Supporting the Literacy Development of English Learners: Increasing Success in All Classrooms / Edition 1

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English learners are the fastest growing student population in the United States. Unfortunately, many English learners are placed in classrooms with teachers who lack the preparation to help culturally and linguistically diverse children succeed academically. This collection seeks to bridge the gap between students' needs and teachers' preparation, offering practitioner-focused strategies for curriculum and planning, reading instruction, and oral-language and writing development.

The book is presented in four sections to guide teachers in supporting English learners in mainstream classrooms:

Section I sets up the book with background to assist you in understanding the special needs and strengths of English learners in your classroom.

Section II provides strategies to help you differentiate instruction for diverse proficiency levels, move students from initial social language to academic language, and address content topics through thematic instruction.

Section III addresses specific instructional concerns such as comprehension strategies, vocabulary development, guided reading, and expository text structures.

Section IV offers strategies you can use to enhance student speaking and writing, including letter and dialogue-journal exchanges, poetry performance, puppetry, and literature circles.

Using the knowledge base and strategies in this book, teachers will have the solid foundation they need to lead all students toward increased success in school.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780872075696
  • Publisher: International Reading Assocation
  • Publication date: 1/1/2006
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 240
  • Product dimensions: 7.00 (w) x 9.50 (h) x 0.70 (d)

Table of Contents

Acknowledgments ix

Contributors x

Introduction 1

Section I Supporting English Learners

Chapter 1 Changing Classrooms: Transforming Instruction Nancy L. Hadaway Terrell A. Young 6

Language Diversity and Education: A Brief History 7

Understanding English Learners 9

Supporting English Learners 13

Instructional Planning and Language Demands 18

Conclusion 18

Section II Curriculum and Planning

Chapter 2 Differentiating Instruction for English Learners: The Four-by-Four Model Jill Kerper Mora 24

The Four-by-Four Model 26

Theoretical Foundation of the Four-by-Four Model 28

Guiding Principles of the Four-by-Four Model 33

Structure of the Four-by-Four Model 34

Conclusion 39

Chapter 3 Supporting English Learners: Developing Academic Language in the Content Area Classroom Janice Pilgreen 41

Goals for English Learners 42

Explicit Development of Academic Language 43

A Confession 44

How to Start: Introducing Academic Language 44

Keys to Comprehension 48

Conclusion 59

Chapter 4 Teaching Language Through Content Themes: Viewing Our World as a Global Village David E. Freeman Yvonne S. Freeman 61

Reasons to Teach Language Through Sustained Content 62

Reasons for Organizing Curriculum Around Themes 63

Connecting Thematic Content to Standards 64

Using Culturally Relevant Books 65

The Preview/View/Review Technique 65

Putting It Together: Francisco's Global Interdependence Theme 68

Conclusion 76

Section III Reading Instruction

Chapter 5 Essential Comprehension Strategies for English Learners Marsha L. Roit 80

Reading Comprehension Strategies: How to Make Sense of Text 82

Instructional Strategies for TeachingComprehension 84

Conclusion 94

Chapter 6 Promoting the Vocabulary Growth of English Learners Diane August Maria Carlo Teresa J. Lively Barry McLaughlin Catherine Snow 96

Research Foundation of the Vocabulary Improvement Program 97

Developing the Program 97

What the Program Teaches 98

Important Program Features 99

A Close Look at Four Types of Activities 100

Conclusion 104

Appendix A Description of Measures 106

Appendix B Example of Vocabulary Improvement Program Curriculum, Grades 3-5 107

Chapter 7 Using Guided Reading With English Learners Mary Cappellini 113

Why Guided Reading is Important for English Learners 114

Using All Three Cueing Systems: Developing Strategies and Language 114

Assessing Miscues to Understand Reading and Language Ability 116

Emergent and Early Guided Reading Lesson: Emphasis on Talk 116

Early Fluent Guided Reading Lesson: Sustaining and Expanding Meaning 121

Fluent Guided Reading Lesson: Focus on Higher Level Comprehension Strategies 124

Choosing Books for Guided Reading With English Learners 127

Enriching Vocabulary and Selecting Texts 128

Utilizing Sentence Structures: Matching Language Level 129

Conclusion 130

Chapter 8 Teaching English Learners About Expository Text Structures Barbara Moss 132

Why Teach About Exposition? 133

What Are the Challenges of Expository Texts? 135

How Does Exposition Differ From Narrative? 136

What Are the Most Common Expository Text Structures? 138

Teaching Common Text Structures 138

Conclusion 146

Section IV Oral and Written Language

Chapter 9 Negotiating Meaning Through Writing Nancy L. Hadaway Terrell A. Young 150

Writing In a New Language 151

Finding a Starting Point for Writing in English 152

Writing in a Supportive Environment 153

Reflecting on the Interactive Writing Project: Some Recommendations 159

Taking It Further: Letter and Journal Writing Across the Curriculum 163

Conclusion 165

Chapter 10 Language Play, Language Work: Using Poetry to Develop Oral Language Nancy L. Hadaway Sylvia M. Vardell Terrell A. Young 168

Supporting Oral-Language Development 168

Reading Poetry With English Learners 170

Strategies for Sharing Poetry 172

Responding to Poetry 178

Creating a Classroom Collection of Poetry 180

Conclusion 182

Chapter 11 Using Puppets With English Learners to Develop Language Vida Zuljevic 185

A Personal Journey With Puppets 186

A Professional Journey With Puppets 187

The Potential of Puppetry: Two Examples 187

Puppetry Beyond the Classroom 189

Student Reactions to Puppetry 190

Teacher Reactions to Puppetry 190

Suggestions for Using Puppets in the Classroom 192

Conclusion 193

Chapter 12 Let's Read, Write, and Talk About It: Literature Circles for English Learners Deanna Peterschick Gilmore Deanna Day 194

What Are Literature Circles? 195

Scaffolding English Learners 195

Using Literature Circles With English Learners 196

Strategies That Work Well With English Learners 199

Monitoring Students in Literature Circles 204

Making Connections to Real Life Through Literature Circles 204

Asking Questions in Literature Circles 206

Celebrating Literature Circles 207

Conclusion 208

Author Index 211

Children's Literature Author Index 216

Subject Index 219

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