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Sun Web Server: The Essential Guide

William NelsonArvind SrinivasanMurthy Chintalapati (CVR)
Foreword by Scott G. McNealy

The authoritative, comprehensive guide to Sun Web Server 7.0

Sun Web Server is the secure web serving platform of choice for large-scale enterprises in industries from finance and telecommunications to travel and government. Now there’s a complete, detailed guide to the latest Sun Web Server 7.0 release. Drawing on unsurpassed experience both training and supporting Sun’s enterprise customers, this book’s authors cover everything that developers, administrators, and architects need to know to implement and support Sun Web Server 7.0 within a single node or across an entire server farm.

Server administrators will find task-focused coverage and hands-on examples for installation, configuration, cluster management, monitoring, and troubleshooting. Developers and architects will gain powerful insights into Sun Web Server’s internals and learn how to extend its built-in functionality. Enterprise deployment specialists will find indispensable information on sizing and tuning, plus reference configurations to deploy advanced Web 2.0–style dynamic web sites. Whatever your role, this book will help you hit the ground running and get superior results for years to come. Coverage includes

• Taking advantage of Sun Web Server 7.0’s powerful new features

• Walking through initial installations and upgrades

• Customizing Sun Web Server’s HTTP request processing to your specific requirements

• Building dynamic content with scripting languages and server-side Java-based extensions

• Creating secure dynamic Web 2.0 sites with your dynamic content and database technologies of choice

• Monitoring server instances in live production environments and optimizing performance

• Resolving server errors and other anomalies in Web Server runtime behavior

• Using actual server configuration files from Sun’s own large-scale technology deployments

• Using the detailed reference information on Sun Web Server’s main server configuration file

About the Web Site

This book’s companion web site,, contains FAQs, errata, answers to self-paced exercises, and links to download locations and product forums.

About the Authors

William Nelson has more than 20 years of experience as a developer, instructor, author, consultant, and project manager. He has authored more than 10 Sun Microsystems courses on the Java Enterprise System, and currently manages a professional services organization that specializes in identity and access management. Arvind Srinivasan, an architect on the Sun Web Server development engineering team, has served as technical lead for the Servlet/JSP container of Sun’s Web Server and Application Server. He is co-author of Java Networking and AWT API Superbible. Murthy Chintalapati (CVR), senior engineering manager at Sun Microsystems, is responsible for web tier products such as Sun Web Server 7.0, and the OpenSolaris Web Stack project. He holds five U.S. patents for web and application server technologies and was awarded Sun Microsystems Chairman’s Award for Innovation.

Text printed on recycled paper

Cover image: Sun photo library

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780137128921
  • Publisher: Prentice Hall
  • Publication date: 9/1/2009
  • Series: Essential Guide Series
  • Pages: 573
  • Product dimensions: 6.90 (w) x 9.00 (h) x 1.20 (d)

Meet the Author

William C. Nelson has been in the IT industry for more than 20 years. During that time he has been a developer, instructor, author, consultant, and project manager with a focus on web tier, identity, and access management products. Bill’s extensive experience and effective communication skills allow him to bridge the technical/business divide that so often prevents communication between the data center and the board room.

Bill has authored more than 10 courses for Sun Microsystems focused on the Java Enterprise System. He has been working with Sun’s Directory, Web, and Identity products for several years and brings that experience to the courses, books, and articles he has written. Bill currently lives in Tampa, Florida, where he manages a professional services organization that specializes on identity and access management.

Arvind Srinivasan is one of three architects on the Sun Web Server development engineering team. Since joining Sun Microsystems in 2000, he has worked as an individual contributor and has been the technical lead for the Servlet/JSP container of Sun’s Web Server and Application Server. Mass virtual hosting and the superior performance/scalability of the Servlet/JSP container are two of his key contributions to the Sun Java System Web Server. Arvind is also the co-author of Java Networking and Awt Api Superbible: The Comprehensive Reference for the Java Programming Language(ISBN: 157169031X).

Murthy (CVR) Chintalapati (who goes by CVR) is a development engineering leader responsible for Sun’s web tier products, including Sun Web Server 7.0 and the OpenSolaris Web Stack (AMP). He specializes in infrastructure software products for enterprises deploying web 2.0 technologies, scalability on multi-core and chip-based multi-threaded (CMT) systems. CVR holds a Masters degree in Computer Science and Engineering from Indian Institute of Technology (IIT Mumbai), India. He has been awarded five U.S. patents and has received the Sun Microsystems Chairman’s Award for Innovation.

