Praised for its practical strategies, real-world emphasis and focus on critical thinking, this successful 4-in-1 text handbook, reader, rhetoric, and research guide incorporates electronic writing and visual rhetoric to prepare students for writing in the real world. This edition has been updated to reflect guidelines from the 2009 MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, Seventh Edition.
Part I: THE RHETORIC. 1. Why Write? Using The Sundance Writer. The Rhetoric. Writing in the Information Age. The Reader. Writing in College. The Research Paper. Grammar and Handbook. Strategies for Succeeding in Composition. 2. The Writing Process: An Overview. What Is Writing? Developing a Composing Style. Creating a Composing Style. Writing on a Computer. Strategies for Writing on a Computer. Writer's Block. Strategies for Overcoming Writer's Block. E-Writing: Exploring Writing Resources Online. E-Sources. Companion Website: The Writing Process. 3. The Writing Context. What Is Good Writing? The Writer. The Writer's Purpose. The Writer's Role. The Reader. Individual Readers. Extended Audiences. The Perceptual World. Evaluating Readers. The Discourse Community. The Document. Strategies for Writing Specialized Documents. Writings in Context. Lyndon Baines Johnson, Letter to Ho Chi Minh, April-10, 1967. Molly Ivins, A Short Story about the Vietnam War Memorial. Strategies for Establishing Context. E-Writing: Exploring Writing Context Online. E-Sources. Companion Website: The Writing Context. 4. Critical Thinking: Seeing with a Writer's Eye. What Is Critical Thinking? How to See with a Writer's Eye. Strategies for Increasing Critical Thinking. Common Errors in Critical Thinking. Ignoring the Role of Coincidence. Hasty Generalizations or Jumping to Conclusions. Relying on Anecdotal Evidence. Mistaking Time Relationships for Cause and Effect (post hoc, ergo propter hoc). Making Faulty Comparisons (False Analogies). Assuming Trends Will Continue, Making "Slippery Slope" Judgments. Creating "Either-Or" Dilemmas. Relying on False Authorities, Attacking Personalities, and Guilt by Association. Using Circular Reasoning (Begging the Question). Making Emotional and Irrelevant Statements (Red Herrings). Critical Thinking Checklist. E-Writing: Exploring Critical Thinking Online. E-Sources. Companion Website: Critical Thinking. 5. Prewriting Strategies: Getting Started. What Is Prewriting? Prewriting Strategies. Free Writing. Brainstorming. Asking Questions. Clustering. Strategies for Prewriting. E-Writing: Exploring Prewriting Strategies Online. E-Sources. Companion Website: Prewriting Strategies. 6. Developing a Thesis. What Is a Thesis? Elements of a Thesis Statement. Locating the Thesis. Explicit, Evolving, and Implied Theses. Explicit Thesis Statements. Evolving Thesis Statements. Implied Thesis Statements. Strategies for Developing Thesis Statements. E-Writing: Exploring Thesis Statements Online. E-Sources. Companion Website: Developing a Thesis. 7. Supporting a Thesis. What Is Support? Personal Observations. Personal Experiences. Examples. Facts. Testimony (Quotations). Analogies (Comparisons). Statistics. Strategies for Using Statistics. Documenting Sources. Strategies for Using Evidence. E-Writing: Exploring Thesis Support Online. E-Sources. Companion Website: Supporting a Thesis. 8. Organizing Ideas. What Is Organization? Informal and Formal Outlines. Writing Titles and Introductions. Titles. Introductions. Organizing the Body of an Essay. Chronological: Organizing by Time. Spatial: Organizing by Division. Emphatic: Organizing by Importance. Writing Conclusions. Summarize the Thesis and Main Points. End with a Question. Conclude with a Quotation. End with a Strong Image. Conclude with a Challenging Statement. Moving from Prewriting to Planning. Planning Checklist. Strategies for Overcoming Problems in Organization. E-Writing: Exploring Organization Online. E-Sources. Companion Website: Organizing Ideas. 