In Supplementary Education, the editors argue that while access to schools that enable and expect academic achievement is a necessary ingredient for the education of students, schools alone may not be sufficient to ensure universally high levels of academic development. Supplemental educational experiences may also be needed. The idea of supplementary education is based on the assumption that high academic achievement is closely associated with exposure to family and community-based activities and learning experiences that occur both in and out of school in support of academic learning. For low income and some ethnic minority student groups, opportunities to participate in such activities are generally under-resourced and underutilized in comparison to the access to and participation in such activities by many European- and Asian- Americans from mid to high socio-economic backgrounds. This book makes the case for supplementary education. Specifically, it focuses on the need for universal access to high levels of academic achievement, and the challenge of reducing the 'achievement gap' that exists between Asian American and European American students and their African American, Latina/o, and Native American counterparts. Having posed the problem, the editors define the construct and provide in-depth descriptions of some of the more colloquial expressions of supplementation in after school care, youth development, and other forms of supplemental education. The editors close with a discussion of the emerging institutionalization and need for more thoughtful and rigorous research of the supplementary education movement.
In this book, Gordon and Bridglall highlight the role of grandmothers in the lives of black men 'who defied the odds against success.' This intergenerational passage of love is a form of supplementary education that not only assures that the child becomes 'one who loves' but also supports his or her academic achievement.
The task of every generation is to raise our children, not merely to instruct them. Gordon, Bridglall, and Meroe's engaging collection of essays shows us how important it is to provide out-of-school experiences that nurture children's identity, curiosity, and sense of possibility.
Freeman A. Hrabowski
Supplementary Education brilliantly captures many aspects of the rich learning experiences that some parents create to complement their children's schooling. These supplementary experiences are indeed the hidden curriculum of high academic achievement, but sadly remain unavailable to all of our children.
Edmund W. Gordon is the Richard March Hoe Emeritus Professor of Psychology and Education and director of the Institute of Urban and Minority Education (IUME) at Teachers College, Columbia University where he was vice president of academic affairs and interim dean from July 2000 until August, 2001. He is also the John M. Musser Professor of Psychology Emeritus at Yale University. He is a former editor of the American Journal of Orthopsychiatry and the annual Review of Research in Education. His book, Compensatory Education: Preschool Through College, continues to be regarded as the classic work in its field. Beatrice L. Bridglall is editor and assistant director of the Institute for Urban and Minority Education (IUME) at Teachers College, Columbia University. She is co-author of The Affirmative Development of Academic Ability (in process) with Professor Edmund W. Gordon and co-editor of the College Board's and IUME's Pedagogical Inquiry and Praxis Newsletter, which emphasizes the bi-directionality of knowledge production through practice and research, and issues associated with increasing the number of high academic achieving students who come from African American, Latina/o, and Native American families. Aundra Saa Meroe is a postdoctoral research scientist at The College Board and research associate at the Institute of Urban and Minority Education (IUME), Teachers College, Columbia University. She has served as a social worker and mental health and bereavement counselor with urban ethnic minority children of low SES groups, persons with AIDS, women in crisis, and the homeless and mentally ill.
Chapter 1 Foreword Chapter 2 Preface Part 3 Part I: Conceptual Foundations for Supplementary Education Chapter 3 After-School Programs, Youth Development, and Other Forms of Supplementary Education Chapter 4 Universal Access to Academic Excellence Chapter 5 The Challenge, Context, and Preconditions of Academic Development at High Levels Chapter 7 Supplementation and Supplantation as Alternative Education Strategies Chapter 7 Supplementary Education, the Negotiation of Sociocultural Marginality, and the Uses of Reflexivity Chapter 8 Academic Politicalization: Supplementary Education from Black Resistance Chapter 9 Family Environments in Support of Academic Achievement Chapter 10 The Impact of Extracurricular Activities on Standardized Test Scores Part 12 Part II: Varieties of Supplementation Programs Chapter 13 A Taxonomy of Supplementary Education Programs Chapter 14 Varieties of Supplementary Education Interventions Chapter 15 Families as Contractual Partners in Education Chapter 16 Parents as Advocates for Education Chapter 17 Community Support for Supplementary Education Part 18 Part III: The Idea of Supplementary Education Chapter 19 The Institutionalization of Supplementary Education Chapter 20 Conceptual and Practical Issues in Evaluating Supplementary Education Programs Chapter 21 The Idea of Supplementary Education