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Table of Contents

Chapter 1 Introduction to Sun Java System Web Server 7.0

What Is New in Sun Web Server 7.0?

1.1 Earlier Versions of Sun Web Server

1.2 Sun Java System Web Server 7.0—A Conceptual Overview

1.3 Core Web Server Improvements

1.3.1 Web Server Core Subsystem

1.3.2 Configuration Enhancements

1.3.3 Core Subsystem Improvements

1.4 Manageability Enhancements

1.4.1 Web-Based Graphical Administrator Interface

1.4.2 Command-line Administrator Interface

1.4.3 Cluster Management

1.5 Security Improvements

1.6 Web Application Ease of Development and Deployment

1.7 Interoperability Improvements

1.8 Internationalization (I18N) and Globalization (G11n) Support

1.9 Summary

1.10 Self-Paced Labs

Chapter 2 Web Server 7.0 Architecture

2.1 Server Processes

2.2 Web Server Architecture

2.2.1 Connection Handling Threads

2.2.2 Server Application Functions

2.2.3 NSAPI Engine

2.2.4 Process Modes

2.2.5 Native Thread Pools

2.2.6 Content Handling Subsystem

2.2.7 Security and Access Control

2.2.8 Reverse Proxy

2.2.9 Dynamic Reconfiguration

2.2.10 Pattern Matching

2.3 Administration Server Architecture

2.4 Dynamic Content

2.4.1 Common Gateway Interface

2.4.2 Server-Parsed HTML (SHTML)

2.4.3 FastCGI

2.4.4 Java

2.5 Multi-Threaded Architecture

2.6 64-bit Support

2.7 Summary

2.8 Self-Paced Labs

Chapter 3 Web Server 7.0 Installation and Migration

3.1 Supported Platforms

3.2 Obtaining the Software

3.3 Preparing for Installation

3.4 Installing the Software

3.4.1 The setup Command

3.4.2 Graphical Installation

3.4.3 Command-Line Installation

3.4.4 Silent Installation

3.5 Verifying the Installation

3.5.1 Installation Log Files

3.5.2 Server Processes

3.5.3 Directory Structure

3.5.4 Non-Windows Product Registry Entries

3.5.5 Windows Specific Entries

3.6 Post-Installation Tasks

3.6.1 Starting and Stopping Web Server 7.0

3.6.2 Accessing Web Server 7.0 Instances

3.6.3 Creating an Initial Configuration

3.7 Uninstalling Web Server 7.0

3.7.1 The uninstall Command

3.7.3 Command-Line Uninstallation

3.7.4 Silent Uninstallation

3.8 Migrating to Web Server 7.0

3.8.1 The Migration Process

3.8.2 What Is and Is Not Migrated

3.8.3 Migrating Using the Graphical User Interface

3.8.4 Migrating Using the Command-Line Interface

3.9 Summary

3.10 Self-Paced Labs

Chapter 4 Web Server 7.0 Administration

4.1 Web Server 7.0 Administration Framework

4.2 Terminology

4.2.1 Administration Server

4.2.2 Administration Node

4.2.3 Configuration

4.2.4 Configuration Store

4.2.5 Instance

4.2.6 Cluster

4.2.7 Virtual Server

4.3 Administrative Architecture

4.3.1 Monitoring MBeans

4.3.2 Task MBeans

4.3.3 Agent MBeans

4.4 Starting and Stopping Administrative Instances

4.4.1 Starting on UNIX-based Systems

4.4.2 Stopping on UNIX-based Systems

4.4.3 Starting and Stopping on Windows Systems

4.5 Methods for Administering Web Server 7.0

