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Sugarcane: Physiology, Biochemistry & Functional Biology [NOOK Book]


Sugarcane: Physiology, Biochemistry, and Functional Biology is a single volume resource on fundamental and applied sugarcane biology. The book will help researchers and production and trade workers understand recent advances in knowledge of this crop’s unique physiology and genomic structure.

Sugarcane: Physiology, Biochemistry, and Functional Biology covers all aspects of sugarcane from anatomy and morphology through crop growth and development to processing for industrial and ...

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Sugarcane: Physiology, Biochemistry & Functional Biology

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Sugarcane: Physiology, Biochemistry, and Functional Biology is a single volume resource on fundamental and applied sugarcane biology. The book will help researchers and production and trade workers understand recent advances in knowledge of this crop’s unique physiology and genomic structure.

Sugarcane: Physiology, Biochemistry, and Functional Biology covers all aspects of sugarcane from anatomy and morphology through crop growth and development to processing for industrial and trade advances. Chapters examine the evolving body of foundational scientific knowledge on source/sink interactions, production and partitioning of photosynthates, respiration, water relations, mineral nutrition, and the systems level interactions of these physiological processes in the plant and crop. Topics discussed include factors that limit crop productivity with suggestions for how to reduce these limits through breeding or biotechnological approaches. Emphasis has been given to sugarcane’s growing importance as a food and bioenergy source, including its potential as a lignocellulosic feedstock.

Composed of contributions from leading experts worldwide, Sugarcane: Physiology, Biochemistry and Functional Biology is far-reaching in its coverage and global in its appeal. It is a must-have reference for all those involved in sugarcane research, production, and trade.

  • Comprehensive single-volume reference on key agronomic crop
  • Covers all aspects of sugarcane from basic biology to end-use and trade
  • Explores the development and production of sugarcane-based biofuels and bioproducts
  • Written by a global team of leading researchers
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781118771389
  • Publisher: Wiley
  • Publication date: 12/6/2013
  • Series: World Agriculture Series
  • Sold by: Barnes & Noble
  • Format: eBook
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 716
  • File size: 14 MB
  • Note: This product may take a few minutes to download.

Meet the Author

Paul H. Moore is head of the Cellular and Molecular Biology Research Unit of the Hawaii Agriculture Research Center  in Kunia,, Hawai’i and former Research Leader of the USDA/ARS Sugarcane Research Unit.

Frederik C.Botha is Executive Research Manager of Sugar Research Australia in Queensland, and former Director of the South African Sugarcane Research Institute.