9. Developing Paragraphs. What Are Paragraphs? Developing Paragraphs. Creating Topic Sentences. Using Modes. Emphasizing Transitions. Organizing Dialogue. Paragraph Style. Strategies for Developing Paragraphs. E-Writing: Exploring Paragraphs Online. E-Sources. Companion Website: Developing Paragraphs. 10. Writing the First Draft. What Is a First Draft? Strategies for Writing the First Draft. Avoiding Plagiarism. Making Writing Decisions. Choosing the Right Words. Writing Effective Sentences. Writing Paragraphs. Moving from Plan to First Draft. Strategies for Overcoming Problems in the First Draft. E-Writing: Exploring Writing the First Draft Online. E-Sources. Companion Website: Writing the First Draft. 11. Revising and Rewriting. What Is Revision? Developing a Revising Style. Strategies for Revising. Strategies for Peer Review. Revising Elements of the First Draft. Look at the Big Picture. Introduction Checklist. Paragraph Checklist. Conclusion Checklist. Improving Paragraphs. Revising the First Draft. Strategies for Overcoming Problems in Revising. E-Writing: Exploring Revision Online. E-Sources. Companion Website: Revising and Rewriting. 12. Editing and Proofreading. What Are Editing and Proofreading? Strategies for Editing. Common Grammar Errors. Editing Sentences. Sentence Checklist. Editing Words. Diction Checklist. Strategies for Proofreading. Common Mechanical Errors. Spelling and Usage Errors. Strategies for Overcoming Problems in Editing and Proofreading. E-Writing: Exploring Editing Online. E-Sources. Companion Website: Editing and Proofreading. Part II: WRITING IN THE INFORMATION AGE. 13. Analyzing Visuals: Seeing with a "Writer's Eye." Introduction to Visual Rhetoric. Photographs, Film, and Video. Perspective and Contrast. Context. Visual Connotations. Timing and Duplication. Manipulating Images. Gender and Cultural Issues. Perception and Analysis. Strategies for Analyzing Visual Images. Captions. Strategies for Analyzing Captions. Graphics. Strategies for Analyzing Graphics. E-Writing: Exploring Visual Images Online. E-Sources. The History of an Image. Capturing the Moment. The Making of an Icon. Confusion and Controversy. The Other Flag Raising. 14. Writing with Visuals. Introduction to Visual Rhetoric. Visuals and the Writing Context. The Role of Visuals. Types of Visuals. Photographs. Strategies for Using Photographs. Tables, Graphs, and Charts. Strategies for Using Tables, Graphs, and Charts. Captions. Strategies for Writing Captions. Understanding Fair Use. Strategies for Using Visuals in College Writing. E-Writing: Exploring Images Online. E-Sources. 15. Business and Professional Writing. What Is Business and Professional Writing? E-mail. Strategies for Writing E-mail. Sample E-mail. Resumes and Cover Letters. Strategies for Writing Resumes. Professional Resume. Student Resume Including Previous Experience. Cover Letters. Strategies for Writing Cover Letters. Letter Responding to Personal Referral. Letter Responding to Job Announcement. Putting Your Resume to Work. Business and Professional Reports. Sample Business Report. Strategies for Successful Business and Professional Writing. For Further Reading. E-Writing: Exploring Business and Professional Writing Online. E-Sources. Companion Website: Business and Professional Writing. 16. Special Writing Contexts. What Are Special Writing Contexts? Collaborative Writing. Strategies for Collaborative Writing. Online Writing Groups. Strategies for Working in Online Writing Groups. Writing as a Representative of Others. Strategies for Writing as a Representative. Broadcasting to Mass Audiences. Strategies for Writing to Mass Audiences. Writing to Multiple Readers. Strategies for Writing to Multiple Readers. Giving Oral and Multimedia Presentations. Strategies for Giving Oral and Multimedia Presentations. E-Writing: Exploring Special Writing Contexts Online. E-Sources. Companion Website: Special Writing Contexts. Part III: THE READER. 