Surveillance And Reconnaissance Imaging Systems

Surveillance And Reconnaissance Imaging Systems

by Jon C. Leachtenauer, Ronald G. Driggers, Jon C. Leachenauer
     
 

ISBN-10: 1580531326

ISBN-13: 9781580531320

Pub. Date: 03/31/2001

Publisher: Artech House, Incorporated

Here's an up-to-date, comprehensive review of surveillance and reconnaissance (S&R) imaging system modeling and performance prediction. This new, one-of-a-kind resource helps you predict the information potential of new surveillance system designs, compare and select from alternative measures of information extraction, relate the performance of tactical acquisition

Overview

Here's an up-to-date, comprehensive review of surveillance and reconnaissance (S&R) imaging system modeling and performance prediction. This new, one-of-a-kind resource helps you predict the information potential of new surveillance system designs, compare and select from alternative measures of information extraction, relate the performance of tactical acquisition sensors and surveillance sensors, and understand the relative importance of each element of the image chain on S&R system performance. It provides you with system descriptions and characteristics, S&R modeling history, and performance modeling details.

With an emphasis on validated prediction of human observer performance, this unique book addresses the specific design and analysis techniques used with today's S&R imaging systems. You find in-depth discussions on everything from the conceptual performance prediction model, linear shift invariant systems, and measurement variables used for S&R information extraction... to predictor variables, target and environmental considerations, CRT and flat panel display selection, and models for image processing. Conversion methods between alternative modeling approaches are examined to help you perform system comparisons. Supported with 120 illustrations and 150 equations.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9781580531320
Publisher:
Artech House, Incorporated
Publication date:
03/31/2001
Series:
Artech House Optoelectronics Library Series
Pages:
424
Product dimensions:
6.14(w) x 9.21(h) x 0.94(d)

Table of Contents

Prefacexv
Acknowledgmentsxvii
1Introduction1
1.1Modeling Applications2
1.2Conceptual S&R Model3
1.3Performance Prediction Approaches8
1.3.1Physical Image Quality8
1.3.2Physical Models and Simulations9
1.3.3Information Theory-Based Models10
1.3.4Difference Models and Metrics11
1.4Summary12
References12
2Surveillance and Reconnaissance Imaging Systems13
2.1Introduction13
2.2Imaging with IR and EO Sensors16
2.2.1Infrared Sensors16
2.2.2Electro-Optical Sensors19
2.3Image Formation20
2.3.1Line Scanners20
2.3.2Staring Array Sensors22
2.3.3Television Sensors23
2.3.4Analog versus Digital Signals24
2.4Imaging System Parameters25
2.4.1Sensitivity and Resolution25
2.4.2Field of View26
2.4.3Field of Regard27
2.4.4Diffraction27
2.4.5Detector Angular Subtense and Instantaneous Field of View29
2.4.6Ground Sample Distance30
2.4.7Point Spread Function32
2.5Synthetic Aperture Radar33
2.6Choice of Imaging Sensors37
2.7Examples of Surveillance and Reconnaissance Sensors39
2.7.1Predator39
2.7.2Global Hawk41
2.7.3Landsat 742
2.7.4RADARSAT45
2.7.5IKONOS47
2.7.6Russian Satellite Imagery47
2.7.7Other Satellite Systems49
References50
3Historical Review53
3.1Pre-195053
3.21950-197057
3.31970 to Present64
3.4Summary68
References69
4Linear Shift Invariant Imaging Systems75
4.1Linearity and Shift Invariance75
4.2The Impulse Function77
4.3The Fourier Series and Fourier Transform79
4.3.1Fourier Series79
4.3.2Fourier Transform80
4.3.3Fourier Transform Properties81
4.3.4Fourier Transform Pairs82
4.4LSI Imaging System83
4.5Imaging in the Space and Frequency Domains85
4.6Imaging with Components85
4.6.1Optics89
4.6.2Detectors90
4.6.3Electronics94
4.6.4Displays99
4.6.5Human Vision101
4.7Simplifying LSI Imager Analysis to One Dimension103
4.8Sampled Imaging Systems108
4.9SAR Impulse Response and Transfer Function110
4.10Summary111
References111
5Information Extraction Measures115
5.1Direct Performance Measures116
5.1.1Probability of Task Performance116
5.1.2Completeness and Accuracy119
5.1.3Statistical Properties of Direct Measures120
5.2Theory of Signal Detection124
5.3Range/Time Measures128
5.4Performance Estimate Measures129
5.4.1National Imagery Interpretability Rating Scale132
5.4.2Task Satisfaction Confidence Ratings145
5.4.3Relative Quality Scales148
5.5Information and Difference Metrics152
5.6Summary156
References156
6Information Extraction Performance Predictors159
6.1Scale, Resolution, and Sharpness160
6.1.1Scale160
6.1.2Photographic Resolution162
6.1.3Video Resolution (Analog)167
6.1.4Electro-optical Systems170
6.1.5SAR Resolution174
6.2Contrast and Noise177
6.2.1Photographic Measures177
6.2.2Electro-optical Measures181
6.2.3SAR Measures182
6.3Artifacts185
6.4Summary Measures188
6.4.1Regression Models188
6.4.2MTF188
6.4.3MTF Measures191
6.4.4SNR Measures194
6.4.5Physical Difference Metrics196
6.5Summary197
References198
7Target and Environmental Considerations203
7.1Target Effects203
7.2Deception and Denial216
7.3Atmospheric Effects220
7.4Summary222
References223
8Image Processing Considerations225
8.1Bandwidth Compression225
8.1.1Single Image Monochrome Compression228
8.1.2Multichannel Image Compression233
8.1.3Motion Imagery Compression236
8.2Enhancement Processing241
8.2.1Spatial Filtering242
8.2.2Pixel Intensity Transforms245
8.2.3Image Fusion249
8.3Summary250
References251
Selected Bibliography252
9Display and Observer Considerations255
9.1Displays255
9.1.1Briggs Targets256
9.1.2CRT Displays258
9.1.3Flat Panel Displays271
9.1.4Display Environment273
9.2Observer Characteristics278
9.2.1Observer Selection278
9.2.2Observer Variability282
9.3Observer Models284
9.4Summary293
References294
10Performance Prediction Models299
10.1Parameter-Based Models300
10.1.1General Image Quality Equation301
10.1.2Target Acquisition Sensor Performance Modeling312
10.1.3Physique326
10.1.4Radar Threshold Quality Factor328
10.1.5Other SAR Models329
10.2Image-Based Models330
10.2.1Image Quality Model331
10.2.2Sarnoff JND Model334
10.2.3Other Image-Based Models339
10.3Summary344
References344
11Sensor Performance Conversions349
11.1Johnson Criteria and NIIRS351
11.2Conversions with Models352
11.3Comparing Sensor Performance Conversions356
11.4Performance Conversion as a Function of Target Size360
11.5Summary360
References362
12Conclusions and Future Directions365
12.1Spectral Domain366
12.2Temporal Effects368
12.3Search369
12.4SAR371
12.5Summary374
References376
List of Acronyms379
About the Authors385
Index387

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