Systems Analysis and Design / Edition 9

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Directed primarily toward students taking an course in undergraduate systems analysis and design, this text also provides practical content to current and aspiring industry professionals .

Kendall and Kendall’s Systems Analysis and Design, 9e, is a human-centered book that concisely presents the latest systems development methods, tools, and techniques in an engaging and easy-to-understand manner.

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Editorial Reviews

A textbook for a one- or two-semester course in the undergraduate curriculum. .... Among the features of this edition 2nd ed., 1992 are a new chapter on object-oriented systems analysis and design, and a number of group projects. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR
From The Critics
This fifth edition of a text for undergraduates at a university, graduate school, or community college includes new mini cases on designing for e-commerce and modeling with UML, new approaches for designing e-commerce Web sites, expanded coverage of GUI design, and new coverage of Web site security and privacy. Full color has been added for this edition, making concept diagrams and screen captures more clear. Coverage encompasses systems analysis fundamentals, information requirements analysis, the analysis process, essentials of design, and software engineering and implementation. An ongoing case takes students through all phases of the systems development life cycle, and cases at a Web site immerse students in a virtual organization. The authors are affiliated with the School of Business- Camden at Rutgers University. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780133023442
  • Publisher: Prentice Hall
  • Publication date: 1/28/2013
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 9
  • Pages: 552
  • Sales rank: 438,232
  • Product dimensions: 8.70 (w) x 10.80 (h) x 1.00 (d)

Table of Contents


1. Systems, Roles, and Development Methodologies

2. Understanding and Modeling Organizational Systems

3. Project Management


4. Information Gathering: Interactive Methods

5. Information Gathering: Unobtrusive Methods

6. Agile Modeling and Prototyping


7. Using Data Flow Diagrams

8. Analyzing Systems Using Data Dictionaries

9. Process Specifications and Structured Decisions

10. Object-Oriented Systems Analysis and Design Using UML


11. Designing Effective Output

12. Designing Effective Input

13. Designing Databases

14. Human-Computer Interaction


15. Designing Accurate Data Entry Procedures

16. Quality Assurance and Implementation




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The fifth edition of Systems Analysis and Design includes many new and updated features. In particular:

  • Full color with meaningful color coding of DFDs, E-Rs, structure charts, and UML diagrams
  • More than 70 Consulting Opportunities including many new mini-cases focused on designing for ecommerce, performing workflow analysis, and modeling with UML
  • Expanded Web-based design
  • New approaches for designing ecommerce Web sites
  • Expanded coverage of graphical user interface (GUI) design
  • New ideas on ecommerce project management
  • New design approaches for wireless technologies, ERP, and Web-based systems
  • Expanded design for intranets and extranets, including easy onscreen navigation approaches
  • New UML section of the object-oriented chapter with new consulting opportunities, diagrams, and problems
  • New coverage on implementing Web site security and privacy safeguards including firewalls, corporate privacy policies, PKI, SSL, SET, VPN, URL filters, and email filtering
  • Expanded coverage of software to monitor Web traffic, perform audience profiling, and promote corporate Web sites to ensure the effectiveness of new ecommerce systems
  • Updated, ongoing CPU case for use with Visible Analyst and Microsoft Access
  • Updated HyperCase 2.5, a graphical organizational simulation for the Web that allows students to apply their skills


Figures take on a stylized look in order to help students more easily grasp the subject matter.

Paper forms are used throughout to show input and output design as well as the design of questionnaires. Blue ink is always used to show writing or data input, thereby making it easier to identify what was filled in by users. Although `most organizations have computerization of manual processes as their eventual goal, much data capture is still done using paper forms. Improved form design enables analysts to ensure accurate and complete input and output. Better forms can also help streamline new internal workflows that result from newly automated business-to-consumer (B2C) applications for ecommerce on the Web.

Computer display screens demonstrate important features of software that are useful to the analyst. This example shows how a Web site can be evaluated for broken links by using a package such as Microsoft Visio. Actual screen shots show important aspects of design. Analysts are continuously seeking to improve the appearance of the screens and Web pages they design. Colorful examples help to illustrate why some screen designs are particularly effective.

Conceptual diagrams are used to introduce the many tools that systems analysts have at their disposal. This example shows the differences between logical data flow diagrams and physical data flow diagrams. Conceptual diagrams are color-coded so that students can distinguish easily among them, and their functions are clearly indicated. Many other important tools are illustrated, including entity-relationship diagrams, structure charts, and structured English.

