cook until tender and all the liquid has evaporated.
3 1/2 oz 100 g Butter 3. Add the chicken stock or water and the potatoes, cut into large pieces. Bring to a boil.
3 qt 3 L Chicken stock or water 4. Reduce the heat to a simmer and cook for 30 minutes or until the potatoes are tender. Add the cream, then add the blanched watercress. Blend in a blender until smooth, then strain. Season to taste.
2 lb 8 oz 1.2 kg Potatoes, peeled and cut into large pieces  
7 oz 200 g Crème fraîche 5. Serve in a shallow soup bowl and garnish with somem
to taste to taste Salt 6. This soup can also be served cold.
to taste to taste White pepper  
Per serving: Calories, 170; Protein, 4 g; Fat, 10 g 51% cal.; Cholesterol, 30 mg; Carbohydrates, 18 g; Fiber, 2 g; Sodium, 90 mg.


 

Butternut Squash Soup with Caramelized Apples




Yield: 6 qt 6 L Portions: 24 Portion size: 8 oz 250 mL
U.S. METRIC INGREDIENTS PROCEDURE
8 oz 250 g French bread 1. Cut into slices 1/2 inch 1cm thick.
2 oz 60 g Butter 2. Fry the bread in the butter until golden brown. If desired, prepare additional croutons for garnish at the same time; see step 8.
2 oz 60 g Butter 3. Heat the butter in a heavy sauce pot over moderately low heat.
8 oz 250 g Onions, small dice 4. Add the onions, leeks, and carrots. Sweat them until they are about half cooked. Do not let them brown.
8 oz 250 g Leeks, small dice 5. Add the squash, the stock, and the browned bread from step 2. Simmer until the vegetables are tender.
12 oz 375 g Carrots, small dice 6. Puree the soup with a food mill or an immersion blender.
4 lb 2 kg Butternut squash EP, medium dice 7. Bring the soup back to a simmer. Taste and adjust the seasonings.
5 qt 5 L Chicken stock 8. Prepare croutons by browning slices of French bread in butter as in steps 1 and 2. For best appearance, use slender loaf so that croutons aren't too big.
1 1/2 tsp 7 mL Salt 9. Peel and core apples. Cut into small dice.
1/2 tsp 2 mL White pepper 10. Heat the butter in a saute pan and add the apples and sugar. Cook over moderate heat until the apples are brown and caramelized.
1/2 tsp 2 mL Ground allspice 11. At service, heat the heavy cream if used and add to soup.
1/2 tsp 2 mL Ground ginger 12. For each portion, ladle the soup into a broad soup plate. Decorate the top of the soup with a swirl of cream, if desired. Heap a generous tablespoon of apple onto a crouton and carefully place in the soup.
24 24 Croutons see procedure  
1 1/2 lb 750 g Tart, firm cooking apples  
1 oz 30 g Butter  
2 oz 60 g Brown sugar  
12 oz 375 mL Heavy cream optional  
as needed as needed Additional heavy cream or crème fraîche for garnish, if desired  
Per serving: Calories, 150; Protein, 3 g; Fat, 6 g 34% cal.; Cholesterol, 20 mg; Carbohydrates, 23 g; Fiber, 4 g; Sodium, 280 mg.
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Foreword

If you're serious about cooking, you'll want to join the hundreds of thousands of chefs who have used Wayne Gisslen's Professional Cooking to learn the basics of their craft. With more information and step-by-step photographs than ever before, the Fifth Edition of this bestselling culinary classic gives you a complete foundation in cooking techniques and the theories behind them.

You'll find detailed information on tools and equipment, mise en place preparation, basic cooking principles and techniques, and food presentation and garnishing. Progressing logically from simple cooking methods to more advanced techniques, the book helps you to understand the underlying principles first and then focus on applying them. It lets you work at your own pace through every part of the menu, from stocks, sauces, and soups to meats, poultry, fish, and shellfish; vegetables and grains; and breads and desserts.

Procedures are explained clearly, step by step, with more than 1,100 recipes—almost 100 of them new to this edition—to help you develop your skills and build confidence. Along the way, hundreds of color photographs of techniques and finished dishes are a valuable source of guidance and inspiration.

A special feature of the book is the participation of Le Cordon Bleu—one of the world's most prestigious cooking schools—whose master chefs have contributed more than 100 recipes. There are also new chapters on sausages and cured food as well as pâtés, terrines, and other cold foods, plus added sections on game (birds and animals).

Throughout, the book's up-to-date, color-coded format makes it easy to find key information at a glance so that you can spend less time reading and more time creating in the kitchen. So if you're looking to take your cooking skills to a higher level, start the way the professionals do—with Wayne Gisslen's Professional Cooking.\

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