17. Becoming a Critical Reader: Reading with a "Writer's Eye." What Is Critical Reading? How to Read With a Writer's Eye. First Reading. Second Reading. Build Your Own Occasion For Writing. Before Class Discussion. Emily Prager, Our Barbies, Ourselves (annotated). Using the Reader. Strategies for Critical Reading. E-Writing: Exploring Reading Online. E-Sources. Companion Website: Critical Reading. 18. Description: Presenting Impressions. What is Description? The Rhetorical Patterns of Inquiry. Objective and Subjective Description. The Language of Description. Writing Description. Student Paper: "My Bug." Suggested Topics for Writing Description. General Assignments. Build Your Own Occasion for Writing. Writing in Context. Strategies for Reading Description. Jonathan Schell, Letter From Ground Zero (annotated). E-Reading: The War on Terrorism. Daniel C. Maguire, When I Boarded the Midwest Express to Washington, D.C. on September 11. Charles Krauthammer, Only in Their Dreams. Caryle Murphy, The War on Terrorism: Why It Will Be a Long One. Husain Haqqani, The American Mongols. A. Tariq Karim, Terrorism: Addressing Its Root Causes. Howard Zinn, Operation Enduring War. Susan Sontag, How Grief Turned into Humbug. Fareed Zakaria, How We Can Prevail. Jane Bryant Quinn. The Price of Our Addiction. Truman Capote, Out There. Luis Alberto Urrea, Border Story. Carl T. Rowan, Unforgettable Miss Bessie. Blending the Modes. (New) Paul M. Barrett, American Islam. Writing Beyond the Classroom. (New) Hard Rock Cafe Ad. Responding to Images. Description Checklist. Companion Website: Description. 19. Narration: Relating Events. What Is Narration? The Rhetorical Patterns of Inquiry. The Writer's Purpose and Role. Focus. Chronology. Writing Narration. Student Paper: "Spare Change". Suggested Topics for Writing Narration. General Assignments. Build Your Own Occasion for Writing. Writing in Context. Strategies for Reading Narration. Samuel Scudder, Take This Fish and Look at It (annotated). Ramon "Tianguis" Perez, The Fender-Bender. (New) Joseph C. Phillips, Roots, Rhythm, and Rocks. James Dillard, A Doctor's Dilemma. E-Reading: The Healthcare Crisis. Katherine Baicker and Amitabh Chandra, Defensive Medicine and Disappearing Doctors? Leo Boyle, The Truth About Medical Malpractice. David R. Francis, Why the Healthcare Crisis Won't Go Away. Health & Medicine Week, Auto Manufacturers Say U.S. Must Solve Healthcare Crisis. Dan Frosch, Your Money or Your Life: When Getting Sick Means Going Broke. Linda Stern, Money: Grown Up and Uninsured. Jane Bryant Quinn, Our 'Kindness De?cit' of Care: We Ration Health Care, Harshly, By Income and Price. Milton Friedman, How to Cure Health Care. Jane Orient. Fractured Healthcare: Americans are Told That We Need "Universal Healthcare", but That Would Be Disastrous. K. J. Lee. A Solution for America's Healthcare Crisis. Blending the Modes. George Orwell, Shooting an Elephant. Writing Beyond the Classroom. Walter Lord, The Reconstructed Logbook of the Titanic. Responding to Images. Narration Checklist. Companion Website: Narration. 