Tables are used when an important list needs special attention, or when information needs to be organized or classified. In addition, tables are used to supplement the understanding of the reader in a way that is different from the way material is organized in the narrative portion of the text. Most analysts find tables a useful way to organize numbers and text into a meaningful "snapshot."

This example of a table from Chapter 3 shows how analysts can refine their activity plans for analysis by breaking them down into smaller tasks and then estimating how much time it will take to complete them. The underlying philosophy of our book is that systems analysis and design is a process that integrates the use of many tools with the unique talents of the systems analyst to systematically improve business through the implementation or modification of computerized information systems. Systems analysts can grow in their work by taking on new IT challenges and keeping current in their profession through the application of new techniques and tools.


Systems analysis and design is typically taught in one or two semesters. Our book may be used in either situation. The text is appropriate for undergraduate (junior or senior) curricula at a four-year university, graduate school, or community college. The level and length of the course can be varied and supplemented by using real-world projects, HyperCase, or other materials available on the instructor's resource section of our Companion Web site.

The text is divided into five major parts: Systems Analysis Fundamentals (Part I), Information Requirements Analysis (Part II), The Analysis Process (Part III), The Essentials of Design (Part IV), and Software Engineering and Implementation (Part V).

Part I (Chapters 1-3) stresses the basics that students need to know about what an analyst does; how a variety of information systems, including handheld, wireless technologies and ERP systems, fit into organizations; how to determine whether a systems project is worthy of commitment; new coverage of ecommerce project management; and how to manage a systems project using special software tools. There is new material on virtual teams and virtual organizations. Techniques for drawing entity-relationship diagrams and context-level data flow diagrams when first entering the organization are introduced. Chapter 3 introduces a new tool, the Feasibility Impact Grid, to assess impacts of the development of new systems at both strategic and operational levels. Alternative systems analysis and design methods such as ETHICS are introduced. The three roles of the systems analyst as consultant, supporting expert, and agent of change are also introduced, and there are updated ideas on ethical issues and professional guidelines for serving as a systems consultant.

Part II (Chapters 4-8) emphasizes the use of systematic and structured methodologies. Attention to analysis helps analysts ensure that they are addressing the correct problem before designing the system. The presentation of each methodology (sampling, investigating hard data, interviewing, questionnaires, and observation) moves students closer to understanding what information users need and how those needs may best be ascertained. Chapter 4 introduces a new software tool for doing workflow analysis that helps in the integration of ecommerce into the traditional business processes. Chapter 5 includes material on joint application design (JAD) for ascertaining information requirements in concert with users. Chapter 7 is especially innovative and goes well beyond the typical text in showing how to accomplish systematic observation of decision-makers. Chapter 8 is unique in its treatment of prototyping as another data gathering technique that enables the analyst to solve the right problem by getting users involved from the start. This chapter also includes new material on rapid application development (RAD), which is conceptually close to prototyping. RAD provides an accelerated approach to the SDLC that is particularly suitable for designing ecommerce applications.

Part III (Chapters 9-14) details the analysis process. It builds on the previous two parts to move students into analysis of data flows as well as structured and semistructured decisions. It provides step-by-step details on how to use structured techniques to draw data flow diagrams (DFDs). Chapter 9 provides coverage of how to create child diagrams; how to develop both logical and physical data flow diagrams; and how to partition data flow diagrams. A new section discussing the object-oriented approach of use cases and data flow diagrams is included. The object-oriented approach in Chapter 10 features material on the data repository and vertical balancing of data flow diagrams. Chapter 11 includes material on developing process specifications. A discussion of both logical and physical process specifications shows how to use process specifications for horizontal balancing.

Part III also covers how to diagram structured decisions with the use of structured English, decision tables, and decision trees. Students then progress to a consideration of semistructured decisions that are featured in decision support systems. New material in Chapter 12 gives practical guidelines to analysts about choosing decision support system methods and software. New approaches to supporting decision making include expert systems, neural nets, using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP), the use of recommendation systems, Web-based systems, and the use of simulations such as Promodel and ServiceModel to aid in decision-making. In addition, push technologies are introduced.

New material on evaluating vendor support when choosing hardware and software for a new system is included in Chapter 13. In addition, students are taught several methods for forecasting costs and benefits, which are necessary to the discussion of acquiring software and hardware. Chapter 14 stresses the importance of a professionally prepared written and oral presentation of the systems proposal.

