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Updated to reflect changes and advances in the supervision of teachers, this highly respected text provides a comprehensive overview of the field of instructional supervision, including instructional development, curriculum development, and staff development. Throughout, the authors emphasize practice, particularly the supervisor’s responsibilities as instructional leader.
PART I: NATURE OF SUPERVISION.
CHAPTER 1: ROLES OF THE SCHOOL SUPERVISOR.
Problems That Complicate the Supervisory Role.
Continuing Diversity of Conceptions of Supervision.
Differing Conceptions of Effective Teaching.
Mandates from the State Level.
Tensions between Teachers and Administrators/Supervisors.
Who Are the Supervisors?
Types of Supervisors.
Tasks of Supervision.
A Model of Supervision.
Domains of Supervision.
Foundations of Supervision.
CHAPTER 2: ISSUES IN SUPERVISION.
Numerous Unresolved Issues.
Working Group of the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
ISSUE 1: Is Supervision Necessary?
Limitations of Teaching.
Need for the Supervisor.
ISSUE 2: For Whom Should Supervision Be Provided?
Teacher Experience and Teacher Effectiveness.
Subject-Centered Teachers versus Learner-Centered Teachers.
Teachers Who Are Ineffective and Know It.
Supervision for All Teachers.
ISSUE 3: Should the Supervisor’s Authority Be Based on Expertise and Interpersonal Relationships or on Conferred Status and Decision-Making Responsibilities?
ISSUE 4: Should the Supervisor Be an Administrator?
ISSUE 5: Is Supervision Staff Development?
ISSUE 6: Is Supervision Curriculum Development?
ISSUE 7: Is Supervision Evaluation?
ISSUE 8: Should Supervisors Work with Groups of Teachers or with Individual Teachers?
ISSUE 9: Should Supervision Be Carried Out by Supervisors Based in the Central Office or in the Individual School?
Local School Districts.
ISSUE 10: Should the Supervisor Use a Directive or Nondirective Approach?
ISSUE 11: Should School Systems Organize for Supervision by Employing Generalists or Specialists?
Characteristics of Generalists and Specialists.
Need for Specialists.
ISSUE 12: Should There Be National Professional Standards for Teachers?
ISSUE 13: What Should Be the Role of Technology in the Supervisory Process?
ISSUE 14: Should Multiculturalism Be a Focus of Supervision?
PART II: LEADERSHIP IN INSTRUCTIONAL DEVELOPMENT.
CHAPTER 3: HELPING TEACHERS PLAN FOR INSTRUCTION.
Models of Instruction.
Classroom Planning: A Six-Point Program.
Following a Systematic Approach to Instructional Design.
Following a Model of Instruction.
Writing Instructional Goals and Objectives.
Applying Taxonomies of Instructional Objectives.
Describing and Analyzing Learning Tasks.
Organizing Instructional Plans.
CHAPTER 4: HELPING TEACHERS PRESENT INSTRUCTION.
What Is Effective Teaching?
Steps in Implementation.
Selection of Resources.
Selection of Strategies.
Beginning the Lesson.
Moving through the Middle of the Lesson.
Closing the Lesson.
A Checklist for Lesson Presentation.
CHAPTER 5: HELPING TEACHERS WITH CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT.
Discipline: A Serious Problem.
Causes of Behavior Problems.
Causes Originating with the Child.
Causes Originating with the Child’s Group.
Causes Originating with the Teacher.
Causes Originating with the School.
Causes Originating with the Home and Community.
Causes Originating in the Larger Social Order.
Preventing Behavior Problems.
Analyze Teaching Styles and Students’ Learning Styles.
Analyze the Classroom Environment.
Analyze the Curriculum Continuously.
Analyze the Methods of Instruction Employed.
Gather as Much Information as Possible about Individual Learners.
Analyze the Disciplinary Models Used.
Set and Enforce Minimum Expectations of Behavior.
Correcting Behavior Problems.
Ten Reasonable Punishments.
CHAPTER 6: HELPING TEACHERS EVALUATE INSTRUCTION.