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Table of Contents

Foreword xv

Preface xvii

Contributors xix

1 Sugarcane: The Crop, the Plant, and Domestication 1

Summary 1

Introduction 1

Singular Properties of the Genus Saccharum and Its Members 2

Secondary and Tertiary Gene Pools, Germplasm Resources 7

Evolution and Improvement of Sugarcanes 9

References 15

2 Anatomy and Morphology 19

Summary 19

Introduction 19

Plant Morphology 20

The Culm 20

The Leaf 26

The Inflorescence 29

The Root 30

Conclusion 32

References 33

3 Developmental Stages (Phenology) 35

Summary 35

Introduction 35

Stages of Development 38

Development of Roots 48

Molecular Control of Development 49

Conclusions 50

Acknowledgment 50

References 50

4 Ripening and Postharvest Deterioration 55

Summary 55

Abbreviations List 55

Natural Ripening 55

Chemical Ripening 61

Postharvest Deterioration 72

References 79

5 Mineral Nutrition of Sugarcane 85

Summary 85

Introduction 85

Introductory Concepts in Plant Nutrition 85

Primary Nutrients 87

Secondary Nutrients 97

Minor Nutrients 102

Beneficial Element 109

Toxic Element 112

Novel Applications of GeneticManipulation to Plant Nutrition 113

Acknowledgments 115

References 115

6 Photosynthesis in Sugarcane 121

Summary 121

Introduction 121

C4 Photosynthesis–Agronomic and Ecological Significance 122

The Biochemistry of C3 and C4 Photosynthesis 124

Environmental Physiology 131

Photosynthetic Capacity in Sugarcane 147

Conclusion 149

References 149

7 Respiration as a Competitive Sink for Sucrose Accumulation in Sugarcane Culm: Perspectives and Open Questions 155

Summary 155

Introduction 155

Toward Understanding Respiration and Plant Yield in Sugarcane 157

Transcriptional Regulation of Respiration 163

Identifying Core Genes Involved in Posttranscriptional Regulation of Respiratory Flux in Sugarcane 163

Conclusions 164

References 165

8 Nitrogen Physiology of Sugarcane 169

Summary 169

Introduction 169

Setting the Scene: Nitrogen in the Sugarcane Crop System 173

Microbial Associations and Symbioses for Nitrogen Acquisition 174

Nitrogen and Sugarcane Productivity 176

Nitrogen Assimilation and Agronomic Gains 182

Improving Nitrogen Use Efficiency through Genetic Engineering 189

Conclusions 190

References 190

9 Water Relations and Cell Expansion of Storage Tissue 197

Summary 197

Introduction 197

Properties of Water, Cell Walls, and Cell Membranes 198

Applying Principles of Water Relations to Sugarcane 198

Plastic versus Elastic Cell Expansion 200

Water-Potential Isotherms 202

Estimating Apoplastic Volume in Sugarcane 203

Sugarcane Culm Growth and Development 204

Early Model of Sucrose Accumulation in Culm Tissue 205

Apoplastic Sucrose 205

Sugarcane Species Comparisons 213

Conclusion 217

References 218

10 Water, Transpiration, and Gas Exchange 221

Summary 221

Abbreviation List 221

The Challenge of Gas Exchange 223

The Properties of Water 226

Transport of Liquid Water 227

Transport of Water Vapor 233

Stomatal Regulation of Water Loss 237

Conclusion 248

References 249

11 Transport Proteins in Plant Growth and Development 255

Summary 255

Transport Basics 255

Facilitated Diffusion 256

Active Transporters 256

Ion Transport 259

Membrane Transport in the Context of Whole Plant Physiology 259

Functional Analysis of Transport Proteins 262

Conclusion 263

References 263

12 Phloem Transport of Resources 267

Summary 267

Introduction 267

General Principles and Concepts of Resource Transport in the Phloem 268

Phloem Transport of Resources in Sugarcane 277

Acknowledgments 298

References 298

13 Cell Walls: Structure and Biogenesis 307

Summary 307

Introduction 307

Distinctive Features of Sugarcane Cell Wall Composition 310

Major Cell Wall Constituents 311

Expansive Growth of the Cell Wall 323

Grass Cell Walls as Forage and Biofuel Feedstock 324

Closing Remarks 325

References 325

14 Hormones and Growth Regulators 331

Summary 331

Introduction 331

Auxin 332

Gibberellins 339

Cytokinins 344

Ethylene 350

Abscisic Acid 355

Strigolactones 360

Brassinosteroids 362

Jasmonates 365

Salicylic Acid 366

Peptide Hormones Including Florigen 369

Perspective 373

References 373

15 Flowering 379

Summary 379

Introduction 380

Developmental Phases 380

Repeatability of Flowering Date 381

Seasonality 381

Latitudinal Distribution of Flowering Types 383

Photoperiodism 383

Minimum Number of Initiating Photoperiodic Cycles 385

Photoperiodic Ecotypes and Heritability of the Photoperiod Response 385

Effect of Light Intensity and Quality 387

Effect of Temperature 387

Effect of PlantWater and Nutrient Status 389

Role of Leaves 390

Biochemical Signaling, the Flowering Hormone 391

Development 392

Flowering Control: The Breeders’ Viewpoint 393

Photoperiod Facilities–Design Considerations 399

Synchronization for Hybridization 400

Flowering Control: The Growers’ Viewpoint 402

References 406

16 Stress Physiology: Abiotic Stresses 411

Summary 411

Introduction 411

Abiotic Stresses: Basic Concepts 412

Water Stress 413

Salinity Stress 422

Sodicity 424

Temperature Stress 425

Waterlogging and Flooding Tolerance 427

Signal Perception, Transduction and Gene Regulation Associated with Abiotic Stresses 428