Part IV (Chapters 15-19) covers the essentials of design. It begins with designing output, since many practitioners believe systems to be output driven. The design of Web-based forms is covered in detail. Particular attention is paid to relating output method to content, the effect of output on users, and designing good forms and screens. Chapter 15 compares advantages and disadvantages of output, including Web screens, audio, CDROM, DVD, and electronic output such as e-mail, faxes, and bulletin boards. Chapter 16 includes innovative material on designing Web-based input forms as well as other electronic form design. Also included is computer-assisted form design.

Chapter 16 also includes expanded coverage of Web site design, including guidelines on when designers should add video, audio, and animation to Web site designs. New material introduces the uses of Web push and pull technologies for output design. Also new is expanded consideration of how to create effective graphics for corporate Web sites and designing effective onscreen navigation for Web site users.

New material includes expanded coverage of intranet and extranet page design. Consideration of database integrity constraints has been included, and how the user interacts with the computer and how to design an appropriate interface are also covered. The importance of user feedback and correct ergonomic design of computer workstations are also found in Part IV How to design accurate data-entry procedures that take full advantage of computer and human capabilities to assure entry of quality data is emphasized here.

Chapter 17 demonstrates how to use the entity-relationship diagram to determine record keys, as well as providing guidelines for file/database relation design. Students are shown the relevance of database design for the overall usefulness of the system, and how users actually use databases. Chapter 18 features new material on designing easy onscreen navigation for Web site visitors. It also features updated material on important aspects of data mining and data warehousing. Innovative approaches to searching on the Web are also presented. Material on GUI design is also highlighted and innovative approaches to designing dialogs are provided. Chapter 19 includes new material on managing the supply chain through the effective design of business-to-business (B2B) ecommerce systems.

Part V (Chapters 20-22) introduces students to structured software engineering and documentation techniques as ways to implement a quality system. Chapter 20 includes a section on the important concepts of code generation and design re-engineering. We also cover developments in structured techniques while also teaching students which techniques are appropriate for particular situations.

The material on structure charts includes details on how to use data flow diagrams to draw structure charts. In addition, material on system security and firewalls is included. Testing, auditing, and maintenance of systems are discussed in the context of total quality management. Chapter 21 presents innovative tools for modeling networks, which can be done with popular tools such as Microsoft Visio. A discussion of groupware is also included. Part V also introduces the student to designing client/server systems and designing distributed systems.

New material on security and privacy in relation to designing ecommerce applications is included. Expanded coverage on security, specifically firewalls, gateways, public key infrastructure (PKI), secure electronic translation (SET), secure socket layering (SSL), virus protection software, URL filtering products, email filtering products, and virtual private networks (VPN) has been added. Additionally, new topics of interest to designers of ecommerce applications including the development of audience profiling, and the development and posting of corporate privacy policies are covered.

New coverage of how the analyst can promote and then monitor a corporate Web site is included in this section, which features Web activity monitoring, Web site promotion, Web traffic analysis, and audience profiling to ensure the effectiveness of new ecommerce systems. Techniques for evaluating the completed information systems project are covered systematically as well.

Part V concludes with Chapter 22 on object-oriented systems analysis and design, which includes a new in-depth section on using the unified modeling language (UML). Through several examples and Consulting Opportunities, this chapter demonstrates how to use an object-oriented approach. UML is introduced as an agreed-upon standard notation for object-oriented analysis and design. New consulting opportunities, diagrams, and problems enable students to learn and use UML to model systems from an object-oriented perspective.

The fifth edition contains a Glossary of terms and a separate list of Acronyms in the book and the systems analysis and design field.


Chapters in the Fifth Edition contain:

  • End-of-chapter Summaries that tie together the salient points of each chapter while providing an excellent review source for exams
  • Keywords and Phrases
  • Review Questions
  • Problems
  • Group Projects that help students work together in a systems team to solve important problems that are best solved through group interaction
  • Consulting Opportunities—now more than 70 minicases throughout the book
  • HyperCase Experiences
  • CPU Episodes—parts of an ongoing case threaded throughout the book


The fifth edition presents more than 70 Consulting Opportunities, and many of them address new topics that have arisen in the field, including designing ecommerce applications for the Web, workflow analysis, and using UML to model information systems from an object-oriented perspective. Consulting Opportunities can be used for stimulating in-class discussions or assigned as homework or take-home exam questions. Since not all systems are extended two- or three-year projects, our book contains many Consulting Opportunities that can be solved quickly in 20 to 30 minutes of group discussion or individual writing. These mini-cases, written in a humorous manner to enliven the material, require students to synthesize what they have learned up to that point in the course, ask students to mature in their professional and ethical judgment, and expect students to articulate the reasoning that led to their systems decisions.