20. Example: Presenting Illustrations. What Is Example? The Rhetorical Patterns of Inquiry. Purpose: To Inform or Persuade. Extended Examples. Enumerated Examples. Hypothetical Examples. Factual Examples. Writing Example. Student Paper: "Guerrilla Entrepreneur". Suggested Topics for Writing Example. General Assignments. Build Your Own Occasion for Writing. Writing in Context. Strategies for Reading Example. Anna Quindlen, Homeless (annotated). Joe Rodriguez, Mexicans Deserve Better Than La Mordida. Jose Antonio Burciaga, My Ecumenical Father. E-Reading: Fatherhood. Patricia Fry, Fathers in America-Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow. David Popenoe, A World Without Fathers. Jane Eisner, Where Are the Fathers? Martin Davis, Turning the Hearts of Deadbeat Dads. Judith Davidoff, The Fatherhood Industry. Stephen Baskerville, Is There Really a Fatherhood Crisis? Quassan T. Castro, My Father, No Show. Israel Maldonado, I'm Not a Deadbeat Dad. Adrienne P. Samuels. The New Black Father. Rickie Windle, Dad Deeper Than Genetics. Blending the Modes. Tony Brown, Death of a Dream. Writing Beyond the Classroom. Covenant House, Covenant House Needs Your Help. Responding to Images. Example Checklist. Companion Website: Example. 21. Definition: Establishing Meaning. What Is De?nition? The Rhetorical Patterns of Inquiry. The Purpose of De?nition. Methods of De?nition. Writing De?nition. Student Paper: "Disneyland Dads." Suggested Topics for Writing De?nition. General Assignments. Build Your Own Occasion for Writing. Writing in Context. Strategies for Reading De?nition. Eileen Simpson, Dyslexia. Janice Castro, with Dan Cook and Cristina Garcia, Spanglish. (New) Thomas Sowell, Needs. Blending the Modes. Marie Winn, TV Addiction. E-Reading: Overcoming TV Addiction. Video Age International, Television Anonymous (Glued to the Tube: The Threat of Television Addiction to Today's Family). John Taylor Gatto, Swap Virtual Lives for Real Ones. Dimitri Christakis, Television Watching and Shortened Attention Spans. Franklin T. Thompson and William P. Austin, Television Viewing and Academic Achievement Revisited. Kirsetin Karamarkovich Morello, Think Outside the Box: How to Turn Off the TV and Take Back Your Family Life. Ann Vorisek White, Breaking Out of the Box. Turn Off TV. Turn On Life. Television Week. Guest Commentary: Who's Teaching Our Children? The Tube T. L. Stanley. Babes in Bandland. Writing Beyond the Classroom. Don Rosenberg, What Is Depression? Responding to Images. De?nition Checklist. Companion Website: De?nition. 22. Comparison and Contrast: Indicating Similarities and Differences. What Is Comparison and Contrast? The Rhetorical Patterns of Inquiry. The Purposes of Comparison and Contrast. Selecting Topics for Comparison-and-Contrast Papers. Organizing Comparison-and-Contrast Papers. Subject by Subject. Point by Point. Blending the Methods. Writing Comparison and Contrast. Strategies: "Parallel States: Israel and Ireland". Suggested Topics for Writing Comparison and Contrast. General Assignments. Build Your Own Occasion for Writing. Writing in Context. Strategies for Reading Comparison and Contrast. Yi-Fu Tuan, Chinese Space, American Space (annotated). Bruce Catton, Grant and Lee. Rachel Carson, A Fable for Tomorrow. (New) Blending the Modes. Bharati Mukherjee, Two Ways to Belong to America. E-Reading: Immigration. Mario Cuomo, The American Dream and the Politics of Inclusion: Our Society Must Resist Those Who Would Close Our Doors to Future Immigrants. Robert J. Bresler, Immigration: The Sleeping Time Bomb. Christopher Gray, Alien Nation: Common Sense About America's Immigration Disaster. Robert Samuelson, The Hard Truth of Immigration: No Society Has a Boundless Capacity to Accept Newcomers, Especially When Many of Them Are Poor and Unskilled Workers. Peter Duignan, Do Immigrants Bene?t America? Stanley Crouch, Just Say No for a While to Immigration. August Gribbin, Flow of Illegals "Inevitable": A Mexican Agency Predicts That the Mexican-born U.S. Population Will at Least Double, up to 18 Million, by the Year 2030. Charlie Leduff, Los Angeles County Weighs Cost of Illegal Immigration. Steven Camarota, Our New Immigration Predicament. Chi-an Chang. Can Business Solve the Immigration Mess? Writing Beyond the Classroom. Peggy Kenna and Sondra Lacy, Communication Styles: United States and Taiwan. Responding to Images. Comparison and Contrast Checklist. Companion Website: Comparison and Contrast. 