4.5.1 Administration Console

4.5.2 Command Line Interface

4.5.3 Manually Editing Configuration Files

4.6 Localization and Accessibility

4.6.1 Localization of the Administration Console

4.6.2 Localization of the Command Line Interface

4.6.3 Accessibility

4.7 Managing Web Server Configurations

4.7.1 Creating a New Configuration

4.7.2 Deploying an Existing Configuration

4.7.3 Rolling Back to a Previous Configuration

4.7.4 Deleting an Existing Configuration

4.8 Summary

4.9 Self-Paced Labs

Chapter 5 Web Server 7.0 Configuration Files

5.1 The magnus.conf File

5.1.1 Syntax

5.1.2 Context

5.1.3 Modifications

5.2 The server.xml File

5.2.1 Syntax

5.2.2 XML Schema

5.2.3 Context

5.2.4 Modifications

5.3 The obj.conf File

5.3.1 File Structure

5.3.2 Syntax

5.3.3 Context

5.3.4 Modifications

5.4 The mime.types File

5.4.1 File Structure

5.4.2 File Structure

5.4.3 Processing

5.4.4 Context

5.4.5 Modifications

5.5 Trust Database Files (*.db Files)

5.5.1 File Structure

5.5.2 Context

5.5.3 Modifications

5.6 The server.policy File

5.6.1 Syntax

5.6.2 Context

5.6.3 Modifications

5.7 The certmap.conf File

5.7.1 File Structure

5.7.2 Syntax

5.7.3 Context

5.7.4 Modifications

5.8 The default.acl File

5.8.1 File Structure

5.8.2 Syntax

5.8.3 Context

5.8.4 Modifications

5.9 The default-web.xml File

5.9.1 Syntax

5.9.2 Context

5.9.3 Modifications

5.10 The login.conf File

5.10.1 File Structure

5.10.2 Syntax

5.10.3 Context

5.10.4 Modifications

5.11 The keyfile File

5.11.1 File Structure

5.11.2 Syntax

5.11.3 Context

5.11.4 Modifications

5.12 Summary

5.13 Self-Paced Labs

Chapter 6 Web Server 7.0 Request Processing

6.1 Request Processing Stages

6.1.1 Authorization Translation (AuthTrans) Stage

6.1.2 Name Translation (NameTrans) Stage

6.1.3 Path Check (PathCheck) Stage

6.1.4 Object Type (ObjectType) Stage

6.1.5 Input and Output Stages

6.1.6 Request Routing (Route) Stage

6.1.7 Response Generation (Service) Stage

6.1.8 Adding Log Entries (AddLog) Stage

6.1.9 Error Handling (Error) Stage

6.2 Default Request Processing Behavior

6.2.1 Request for Static Content

6.3 Conditional Processing

6.3.1 Directive Parameters

6.3.2 Name Translation (name) Attributes

6.3.3 Partial Path (ppath) Attributes

6.3.4 Client Containers

6.3.5 If/ElseIf/Else Containers

6.4 Pattern Matching and Regular Expressions

6.4.1 Simple Pattern Matching

6.4.2 Regular Expressions

6.5 Debugging Request Processing

6.5.1 The log SAF

6.5.2 The Server Log

6.6 Summary

6.7 Self-Paced Labs

Chapter 7 Monitoring Web Server 7.0

7.1 Web Server Statistics

7.2 The Web Server Monitoring Subsystem

7.3 Methods for Monitoring the Web Server

7.3.1 Web Server Log Files

7.3.2 XML Report

7.3.3 Plain Text Report

7.3.4 Command Line Interface

7.3.5 Administration Console

7.3.6 Java ES Monitoring Framework (Java ES-MF)

7.3.7 Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)