HyperCase Experiences that pose challenging student exercises are present in each chapter. HyperCase version 2.5 is now available on the Web. HyperCase now has updated organizational problems featuring state-of-the-art technological systems as well. HyperCase is an original virtual organization that allows students who access it to become immediately immersed in organizational life. Students will interview people, observe office environments, analyze their prototypes, and review the documentation of their existing systems. HyperCase version 2.5 is Web-based interactive software that presents an organization called Maple Ridge Engineering in a colorful, three-dimensional graphics environment. HyperCase permits professors to begin approaching the systems analysis and design class with exciting multimedia material. Carefully watching their use of time and managing multiple methods, students use the hypertext characteristics of HyperCase on the Web to create their own individual paths through the organization.

Maple Ridge Engineering (MRE) is drawn from the actual consulting experiences of the authors of the original version (Raymond Barnes, Richard Baskerville, Julie E. Kendall, and Kenneth E. Kendall). Allen Schmidt joined the project for Version 2.0. Peter Schmidt was the HTML programmer and Jason Reed created the images for the Web version.

In each chapter, there are special HyperCase Experiences that include assignments (and even some clues) to help students solve the difficult organizational problems they encounter at MRE. HyperCase has been fully classroom-tested, and was an award winner in the Decision Sciences Institute Innovative Instruction competition.


In keeping with our belief that a variety of approaches is important, we have once again integrated the Central Pacific University (CPU) Case into every chapter of the fifth edition. The CPU case makes use of the popular CASE tool Visible Analyst by Visible Systems, Inc., as well as Microsoft Access for the example screen shots and the student exercises.

The CPU Case takes students through all phases of the systems development life cycle, demonstrating the capabilities of Visible Analyst, a student edition of which can be bundled with our book. This CASE tool gives students an opportunity to solve problems on their own, using Visible Analyst and data that users of the book can download from the Web containing Visible Analyst exercises specifically keyed to E each chapter of the book. Additionally, partially completed exercises in Microsoft Access files are also available for student use on the Web. The CPU Case has been fully classroom-tested with a variety of students over numerous terms. The case is detailed, rigorous, and rich enough to stand alone as a systems analysis and design project spanning one or two terms. Alternatively, the CPU Case can be used as a way to teach the use of CASE tools in conjunction with the assignment of a one- or two-term real-world project outside the classroom.


Kendall & Kendall's Systems Analysis and Design, Fifth Edition, adds expanded Web-based support to solid yet lively pedagogical techniques in the information systems field.

The Web site, located at, contains a wealth of critical learning support tools, which keep class discussions exciting.

  • HyperCase version 2.5, an award-winning, virtually interactive organization game. Students are encouraged to interview people in the organization, analyze problems, modify data flow diagrams and data dictionaries, react to prototypes, and design new input and output. HyperCase now has a distinctive 3-D look.
  • Student Exercises based on the ongoing CPU Case, with partially solved problems and examples stored in Visible Analyst files and Microsoft Access files, so students can develop a Web-based computer management system.
  • Interactive Study Guide, featuring true/false and multiple-choice questions for each chapter. Students receive automatic grading and feedback upon completing each quiz.
  • Instructor's Manual (within a secure faculty section) with answers to problems, solutions to cases, and suggestions for approaching the subject matter.
    • A complete set of PowerPoint presentation slides for use in lectures, which includes all of the technical figures from the fifth edition
    • Sample Course Outlines for one- or two-semester or quarter courses
    • Solutions to Student Exercises based on the ongoing CPU Case, with solutions and examples stored in Visible Analyst files and Microsoft Access files
    • The HyperCase Users' Guide to the Corporation, an instructor's guide to interpreting HyperCase and suggested approaches for classroom use.


New to the fifth edition package is an Instructor's Resource CD-ROM, featuring all of the instructor supplements in one convenient place. Resources include:

  • A complete set of PowerPoint presentation slides for use in lectures
  • Image Library, a collection of all text art organized by chapter
  • Instructor's Manual in Microsoft Word
  • Test Item File in Microsoft Word
  • Windows PH Test Manager, a comprehensive suite of tools for testing and assessment that allows instructors to easily create and distribute tests
  • Solutions to Student Exercises based on the ongoing CPU Case, with solutions and examples stored in Visible Analyst files and Microsoft Access files
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