23. Process: Explaining How Things Work and Giving Directions. What Is Process? The Rhetorical Patterns of Inquiry. Explaining How Things Work. Writing Explanations. Giving Directions. Writing Directions. Student Paper: "Securing Your Home". Suggested Topics for Writing Process. General Assignments. Build Your Own Occasion for Writing. Writing in Context. Strategies for Reading Process. Mortimer Adler, How to Mark a Book (annotated). Armond D. Budish, Fender-Benders: Do's and Don'ts. Marvin Harris, How Our Skins Got Their Color. Davidyne Mayleas, How to Land the Job You Want. E-Reading: The Job Market. Pamela M. McBride, Self-Assessment: Knowing Yourself and What You Want to Do. Careers and Colleges, 10 Job-Hunting Mistakes and How Not to Make Them. Dan Rafter. If You Rely Solely on Internet for Job Search, You May Get Lost in Cyberspace. United Press International, Top 20 Mistakes in Writing Resumes. Patient Care Management, Top Questions Asked at Job Interviews. The New York Times, More Jobs, Worse Work. Jyoti Thottam, Where the Good Jobs Are Going. Jerry J. Jasinowski, Manufacturing Is in Crisis. Sean Gregory, Five Jobs for Our Shores: Afraid of Outsourcing? Here Are Some Growing Fields That Won't Be Farmed Out to Overseas Workers. Lou Dobbs, Disorganized Labor. InfoWorld, Off the Record: The Myth of Job Security. The Economist (US), The Conundrum of the Glass Ceiling. Blending the Modes. Malcolm X, My First Conk. Writing Beyond the Classroom. How to Lease a Car with the Option to Buy. Responding to Images. Process Checklist. Companion Website: Process. 24. Division and Classification: Separating Into Parts and Rating Categories. What Are Division and Classi?cation? The Rhetorical Patterns of Inquiry. Division. Writing Division. Classi?cation. Writing Classi?cation. Student Paper: "Hispanics on Campus". Suggested Topics for Writing Division and Classi?cation. General Assignments. Build Your Own Occasion for Writing. Writing in Context. Strategies for Reading Division and Classi?cation. (New) Judith Viorst, Friends, Good Friends - and Such Good Friends. (New) James Austin, Four Kinds of Chance. Stephanie Ericsson, The Ways We Lie. E-Reading: Ethics. Stephen Goode, A Historian Who Lies About His Own Past. Jet, Are Lies More Believable Than the Truth? Peter H. Schuck, Free to Lie. Reilly Dowd, The Great Pretender: How a Writer Fooled His Readers. Jean-Paul Louisot, The Implications of "Could I?" Jeffrey Kluger, Pumping Up Your Past. Paul Johnson, Lies, Damned Lies, Government Statements and What You Read in the Papers. Lisa Snell, How Schools Cheat. Nahal Toosi, Internet Gives Rise to Bold New Era in College-Student Cheating. Patrick McCormick, Cheaters Never Win: Cheating Has Taken Hold of Our Culture, and We're All the Worse for It. eWeek. Bloggers Can't Ignore Basic Journalism Ethics. Blending the Modes. Martin Luther King Jr., Ways of Meeting Oppression. Writing Beyond the Classroom. Motion Picture Association of America, Parents: Stay Ahead of the Curve! Responding to Images. Division and Classi?cation Checklist. Companion Website: Division and Classi?cation. 25. Cause and Effect: Determining Reasons and Measuring Results. What Is Cause and Effect? The Rhetorical Patterns of Inquiry. Determining Causes. Measuring and Predicting Results. Writing Cause and Effect. Student Paper: "Why Do They Hate Us?" Suggested Topics For Writing Cause And Effect. General Assignments. Build Your Own Occasion for Writing. Writing in Context. Strategies for Reading Cause and Effect. John Brooks, The Effects of the Telephone (annotated). (New) Diana Bletter, I Refuse to Live in Fear. John Taylor Gatto, Why Schools Don't Educate. E-Reading: Public Schools. Gregory Shafer, What's Literacy Got To Do With It? Mike Kennedy, Charter