Toward Engineering Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Sugarcane 429

References 430

17 Mechanisms of Resistance to Pests and Pathogens in Sugarcane and Related Crop Species 435

Summary 435

Abbreviation List 435

Introduction 436

Forms of Resistance 438

Plant Defense Hormones 444

Resistance at the Surface 445

Cell Wall Strengthening 447

Soluble Phenolics 451

Terpenes 456

Nonprotein, N-based Defense 457

Protein-based Defense 461

Indirect Defense 468

Defense Theory and the Cost of Defense to Plants 472

Priming of Resistance 474

Perspectives 475

References 476

18 Source and Sink Physiology 483

Summary 483

Introduction 483

General Principles of Source-Sink Physiology 485

Communication from Source to Sink: Role of Sugars and Transport Mechanisms 491

Interactions between Source Activity and Sucrose Accumulation in Sugarcane 495

Regulation of Source Activity 499

Interpretation of Approaches to Increase Sugar Accumulation in Sugarcane 503

Sugar Sensing and Signalling: Potential Targets 506

Source–Sink Relations in Changing Climates 509

Concluding Comments: Future Directions and Relevance 512

References 513

19 Biomass and Bioenergy 521

Summary 521

Introduction 521

Biorefineries for Bioenergy and Biomaterials 524

Bioenergy Feedstock Crops 526

Life-cycle Environmental Effects 530

Sugarcane: An Established Biomass and Bioenergy Crop 531

Energycane 532

Bioethanol 534

Lignocellulose for Second Generation Bioenergy 535

Promises and Problems of Sugarcane Cell Wall in Second Generation Bioethanol 535

Biotechnology Potentials for Bioenergy 536

Conclusions 537

References 538

20 Crop Models 541

Summary 541

Abbreviation List 541

Introduction 542

Basic Concepts for Simulating Aspects of the Soil-Plant-Atmosphere System 544

Sugarcane Process Models 550

Representation of Sugarcane Physiology in Process Models 562

The Potential of Crop Modeling to Enhance Sugarcane Genetic Improvement 565

Functional Models 569

Conclusion 571

References 571

21 Sugarcane Yields and Yield-Limiting Processes 579

Summary 579

Introduction 580

Canopy Development (LAI) 581

Radiation Interception 588

Photosynthesis 590

RUE 590

Dry Matter Partitioning 591

Potential, Attainable, and Actual Yields 594

References 598

22 Systems Biology and Metabolic Modeling 601

Summary 601

Introduction to Systems Biology 601

The Metabolic Kinetic Model 604

Metabolic Control Analysis 608

Kinetic Modeling of Plant Physiology 609

Modeling Sugarcane Physiology 611

The Future of Kinetic Modeling in the Context of the Omics Era 619

References 620

23 Sugarcane Genetics and Genomics 623

Summary 623

Introduction 623

Genetic Diversity 624

Molecular Cytogenetics 625

GeneticMapping 627

Mapping Quantitative Trait Loci 629

Quantitative Genetics and Breeding 630

Map-Based Cloning: The Example of the Rust Resistance Gene 634

EST Resources 635

Conservation and Collinearity in the Genome Structure of Sugarcane and Its Close Relatives 637

Prospects 638

References 639

24 Sugarcane Biotechnology: Axenic Culture, Gene Transfer, and Transgene Expression 645

Summary 645

Tissue Culture 645

Gene Transfer 654

Transgene Expression and Gene Silencing 669

When Genomics Meet Transgenics 673

Applications of Transgenic Sugarcane 673

References 674

Index 683

Color plate is located between pages 34 and 35.

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