7.4 How to Use Monitoring Data to Tune the Web Server

7.5 Summary

7.6 Self-Paced Labs

Chapter 8 Securing Web Server 7.0

8.1 Controlling Access to Web Server Resources

8.1.1 User Authentication

8.1.2 Access Control

8.2 Using SSL Certificates to Secure Data

8.2.1 Symmetric-key Encryption

8.2.2 Public-key Encryption

8.2.3 X.509 Digital Certificates

8.2.4 Types of Certificates

8.2.5 Certificate Authorities

8.2.6 SSL Handshake

8.3 Automating Maintenance of Certificate Revocation Lists (CRLs)

8.3.1 Automating CRL Processing

8.3.2 CRL Processing

8.4 Detecting and Responding to Denial-of-Service (DoS) Attacks

8.4.1 Request Flooding

8.4.2 Monopolizing Server Connections

8.5 Using the Web Server as Reverse Proxy

8.6 Summary

8.7 Self-Paced Labs

8.7.1 Access Control

8.7.2 Digital Certificates

8.7.3 Certificate Revocation Lists

8.7.4 Denial of Service Attacks

8.7.5 Reverse Proxy Configuration

Chapter 9 Providing Dynamic Content Through Scripting

9.1 Common Gateway Interface (CGI)

9.1.1 CGI Configuration

9.1.2 CGI Server Application Functions (SAFs)

9.2 Server-Parsed HTML (SHTML)

9.2.1 SHTML Commands

9.2.2 SHTML Configuration

9.2.3 SHTML Server Application Functions (SAFs)

9.3 FastCGI

9.3.1 FastCGI Configuration

9.3.2 FastCGI Server Application Functions (SAFs)

9.4 PHP: Hypertext Processor (PHP)

9.4.1 PHP Configuration

9.5 Active Server Pages

9.6 Summary

9.7 Self-Paced Labs

Chapter 10 Providing Dynamic Content Through Java

10.1 Server-side Java Technologies

10.1.1 Java Servlets

10.1.2 JavaServer Pages

10.1.3 JavaServer Pages Standard Tag Library

10.1.4 Java Database Connectivity

10.1.5 Java Naming and Directory Interface

10.1.6 JavaServer Faces

10.1.7 Java Web Services

10.1.8 Lifecycle Modules

10.1.9 Java Web Application Session Replication

10.1.10 Java Native Interface

10.2 Server-side Java Process Model

10.3 Java Request Processing Behavior

10.3.1 Request for Java Content

10.3.2 Request for Java Content that Does Not Exist

10.3.3 Request for a Directory in a Java Web Application

10.3.4 Request for a Directory in a Java Web Application with Welcome Files

10.3.5 Request for MIME-Mapped Content in a Java Web Application

10.4 Java Configuration

10.4.1 Java Configuration Files

10.4.2 Globally Enabling/Disabling Java

10.4.3 Enabling/Disabling Java for a Virtual Server

10.4.4 Global Java Settings

10.5 Java Web Applications

10.5.1 Java Web Application Lifecycle

10.5.2 Java Web Application Contents

10.5.3 Java Web Application Configuration in Web Server

10.5.4 Deploying Java Web Applications into Web Server

10.5.5 Session Management in Java Web Applications

10.5.6 Java Web Application Security

10.5.7 Caching in Java Web Applications

10.5.8 Classloaders

10.5.9 Dynamically Reconfiguring Java Web Applications

10.6 Web Server and NetBeans

10.6.1 Installing the Web Server 7.0 Plugin for the NetBeans IDE

10.6.2 Creating a Java Web Application

10.6.3 Deploying a Java Web Application

10.6.4 Basic Web Server Administration

10.6.5 Debugging Web Applications

10.7 Summary

10.8 Self-Paced Labs

Chapter 11 Troubleshooting Web Server 7.0

11.1 The Crimes

11.1.1 Installation Problems

11.1.2 Startup Problems

11.1.3 Crashes

11.1.4 Hangs

11.1.5 Runtime Errors

11.1.6 Performance/Scalability Problems

11.1.7 Administration Problems

11.1.8 Migration Errors

11.1.9 Uninstallation Problems

11.2 Canvassing the Neighborhood

11.2.1 Hardware Information

11.2.2 Operating System Information

11.2.3 Web Server Environment

11.2.4 Environment on Other Servers

11.2.5 HTTP Client Environment

11.3 The Usual Suspects

11.4 The Informants

11.4.1 Log Files

11.4.2 HTTP Access Log Files

11.4.3 Core Files

11.4.4 Web Server Statistics

11.4.5 Network Traffic

11.4.6 Product Documentation

11.5 Interrogation Methods

11.5.1 Diagnostic Commands and Tools

11.5.2 Increasing Server Log Message Verbosity

11.5.3 Correlating Access and Server Log Entries

11.5.4 Generating Stack Trace Information for Java Threads

11.5.5 Effective Monitoring

11.5.6 Tracing Server Hangs and Infinite Loops

11.5.7 Editing the Correct Virtual Server Object File

11.5.8 Making Incremental Configuration Changes

11.6 Other Investigating Agencies

11.7 Summary

11.8 Self-Paced Labs

Chapter 12 Building Secure, Dynamic Web 2.0 Sites with Web Server 7.0

12.1 Site: Sun Blogs

12.2 Site: Sun Forums

12.3 Major League Baseball Advanced Media LP

12.4 Summary

12.5 Self-Paced Labs

Appendix A Detailed Look at the server.xml File

Appendix B Sample XML Report Data

Appendix C Sample Plain Text Report Data

9780137128921 TOC 7/22/2009

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