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At the heart of the universe is a steady, insistent beat: the sound of cycles in sync. It pervades nature at every scale from the nucleus to the cosmos. Every night along the tidal rivers of Malaysia, thousands of fireflies congregate in the mangroves and flash in unison, without any leader or cue from the environment. Trillions of electrons march in lockstep in a superconductor, enabling electricity to flow through it with zero resistance. In the solar system, gravitational synchrony can eject huge boulders out of the asteroid belt and toward Earth; the cataclysmic impact of one such meteor is thought to have killed the dinosaurs. Even our bodies are symphonies of rhythm, kept alive by the relentless, coordinated firing of thousands of pacemaker cells in our hearts. In every case, these feats of synchrony occur spontaneously, almost as if nature has an eerie yearning for order.
And that raises a profound mystery: Scientists have long been baffled by the existence of spontaneous order in the universe. The laws of thermodynamics seem to dictate the opposite, that nature should inexorably degenerate toward a state of greater disorder, greater entropy. Yet all around us we see magnificent structures — galaxies, cells, ecosystems, human beings — that have somehow managed to assemble themselves. This enigma bedevils all of science today. Only in a few situations do we have a clear understanding of how order arises on its own. The first case to yield was a particular kind of order in physical space involving perfectly repetitive architectures. It's the kind of order that occurs whenever the temperature drops below the freezing point and trillions of water molecules spontaneously lock themselves into a rigid, symmetrical crystal of ice. Explaining order in time, however, has proved to be more problematic. Even the simplest possibility, where the same things happen at the same times, has turned out to be remarkably subtle. This is the order we call synchrony.
It may seem at first that there's little to explain. You can agree to meet a friend at a restaurant, and if both of you are punctual, your arrivals will be synchronized. An equally mundane kind of synchrony is triggered by a reaction to a common stimulus. Pigeons startled by a car backfiring will all take off at the same time, and their wings may even flap in sync for a while, but only because they reacted the same way to the same noise. They're not actually communicating about their flapping rhythm and don't maintain their synchrony after the first few seconds. Other kinds of transient sync can arise by chance. On a Sunday morning, the bells of two different churches may happen to ring at the same time for a while, and then drift apart. Or while sitting in your car, waiting to turn at a red light, you might notice that your blinker is flashing in perfect time with that of the car ahead of you, at least for a few beats. Such sync is pure coincidence, and hardly worth noting.
The impressive kind of sync is persistent. When two things keep happening simultaneously for an extended period of time, the synchrony is probably not an accident. Such persistent sync comes easily to us human beings, and, for some reason, it often gives us pleasure. We like to dance together, sing in a choir, play in a band. In its most refined form, persistent sync can be spectacular, as in the kickline of the Rockettes or the matched movements of synchronized swimmers. The feeling of artistry is heightened when the audience has no idea where the music is going next, or what the next dance move will be. We interpret persistent sync as a sign of intelligence, planning, and choreography.
So when sync occurs among unconscious entities like electrons or cells, it seems almost miraculous. It's surprising enough to see animals cooperating — thousands of crickets chirping in unison on a summer night; the graceful undulating of schools of fish — but it's even more shocking to see mobs of mindless things falling into step by themselves. These phenomena are so incredible that some commentators have been led to deny their existence, attributing them to illusions, accidents, or perceptual errors. Other observers have soared into mysticism, attributing sync to supernatural forces in the cosmos.
Until just a few years ago, the study of synchrony was a splintered affair, with biologists, physicists, mathematicians, astronomers, engineers, and sociologists laboring in their separate fields, pursuing seemingly independent lines of inquiry. Yet little by little, a science of sync has begun coalescing out of insights from these and other disciplines. This new science centers on the study of "coupled oscillators." Groups of fireflies, planets, or pacemaker cells are all collections of oscillators — entities that cycle automatically, that repeat themselves over and over again at more or less regular time intervals. Fireflies flash; planets orbit; pacemaker cells fire. Two or more oscillators are said to be coupled if some physical or chemical process allows them to influence one another. Fireflies communicate with light. Planets tug on one another with gravity. Heart cells pass electrical currents back and forth. As these examples suggest, nature uses every available channel to allow its oscillators to talk to one another. And the result of those conversations is often synchrony, in which all the oscillators begin to move as one.
Those of us working in this emerging field are asking such questions as: How exactly do coupled oscillators synchronize themselves, and under what conditions? When is sync impossible and when is it inevitable? What other modes of organization are to be expected when sync breaks down? And what are the practical implications of all that we're trying to learn?