Schools: Threat or Boon to Public Schools? Jonathan Kozol, Malign Neglect. Blake Hurst, End of an Illusion. Gregory Kent, Celebrating Mediocrity? How Schools Shortchange Gifted Students. Lisa Snell, Special Education Con?dential: How Schools Use the "Learning Disability" Label to Cover Up Their Failures. Joe Klein, How the Teachers Killed the Dream. Jodie Morse, Learning While Black. Damon Moore, Hold Us to Higher Standards. Larry Cuban. Why Schools Can't Be Like Businesses? Brent Staples, Black Men and Public Space. An African American examines the effects he causes simply by walking down a public street. Blending the Modes. Benjamin Radford, How Television Distorts Reality. Writing Beyond the Classroom. Thomas Jefferson et-al., The Declaration of Independence. Responding to Images. Cause-and-Effect Checklist. Companion Website: Cause and Effect. 26. Argument and Persuasion: Influencing Readers. What Is Argument and Persuasion? The Rhetorical Patterns of Inquiry. Persuasive Appeals. Blending Appeals. Understanding Logic. Deduction. Induction. Persuasion and Audience. Appealing to Hostile Readers. Writing Argument and Persuasion. Student Paper: "Why a Black Student Union?" Suggested Topics for Writing Argument and Persuasion. General Assignments. Build Your Own Occasion for Writing. Writing in Context. Strategies for Reading Argument and Persuasion. Blending the Modes. (New) Mary Sherry, In Praise of the F word. Opposing Viewpoints: Ethnic Identity. (New) Armstrong Williams, Hyphenated Americans. (New) Julianne Malveaux, Still Hyphenated Americans. Opposing Viewpoints: Capital Punishment. (New) Ed Koch, Death and Justice: How the Capital Punishment Affirms Life. (New) Lance Morrow, Why I Changed My Mind About the Death Penalty. E-Reading: The Criminal Justice System. Anna Quindlen, Lights, Camera, Justice for All. Felicity Barringer, Lawyers Are Divided on Cameras in the Courtroom. Leonard Post, Citing Low Pay, Lawyers Refuse Indigent Cases. Elizabeth Palmberg, Seeing Green: Why the Penal System Isn't Colorblind. Martin L. Haines, Psst, Jurors: You Have the Power to Nullify. Paul Butler, Black Jurors: Right to Acquit? National Catholic Reporter, Flawed Prison System Hurts Us All. Bob Herbert, Trapped in the System. Adam Liptak, You Think DNA Evidence Is Foolproof? Try Again. Thomas N. Faust, Shift the Responsibility of Untreated Mental Illness Out of the Criminal Justice System. David Rose. Locked Up to Make Us Feel Better. (New) Opposing Viewpoints: Granting Legal Status to Illegal Immigrants. George Bush, Illegal Immigrant Workers Should Be Granted Legal Status. William F. Jasper, Illegal Immigrants Should Not Be Granted Legal Status. Writing Beyond the Classroom. America's Second Harvest, Childhood Hunger in the United States. Responding to Images. Argument and Persuasion Checklist. Companion Website: Argument and Persuasion. Part IV: WRITING IN COLLEGE. 27. The Essay Examination. What Are Essay Exams? The Purpose of Essay Examinations. Strategies for Studying for Essay Examinations. Strategies for Writing the Essay Examination. Sample Questions and Essays. E-Sources. Companion Website: The Essay Examination. 28. Writing About Literature. What Is Literature? Major Literary Terms. Strategies for Reading Literature. Questions for Literary Analysis. Strategies for Writing about Literature. Writing about Fiction: Wolfgang Borchert, The Bread. Student Essay: "Denial." Writing about Poetry: Strategies for Writing about Poetry. Edwin Arlington Robinson, Richard Cory. Student Paper: "One Calm Summer Night". Writing About Drama. Strategies for Writing About Drama. Literary Paper Checklist. E-Sources. Companion Website: Writing About Literature. Part V: THE RESEARCH PAPER. 