Evaluation: An Essential Phase.
Norm-Referenced and Criterion-Referenced Measurement.
Relation of Evaluation to Objectives.
Formative and Summative Evaluation.
Evaluating Affective Objectives.
Other Evaluation Techniques.
Observation of Class Participation.
Self-Evaluation and Joint Evaluation.
Marking Student Achievement.
Reporting Student Achievement.
PART III: LEADERSHIP IN CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT.
CHAPTER 7: HELPING TEACHERS PLAN AND IMPLEMENT CURRICULA.
A Model for Curriculum Development.
The Supervisor in Curriculum Development.
Approaches to Curriculum Development.
The Comprehensive Approach.
The Problem-Centered Approach.
Design of the Plan.
Involvement of Others.
Continuing Problems of Curriculum Development.
Scope of the Curriculum.
Sequence of the Curriculum.
Balance in the Curriculum.
Organization of the Curriculum.
Implementation and Evaluation.
CHAPTER 8 HELPING TEACHERS EVALUATE CURRICULA.
Curriculum Evaluation: Essential and Difficult.
The Supervisor’s Role in Evaluation.
Basic Research Concepts.
Types of Research.
Types of Evaluation.
Conducting a Curriculum Needs Assessment.
The Delphi Technique.
Teacher Participation in Research.
Evaluation of Materials and Studies.
State Assessment Programs.
Local Assessment Programs.
PART IV: LEADERSHIP IN STAFF DEVELOPMENT.
CHAPTER 9: HELPING TEACHERS THROUGH IN-SERVICE PROGRAMS.
Supervision and Staff Development.
Purposes of Staff Development.
The Supervisor’s Role in In-Service Education.
Assumptions about In-Service Education.
Characteristics of Effective In-Service Programs.
A Model for In-Service Education.
Post-Training Application and Evaluation.
Control of In-Service Education.
Teacher Education Centers.
CHAPTER 10: HELPING TEACHERS ON A ONE-TO-ONE BASIS.
The Supervisor’s Role in Clinical Supervision.
Models of Clinical Supervision.
Problems in Clinical Supervision.
Who Will Do the Supervising?
Collegiality in Supervision.
Do We Have the Necessary Resources?
For Whom Should Clinical Supervision Be Provided?
Are There Models Other Than the Clinical?
CHAPTER 11: HELPING TEACHERS WORK TOGETHER.
Living in Groups.
The Supervisor as Group Leader.
Definition of Leadership.
Traits of Leaders.
Styles of Leadership.
Group Process versus Group Counseling.
Training in Group Interaction.
Practice in Interaction Skills.
Record of Behavior of Individuals in Groups.
Provision of Group Therapy–Type Sessions.
National Staff Development Council.
CHAPTER 12: HELPING TEACHERS EVALUATE THEIR OWN PERFORMANCE.
Three Faces of Evaluation of Teacher Performance.
Competencies to be Evaluated.
Evaluation of Instructional Skills.
Evaluation of Personal and Professional Attributes.
Using Evaluation Instruments.
PART V: THE SUMMATIVE DIMENSION OF TEACHER EVALUATION.
CHAPTER 13: SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT OF TEACHER PERFORMANCE.
Who Should Be Evaluated?
Who Should Evaluate Teachers?
What Should Be Evaluated?
How Should the Evaluations Be Done?
How Should the Data Be Used?
Problems in Summative Evaluation.
PART VI: INSTRUCTIONAL SUPERVISION: EVALUATION AND CHANGE.
CHAPTER 14: IMPROVING INSTRUCTIONAL SUPERVISION.
Role of the Supervisor: A Reprise.
Evaluation of the Supervisor.
Evaluation by Superordinates.
Evaluation by Teachers.
Evaluation of the Supervisory Program.
Evaluation by Objectives.
Future Directions in Supervision.
Domains of Supervision.
Clarification of Approaches, Functions, and Roles.
Peers, Coaches, and Mentors.
Teacher Incentives, Career Ladder, and Merit Pay.
Emphasis on Observable Teaching Competencies.
Increased Use of Technology.