Copyright © 2003 Steven Strogatz
|1||Fireflies and the Inevitability of Sync||11|
|2||Brain Waves and the Conditions for Sync||40|
|3||Sleep and the Daily Struggle for Sync||70|
|4||The Sympathetic Universe||103|
|8||Sync in Three Dimensions||206|
|10||The Human Side of Sync||260|
Posted July 10, 2013
Along the Meinam River in Thailand and at several other locations worldwide (including, perhaps, your backyard) fireflies or glowworms put on a remarkable display of synchronized flashing. Unlike the more common, apparently random flashing of fireflies on a northern hemisphere summer evening, those of Thailand in their countless millions flash on and off in perfect unison. One could ask, Why? And many have. The author of Sync, Steven Strogatz, asks, How?
According to the author, the goal of Sync is to explore the causes of self-induced, repetitive, synchronized action in both animate and inanimate systems. The author, a mathematician currently on the faculty of Cornell University, makes a deliberate attempt to accomplish this explanation without resorting to mathematical formulae. That choice, ultimately, colors the overall impact of the book.
Sync is divided into three main sections with 3 or 4 chapters in each - Part I (Living Sync) deals primarily with biological synchronicity; Part II (Discovering Sync) with inorganic synchronization, and, Part III (Exploring Sync) with the related issue of network analysis. Given that Sync was first published in 2003, this re-publication as an eBook may be related to the current media fascination with government surveillance of communications networks.
Beginning the book with an analysis of biological synchronization struck this reader as rather odd - why take on such a complex subject when non-biological, synchronized system must, surely, be simpler? However, Strogatz' explanation, sans mathematics, is so good, one is left wondering how a mathematical exposition could have made things better. Then comes Part II. There are some strong points here - such as the exploration of Huygens' pendulum clocks, planetary interactions and power grids. But Strogatz' foray into quantum mechanics (to explain lasers, etc.) is, as is common for the topic, virtually incomprehensible. Most striking about Sync is that the author makes no mention of what is probably the most infamous of all quantum mechanical synchronous phenomena, namely quantum entanglement. Part III of Sync is a hodgepodge of topics (chaos theory, network analysis, etc.) woven into a somewhat autobiographical account of the author's career in science. Great reading for a young physicist or mathematician. But "scroll rings" and "singular filaments"? Brave attempt, but mathematical notation was created for good reason and many of the topics in this section are, perhaps, never to be explained easily in words alone.
Forty pages of annotated bibliography, an Epilogue up-date and index round out this book.
Richard R. Pardi Environmental Science William Paterson University
Posted June 2, 2004
The craving of nature for synchronization is fundamental. To understand the origin of this basic trait of nature you should also read Eugene Savov¿s book Theory of Interaction the Simplest Explanation of Everything. It appears that oscillations are intrinsic property of every bit of reality from atoms to galaxies and the universe as whole. Everything vibrates at frequencies of its own and looks for synchronization to unfold its structure as shown in the theory of interaction. This qualitatively new theory reveals why the vibrations become faster deeper into the structure of every body. For example, your heart beats faster than you breathe.Was this review helpful? Yes NoThank you for your feedback. Report this reviewThank you, this review has been flagged.
Posted May 3, 2003
SYNC is a romping good read! Developments in the physical and computer sciences and in nonlinear mathematics in the last two decades have spawned a genre of ¿popularized science.¿ Some books have been reasonably good and some have been awful. In SYNC, Steve Strogatz gives an example of the genre that is unreasonably good! As far as I can tell, the science and math are accurate, if not complete. The explanations are as clear as they are witty. The phenomena he describes are engaging and compelling. If that were all he did, that would be enough, but he goes even further. Seeing into the secrets of nature brings with it incredible joy. Some have this experience watching their children being born. Some feel it when building a logarithmic spiral and using it as a slide rule. People like Strogatz have this experience watching a computer simulation model confirm a hypothesis, discovering others who share the same questions, running across a set of tools or perspectives that shed new light on a thorny problem. In SYNC, Strogatz poignantly shares the excitement and satisfaction of those moments with readers. Some other popularized science writers have captured this experience in prose. Crick in The Double Helix comes to mind. SYNC is significantly different, though. Strogatz shows himself to be a truly generous and gentle spirit who recognizes and appreciates the community of scholars who feed into and feed from his work. He demonstrates a sociology of science that is about shared inquiry more than it is about competition for funding, position, or prizes. He makes it possible to imagine that synchrony, if there is such a thing in human systems, might emerge in a scientific community pursuing the difficult questions about nonlinear dynamics for which sync is one of the ¿simple cases.¿Was this review helpful? Yes NoThank you for your feedback. Report this reviewThank you, this review has been flagged.