29. Conducting Research. What Is Research? Common Misconceptions. Conducting Research: An Overview. Understand the Scope of the Assignment. Select an Appropriate Topic. Strategies for Selecting a Topic. Conduct Preliminary Research. Strategies for Conducting Preliminary Research. E-Research Activity. Limit the Topic and Develop a Working Thesis. Create a Timeline. Collect and Evaluate Relevant Evidence. Selecting and Evaluating Sources. Strategies for Selecting and Evaluating Sources. Evaluating Internet Sources Checklist. Strategies for Overcoming Problems with Research. Taking Notes. Primary Research. Conducting Interviews. Conducting Surveys. Locating and Evaluating Visuals. Strategies for Locating and Evaluating Visuals. Research Checklist. E-Sources. Companion Website: Conducting Research. 30. Writing the Research Paper. What Is a Research Paper? Re?ne Your Thesis and Develop an Outline. Strategies for Developing an Outline. Writing the Research Paper. Strategies for Using Sources. Guidelines for Using Direct Quotations. Strategies for Citing Sources. Exceptions to Citing Sources. Strategies for Revising and Editing Research Papers. Documentation Styles. The MLA Style. Strategies for Writing Parenthetical Notes. Strategies for Writing a Works Cited Page. Guidelines for Listing Sources in Works Cited and Parenthetical Notes. Books. Periodicals. Other Print Sources. Non-print Sources. Electronic Sources. Visuals. Sample Research Paper Using MLA Style. The APA Style. Strategies for Writing Parenthetical Notes. Strategies for Writing a References Page. Guidelines for Listing Sources in References and Parenthetical Notes. Books. Periodicals. Other Print Sources. Non-print Sources. Electronic Sources. Visuals. Sample Research Paper using APA Style. Research Paper Checklist. E-Sources. Companion Website: The Research Paper. Part VI: GRAMMAR AND HANDBOOK. 31. Grammar. What Is Grammar? Parts of Speech. Nouns. Pronouns. Adjectives. Verbs. Adverbs. Articles. Prepositions. Conjunctions. Interjections. Understanding Parts of Speech. Strategies for Determining Parts of Speech. Phrases and Clauses. Phrases. Clauses. Sentences. Common Sentence Patterns. Types of Sentences. Other Ways of Looking at Sentences. Grammar Review. Companion Website: Grammar. 32. The Handbook. Strategies for Using the Handbook. Contents. Sentence Problems. Fragments. Strategies for Detecting and Revising Fragments. Run-on Sentences and Comma Splices. Strategies for Detecting and Revising Run-ons and Comma Splices. Faulty Parallelism. Strategies for Detecting and Revising Faulty Parallelism. Strategies for Revising Sentence Problems. Companion Website: Sentence Structure. Agreement. Subject-Verb Agreement. Strategies for Overcoming Problems with Subject-Verb Agreement. Pronoun Agreement. Strategies for Avoiding Sexism in Pronoun Use. Companion Website: Agreement. Verbs. Irregular Verbs. Verb Tense. Strategies for Using Verb Tenses. Companion Website: Verbs. Pronouns. Pronoun Reference. Strategies for Using Pronouns. Pronoun Case. Strategies for Using Proper Case. Companion Website: Pronouns. Dangling and Misplaced Modi?ers. Dangling Modi?ers. Strategies to Detect Dangling Modi?ers. Misplaced Modi?ers. Companion Website: Modi?ers. Adjectives and Adverbs. Strategies for Using Adjectives and Adverbs. Companion Website: Adjectives and Adverbs. Punctuation. Comma. Strategies for Eliminating Unnecessary Commas. Companion Website: Commas. Semicolon. Companion Website: Semicolons. Colon. Quotation Marks. Companion Website: Quotation Marks. Apostrophe. Companion Website: Apostrophes. Ellipsis. Parentheses. Brackets. Hyphen. Dash. Slash. Question Mark. Exclamation Point. Period. Mechanics. Capitalization. Companion Website: Capitalization. Underlining and Italics. Abbreviations. Numbers. Spelling. Strategies for Improving Spelling. Companion Website: Spelling. Appendix. Commonly Confused Words. Commonly Misspelled Words. Essay Topics. Credits. Index.